ICAPAS 2016 | Java | Musical Instruments

February 22, 2016 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Java
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R. “Instrumen Musik Tradisi Barat Dalam Iringan Tari dan Upacara Protokoler Kraton Yogyakarta (Sebuah Tinjauan Histori...



The 4th International Conference for Asia Pacific Art Studies (ICAPAS) Graduate School of Indonesia Institute of the Arts Yogyakarta October 18th - 19 th , 2016

The 4th International Conference for Asia Pacific Arts Studies (ICAPAS)


The 4th International Conference for Asia Pacific Arts Studies (ICAPAS)

Reconceptualizing Art Research Proceeding of the 4th International Conference for Asia Pacific Arts Editor Retno Mustikawati Invited Experts on Creative Arts

Professor Dr. M. Agus Burhan, M.Hum Dr. Yoshie Itani Dr. Sal Murgiyanto Professor Barbara Bolt Professor Earl Jackson Administrator Teguh Prastowo Publishing Institute Graduate School of Indonesia Institute of the Arts Yogyakarta Indonesia Jalan Suryodiningratan No 8 Yogyakarta, Indonesia 55143 Telp/Fax +62 274 419791 http://www.pasca.isi.ac.id ISBN 978-602-8820-28-8 @2016 Graduate School, Indonesia Institute of the Arts Yogyakarta All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced without the prior written permission of Graduate School Indonesia Institute of the Arts Yogyakarta Printed in Yogyakarta


The 4th International Conference for Asia Pacific Arts Studies (ICAPAS)

Foreword Dear Speakers, Presenters, and Participants of the 4th International Conference for Asia Pacific Arts Studies 2016. Welcome to Yogyakarta! It is my honored to have all of you in this academic forum that is indeed an indispensable activity for all art scholars. Indonesia Institute of the Arts Yogyakarta (ISI Yogyakarta) would like to extend deepest appreciation to welcome all participants of the 4th International Conference for Asia Pacific Arts Studies (ICAPAS) 2016. As ISI Yogyakarta has initiated this seminar since 2013, this year we are honored to present the 4th part with the theme of “Reconceptualizing Research in the Creative Arts”. The 4th ICAPAS 2016 focuses on the role of arts and artist in contributing their unique approach to knowledge creation to the academic world, specifically in the practise of arts creation and arts performance. Hence, the presentations and discussions through this acedemic forum should be a great opportunity for all to share the present state of arts research in their field and present how embodiments and medium of their arts can reveal a new type of knowledge distict from the traditional research. Finaly, I would like to express my special gratitude to the speakers, participants, staff and faculty members, and the committee who have actively contributed their knowledges, skills, and commitment to this program. Hopefully, the outcomes of this program will be beneficial for all parties, and strengthen the mutual relationship years to come. Thank you Prof. Dr. Mukhamad Agus Burhan, M.Hum. Rector of ISI Yogyakarta


The 4th International Conference for Asia Pacific Arts Studies (ICAPAS)

TABLE OF CONTENTS Foreword from the Rektor


Table Of Contents


Oral Presentation 1

R.M Surtihadi

The Western music Acculturation in Keraton of Yogyakarta: A Case Study of Bedhaya and Srimpi Dance kapang-kapang accompaniment



Riana Diah Sitharesmi

Soliloquies: a movement-based approach towards Beckett's Waiting for Godot



Asep Hidayat Wirayudha

The Secret of Brahms Cellos Sonata no. 1 op. 38 and Shostakovich Cello Sonata op. 40




Learning Creativity Of Drum Set Music Into Drum Band Music



Edzreen Syahira binti Jamil

The Study Of Safety Backpacking In Penang Through Mobile Application



Muhamad Nur Hafriz Azizee Bin Abdul Halim

Promoting a Film by Using a Hologram With Kinect Sensor as a Medium



Agustinus Dwi Nugroho

The Artist: The New Technique in Film Form



Giulia Panfili

Making Wayang Along Anthropology and Art



Waridah Muthi'ah

Study of Computerized-Batik Technique Using “Batik Kelowong” Machine in Developing Batik Bekasi Pattern


10 Rasa Suntrayuth

Collaborations and Design Development of Local Craft Products: Service Design For Creative Craft Community


11 Natsuangphon Tongnuanual

Graphic Design Methods of a Science Museum Exhibition for Children


12 Veerawat Sirivesmas

Malaysia-Thailand, Beyond The New Ornamentalism In Contemporary Jewelry


13 Tawipas Pichaichanarong

Visual research practices on Thai Lanna mural painting: A case study of Wat Phumin, Nan province



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14 Renta Vulkanita Hasan

Television Drama and Audience Behaviour


15 Octalyna Puspa Wardany

Research in creating arts - Comparation of 3 case studies in creating of fine artworks


16 Firmansyah

Musical Parody Of Acapella Mataraman : A Creativity Compromise For The Performing Arts Market In Yogyakarta


Poster Presentation 1


The Braille Painting For Children Education: Ecofeminism Studies




Andreas Slamet Widodo

Visual Aesthetics Branding Djarum Black In Urban Lifestyle a Case Study (Methodology Visual Approach)



Jazuli Abdin Munib

Discourse Addicted Character "Pokemon Go" On Top of Reality (Discourse Approach



Ercilia Rini Octavia

Paper Toys As A Media Of Introducing Pandawa Character As Local Wisdom Value To PreKindergarten- And Kindergarten-Age Children In Surakarta



Noni Sukmawati

Performance Biography




Nor Idayu Binti Ibrahim

The Developement of Formal Ceremonial Cornation Attire of Seri Paduka Baginda Yang Dipertuan Agong and Seri Paduka Baginda Raja Seri Permaisuri Agong From i-xiv Starting



Donna Carollina

Rejection of The Cigarettes Billboard Sampoerna A Mild “Mula Mula Malu-Malu, Lama Lama Mau”



Nesyya Fitryona

Dialectics The Life Of Visual Arts In West Sumatra 1986 – 2003



Waiyawat Saitum

The Study of solar incident on Planar Surface for Kinetic Art


10 Novia Murni SS.,M.Pd

Teaching Performance Art Based On Research Studies: Review Of Needs And Needed In Teaching Traditional Arts For Foreign Students


11 Kiki Rahmatika

Creativity on Consistency's Dance






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12 Chanakarn Ruangnarong 13 Peeraya Sramala 14 Supamas Jiamrungsan

The Suitable Fabric for Thai art Folding of Banana Leaves on Clothing A study of Knitted Fabric from Thai Silk Waste Yarn


The Ancient Technique of Weaving with the Contemporary Art




Oral Presentation

The 4th International Conference for Asia Pacific Arts Studies (ICAPAS)

The Western music Acculturation in Keraton of Yogyakarta: A Case Study of Bedhaya and Srimpi Dance kapang-kapang Accompaniment R.M. Surtihadi1 Graduate School , Indonesia Institute of the Arts Yogyakarta,

ABSTRACT This study aims to determine the formation of Western music acculturation in female dance accompagniment on the kapang-kapang of Bedhaya and Srimpi Keraton of Yogyakarta. In addition, this study will address the endurance of the phenomenon of the Western Music acculturation in female dance accompagniment until today. This case study focuses on the use of multiple Western musical instruments, such as drums, drums (percussion section), woodwinds (woodwind sections), brass (brass sections), and strings (string sections), in accompanying the dances mentioned above. Qualitative methods of data analysis are used to treat this subject. However, socio-political approach is also used in the reviewing related issues. Based on this research, there are two main findings, namely, 1) the impact of the various elements of the completeness of the kingdom of the Dutch East Indies government in the form of elephants, horses of Persia, the trumpeters and a coach to the Sultan Palace at the time in which this palace stands, is an early indication of the influence of Western culture into the life of the palace; 2) the influence of European marching military music provided a stimulus for the creation of Gendhing March that is used to accompany the motion of walking kapang-kapang toward the stage and retreat kapang-kapang retreat leaving the scene on the female dance bedhaya and srimpi accompanied by the ensemble of Javanese gamelan together with Western musical ensembles (unisono). Keywords: acculturation, Western musical instruments, palace dance accompaniment.


address: Graduate School , Indonesia Institute of the Arts Yogyakarta, Suryodiningratan, Yogyakarta, email [email protected], HP 08156883788.


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Introduction The presence of Western music (Europe) in the palaces of Central Java (Surakarta and Yogyakarta) was begun by military music. The Dutch Trade Association or VOC (Vereenidge Oost-Indische Compagnie) once became the first to introduce the music. A French trader named Jean-Baptiste Tavernier told the existence of two trumpet instruments which were accompanying him with the General Governer Van der Lijn when they had a vacation to Batavia in 1648; the assumption is that the European military music has already been in Java since the mid of 17th century (Sumarcham, 2003: 95). The research on the blend of Western musical instruments and Javanese gamelan to the accompaniment of dance has been done by the author in 1995, with the title of "The Western Traditional Musical Instrument on the Dance Accompaniment and Protocol Ceremony of Keraton of Yogyakarta (A Historical Review)" in the form of a thesis. The writing of this article is intended to complement and enhance the above study because the author had a limitation on the data sources and literature references when he was conducting the research. After reviewing the above study, through the writing of this article the author then intends to correct or add the missing information data extracted from primary sources such as the archives belonging to the Sultan Palace and the results of related research on a cultural event at the Sultan Palace in the past. Keraton of Yogyakarta as a cultural center of Java has the historic significance as a center of excellence which has a characteristic of a royal palace. The various activities to arts and culture from the past to the present have been progressing. However, the development occurred since the local cultural factors have been interacted with foreign cultures. For arts particularly, Western music is originated from the military music. The military music in Keraton of Yogyakarta emerged since the reign of Sultan Hamengku Buwana I (1755-1792), as proposed by Ricklefs on the donations of Western musical instrument in the form of trumpet instrument from the Dutch government to the Sultan Palace (Ricklefs, 1974: 87). According to Dr. J. Groneman, at the end of the 19th century Sultan Palace Music Corps consisted of three kinds of ensembles, (1) the Music Corps playing a mix of Javanese and European instruments, (2) the Music Corps playing European musical instruments, (3) the Music Corps playing the Javanese instruments only. For example, some groups of the Music Corps played two European drums and a flute, while the other group consisted of European metal trumpet players, Europe drum and flute which were played together with the Javanese instruments, namely gong and bendhe: kѐcèr (cymbal small), and kendhang ketipung. Groneman also mentioned that all of the music players were Javanese musician soldiers (Sultan’s servants of musician soldiers) who wore European military-style uniforms of 19th century (Sumarcham, 2003: 96). One of the troops of Keraton of Yogyakarta that is Jagakarya soldiers have a march song called "March Pandebruk", a march with…. of 4/4. The march was played with instruments such as flute, trumpet and bendhe (Kunst, 1973: 294). The unique name was the Javanese pronunciation of the word "March Van den Broek", which was most likely derived from the name of the Dutch military commander. In its development, because of the socio-political factors that occured in the palaces of Central Java (Surakarta and Yogyakarta), the activities of Western music were increasingly frequent. From several sources that the author has searched for, the Sultan of Yogyakarta has already got a gift of musical instruments from Sultan of Turkish-Ottoman, but such instruments are not explained for its kind whether they are in the form of Western musical instruments or Turkish musical instruments (Researcher Team of Indonesia Academy of Music, 1982: 3). The archive of Keraton of Yogyakarta which was once seized by the British armies when they occupied the Sultan Palace (1812) provided interesting data. First, on the celebration of Grѐbѐg Siyam in 1807 under the reign of Sultan Hamengku Buwana II (1792-1810), among the objects 2

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carried on the celebration there were two drums. In military music corps which consist of ten bregada, each of it has one or more drums. The total instruments are fifty-five drums and thirtynine flutes (Carey, Hoadley (ed.), 2000: 284). Second, in 1805 there was already known a position of a palace servant for drums, flute, and salompret (Carey, Hoadley (ed.): 284). Babad Ngayugyakarta volume III provides important information for historical study of this writing. Babad Ngayugyakarta as a diary of a sultan who is on the throne, tells the sultan’s activities and results of the works that have been performed during the reign. The information obtained from this source is about the events of the cultural contacts which are previously started from the protocol ceremony to the cultural arts activities. Another source of the existence of Western musical instruments that is on one of Keraton of Yogyakata archive documents entitled Ngayugyakarta Pagelaran, writen by RNG. Kartahasmara translated by Wibatsu Harianto Soembogo (Yogyakarta: Soemadidjaja Mahadeva, 1990) provides information about the data of Yasan Dalem of Sultan Hamengku Buwana (HB) I to Sultan HB VIII. The specific information from this document that the use of Western musical instruments combined with Javanese gamelan to accompany the dance is on the data of Yasan Dalem of Sultan HB V (1923-1955) and Sultan HB VIII (1921-1939). A blend of Western musical instruments with the Javanese gamelan performed by musicians of Keraton of Yogyakarta and assisted by foreign musicians is an effort to create a piece of gamelan composition called gendhing mares/march (Dutch) (Sumarcham, 2003: 113). The creation and use of the gendhing mares according to musicologist Jaap Kunst refer to "typically hybrid ensembles" (ensemble that is typically hybrid or "mulatto" (Kunst, 1973: 293294). The blend of Western musical instruments with the Javanese gamelan to accompany the female dance such as Bedhaya and Srimpi is on a part of kapang-kapang in the piece of march accompaniment. Similarly, in the accompaniment of beksan Lawung Ageng performed by a number of male dancers, almost the entire repertoire is accompanied by Javanese gamelan simultaneously (Unisono) with western musical instruments such as trombone, trumpet, clarinet, big drums and drums, except in war movement (sodoran). At first, this beksan Lawung was accompanied by pelog special gamelan orchestra which is an inheritance gamelan of Keraton of Yogyakarta named Kandjѐng Kyai Guntursari (Mardowo, 1981: 130). Although the sound produced from the blend of gamelan instruments with a Western musical instrument sounds a bit strange to the ears of Western musicians, but the tradition that has been presented in this palace seems to be very graceful and regal for the ears of Javanese (Soedarsono, 2010: 62). Based on the explanation above, the subject of this paper will be limited on historical studies of musical events that occurred in Keraton of Yogyakarta which involves both the Western musical instruments as the accompaniment of dance and of ceremonial and protocol ceremonies during the reign of Sultan Hamengku Buwana V (1823- 1855) and Sultan Hamengku Buwana VIII (1921-1939). However, this article will use a socio-political approach in order to get a comprehensive answers. Socio-Political Approach This discussion of the socio-political approach would be limited to the political position of Sultan as the main authority power. Thus, socially, the role has been embedded in the decisions of a political nature. Nevertheless, the conception of the authority power will affect the lives of other concepts including the concept of arts. Talking about the Sultan who holds the main authority power, then the key factors have been put forward by Max Weber which are relevantly expressed. It is said that the three types of authority are so encumbered by Sultan’s characteristics, namely: (1) The charismatic authority, based on the influence and authority of the person; (2) traditional authority, =owned by inheritance or hereditary; (3) rational legal 3

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authority, which is owned by a person’s position and its ability (Kartodirdjo, 1993: 150). Observations which refer to the functions of the ceremony toward the use of Western musical instruments and Javanese gamelan can be traced from the events that occurred in Keraton of Yogyakarta either as the dance accompaniment and the music accompaniment of protocol and ceremonial ceremonies. Period of the reign of Sultan Hamengkubuwono V (1823-1855) As what has been described in the Introduction above, in the reign period of Sultan Hamengku Buwana V (1923-1955) there was a contact foreign culture which had settled into Javanese culture (Kraton) with the blend of Western musical instruments in a musical accompaniment of Javanese dance and protocol ceremony. If that statement is an indication of the historical period, the sources of which can be referred as an event of cultural contacts are more on limited nature of the relationship on the protocol ceremony and arts (Surtihadi, 1995: 54). This is due to the reason that the statement has been described in Babad Ngayugyakarta about the cultural contacts events which were started from the protocol ceremony which soon effected the arts as well. Here is an excerpt from Babad Ngayugyakarta which describes the awards ceremony of Bintang Komandur to Sultan Hamengku Buwana V from the Dutch Indies Government which was presented by Mr. Commissioner Resident, followed by a banquet at Keraton and performances of bedhaya, srimpi dance and the ball dance: 54. Neng Mandungan kinurmat salompret tambur, Sarawuhnja Sri Penganti, kinurmat salompret tambur, lumestari mandjing puri, salompret musikan nyentor. 55. Barung lawan merdongga serakit umyung, jata kang aneng Sitinggil, duk gongsa munggang wus suwuk, Dyan Patih lan wong rèh djawi, wangsul magelaran ngrandon. 56. Tan antara Djeng Residen kondur, sakbangsanireng kumpeni, kinurmat umyung gumuruh, wus bubar sagung kang nangkil, mangkana kang winirahos. 57. Karsa Dalem ngurmati bintang Komandur, akasukan neng djro puri, lan Tuwan Residen iku, sakbangsanira kumpeni, atenapi para Mitra.

58. Pra Pangeran dyan Patih sakondangipun, mawanti bedhajan srimpi, dedangsahan nginum-inum, dhahar pista lan kundisi, trusta manahing gunging wong. 4

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59. Wektu iku kang sareng antuk komandur, Djeng Sunan Surakarta-di, kang antuk Riddr ing Ordu, Djeng Pangeran Mangkunegari, lan Djeng Paku Alam manggon. (Babad Ngayugyakarta Vol. III. SB. Ms. Canto: 54-59, 73: Megatruh, p. 442). The translation is the followings: 54. In Mandungan trumpet and drums are respected, when they got into Sri Manganti, trumpet and drums are respected, continung to the palace, the musicians’ trumpets sounded. 55. Along with two sets of gamelan sound, which are in Sitinggil, when Munggang gamelan stops, the vice regent and external affairs officer, come back to Pagelaran again. 56. Soon after the resident returns back, and the other invanders, honored with splendour, after all finished appearing, that is all told. 57. Sultan intends to honor the Commander, to revel in the palace, with the honored Resident, together with the invanders, so as the companions. 58. The Prince and the duke and guests, Are waiting for bedhaya and srimpi dance, While drinking and dancing, a banquet of meal and a toast, which makes all people happy, 59. At the time the one gets the Commander medal, Sri Susuhunan in Surakarta, who received Riddr ing Ordu, Kangjeng Prince Mangkunagara, and Kangjeng Paku Alam. From the above description it can be determined that, the Commander medal award was not only given to Sultan Hamengku Buwana V, but also given to Sri Susuhunan Surakarta, Prince Mangkunegara, and Prince Paku Alam. Referring to this issue, some excerpts from Babad Ngayugyakarta Volume III will be elaborated which refers to the protocol and ceremonial events of cultural arts as follows: 5

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52. Saurutirѐng prajurit, tumekѐng Prawiratama, ingkang sinambung wurine, musikan gya upatjara, myang antero bayongan, tumuli jempana Agung, tithane Djeng Dayinta. 53. Prajurit Nyutra angapit, ing wuri Paneran werdah, Mantri-muka sakantjane, ingkang ngurung-urung lampah, djadjaran wahos benang, lan macanan selanipun, sineling bendera cina. 54. Sakmarga prayitneng westi, subamanggala gumentar, salomprét tambur lan bèndhé, musikan angantak-antak, muryani kapirenan, panjere urut lurung, umbul-umbul pajeng krenda. (Babad Ngayugyakarta Vol. III. SB. Ms. Canto: 52-54, Asmarandana: 73, pp. 381-‘82). The translation is as follows: 52. The sequence lines of warriors, Starting from soldiers of Prawiratama, which are followed by, musicians to accompany the ceremony, and all the ceremonial paraphernalia, then the great stretcher, the queen’s vehicle. 53. Nyutra soldiers are flanking, behind the old prince, Prime Minister and staffs, that accompanies a trip, Jajar soldiers as the guide, and macanan soldiers flank, that carry the Chinese flag. 54. On the journey they are always vigilant, The commander gives the command, trumpet, drums and bendhe, played by the musicians, start sounding, the sound heard to every corner of the street, banners as the sign. 6

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The above description describes the moment of the protocol ceremony involving the Western musical instruments (trumpet and drums) as the completeness of the homage ceremony. Observing the structure of the ceremony that is written in the above chronicle, it is possible that, the description refers to the carnival procession of the marriage ceremony of Sultan Hamengku Buwana V, of which it has been known as an official reference until the reign of Sultan Hamengku Buwana VIII (1921-1939) (Sudarsono , 1983: pp. 162-'63). The involvement of the musicians who played the trumpet and drum instruments has the assumption that musical instruments were the heritage of Sultan Hamengku Buwana I who had ever received a number of trumpet instruments from the Dutch Indies Government as proposed by Ricklefs as follows: Slowly the Sultan’s authority over his court and people, many of whom had so recently renounced the undisciplined life of rebellion, was established. A number of rebels submitted to him and were accepted as his subject. The form of kingship were augmented by aquiring pusakas and by elaborating the Sultan’s visible status. In the latter he was assisted by Dutch provision of trumpeters, elephants, Persian horses, and a coach. The Dutch commented on Mangkubumi’s concern in all these things to follow ‘the example of the previous rulers of the Mataram empire’ (1974: 87).

From the above quotation it can be seen that the Dutch government is involved in completing the establishment status of Keraton of Yogyakarta by providing a number of trumpet players, elephants, horses from Persia and a coach. The other event that illustrates the Western culture contact and the local culture are presented in the visiting ceremony of thSultan Hamengku Buwana V to loji (Ceremony Tedhak Lodji). Here is an excerpt from Babad Ngayogyakarta which describes the visiting exchange ceremony of Sultan Hamengku Buwana V to loji (tedhak lodji), where the resident lives. Instead, Mr. Resident also visits Keraton with the protocol homage ceremony of Keraton followed by dances and dancing music: 50. Wong kumpeni seketar kang baris, drël sandjata angrok, barung tambur lan musikane, mawurahan gumentar nengkeri, jata Sri Bupati, miwah Djendral Agung. 51.

Wusnja mandjing dalem residensi, anulja Sang Katong, budhal kondur ingater Residen, mungging rata Njai Djimat nguni, sapraptaning puri, Djeng Residen wangsul.

(Babad Ngayugyakarta Vol. III. SB. Ms. Canto: 50-51, Midjil : 65, p. 390). The translation is as follows: 50. The invander who are marching, Set off the salvo shot, together with the musicians play the 7

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drums, blared presenting, the arrival of the Regent, and the the Great General. 51. After getting into the house of resident, His Majesty then, Leaving for home accompanied by Resident, Taken to the carriage of Nyai Djimat, Arriving at the palace, Mr. Resident returned. Based on the above quotation, the incident illustrates the ceremonial visit of Sultan Hamengku Buwana V to the resident’s house (Tedhak Lodji) by driving a carriage of Nyai Djimat. The military welcome ceremony with a salvo shot is in conjuction with the blared drums, it is possible that these two ceremonial visits are conducted alternately. In each visiting event, there is a banquet and wine party which are interspersed with the musical performances, dances, and ball (Surtihadi, 1995: 63). Babad Ngayogyakarta Volume III provides important information in the event of protocol ceremonies which are in connection with the feasts either at Keraton or at resident’s house as follows: 9. Kendelnja musikan hurmat, wedang madju kopi pohan myang hertih, werata njamikanipun, binarung lan musikan, duk antara luwaring sewaka ladju, main dansah lan kasukan, larih mider wanti-wanti. 10.

Musikanira gumentar, amurjani sadjaknja salin-salin, antaranja wus nutug, pahargyan dhahar pista, sinelan myang kundisi nginum anggur, ping sapta binarung surak, musikanira nimbangi.

(Babad Ngayogyakarta Vol. III., SB. Ms. Canto : 9-10, Pangkur : 66 , p.397). The translation is as follows: 9. After the musicians stop saluting, coffee, milk and tea, along with the snack have been spread evenly, along with the music, when the banquet finished and followed by, the ball, and fun, drinks are served continuously. 10. The music is blaring, adorn the atmosphere in turns, seems to be enough, 8

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the banquet, interspersed with toasts and drinking wine, seven times with cheers, accompanied by music. The above quotation explains that the ceremonial visits are a banquet of eating and drinking between the Sultan anf the Resident, the noblemen, and the Dutch authorities. The use of Western musical instruments in a banquet is to liven up the party. Heeding the functions and roles of Western musical instruments found in the babad poetry, the Western musical instrument has several functions, namely, to honor, to be used as musical interlude for eating and drinking wine, even to accompany the ball dance. Searching for the procession of protocol ceremonies involving the Western musical instruments which is as a sign of homage as well as musical interludes of eating and drinking banquet then performances of Bedhaya and Srimpi dance, accompanied by Western music is clearly described in the text Babad Ngayugyakarta as follows. Canto: 3-6, 67: Dhandhanggula: 3. Musik barung merdѐng ngurmati, para Ratu wus lenggah ing Bangsal, Kentjana sami tur tabe, kelawan Djendral Agung, tata lenggah ing Bangsal Rukmi, Sang Nata aneng kiwa, dene kang sumambung, bangsa kumpeni sedaya, tengen Djendral pra njonjah lan pra putri, tuwin para pangeran. 4.

Dene Raden Danuredja Patih, sakondangja sumiwi neng tratag, gya dhahar wedang sumahos, lawan njamikanipun, kang ngladeni para bupati, dupi sampun werata, gya lelangen madju, Srimpi miwah Bedhaya, nuli dansah larik mider wanti-wanti, Sang Nata lawan Djendral.


Akasukan aneng Gedhong Kuning, Tuwan Djendral resep tyas katjarjan, lumyat rakiting kedhaton, gya dhahar pista kembul, myang kundisi mawanti, luwaring dhahar pista, Djendral ladjeng kondur, kekanthën lawan Sang Nata, kandhèg aneng pregolan Sri Penganti, sawusnja tetabejan.


Tuwan Djendral kondur marang Lodji, 9

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nitih rata sakmarga kinurmat, Sang Nata lan Djeng Residen, kanthën asta ngedhaton, tan antara Tuwan Residen, kondur mring lodji bubar, jata Djendral Agung, lami dennja neng Ngajogja, apepriksa ing rѐh lelangen Narpati, dupi sampun palasta. The translation is as follows: 3. The music sounds with gamelan honoring, palace officials who have been sitting in Bangsal Kencana, shake hands to each other, The Great General sitting in Bangsal Kencana, The Majesty is on the left, and who are behind, are all the invaders, on the right side of the General are the women, the Dutch ladies and the princess, and with the princes. 4. As the Vice Regent Danureja, And others are standby on the terrace, then meals and drink served, along with snacks, which are served by the regents, after spreading, the show begins, Srimpi and Bedhaya, Then dances and drink served continuously, His Majesty and the General. 5. Have fun in Gedhong Kuning, The General is happy, with the buildings of the palace, immediately have meals together, and toast many times, after finishing the banquet, the General soon leaves for home, hand in hand with the Sultan, stop at the gate of Sri Manganti, after shaking hands to each other. 6. The General returns to the lodge, Riding a carriage and on the road being respected, The Majesty and Mr. Resident, hand in hand to the palace, not so long Mr. Resident, returns back to the lodge is completed, as well as the Great General, 10

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stay long in Yogyakarta, see the palace cultures, until finish. The statement of the excerpt of Babad Ngayogyakarta above can be an indication of the use of Western musical instruments in the protocol ceremony at the Palace of Yogyakarta. However, it is possible that the use of Western musical instruments for the dance accompaniment of Bedhaya and Srimpi dance is also originated from these events. A source entitled “Ngayugyakarta Pagelaran”, outlines in details about the Yasan Dalem data of the period of Sultan Hamengku Buwana I (1755-1792) until the period of Sultan Hamengku Buwana VIII (1921-1939) (Kartahasmara, 1989: pp. 190-191). One of the Yasan Dalem data which is interesting to explore in this paper is that Yasan Dalem data of the period of Sultan Hamengku Buwana V (1823-1855) is about the blend between the palace gamelan instruments, and the Western musical instruments such as trumpet, and drums for accompanying some of the dances (beksan) kapang-kapang Bedhaya and Srimpi, and the accompaniment of Trunajaya dance. From this source there is information obtained that the ones who create the blend of two types for such instruments are two Dutch men named Van Gought and Smith, based on the order of (Dhawuh Dalem) Sultan Hamengku Buwana V (Kartahasmara, 1989: 191). Here's an excerpt from Ngayogyakarta Pagelaran that describes the foregoing: 9. Murjani Yasa Gendhing-gendhing sabrangan kanthi Kairing ungeling musik trumpet, tambur, bedhug lan sasaminipun. Kagem Nggangsani Kapang-kapang Majenging/munduripun Lelangen Dalem Bedhaya, Sarta Beksan Trunajaya. Ingkang nindakaken nggarap Jumbuhing gangsa lawan musik tiyang Walandi Inggih Van Gough sarta Smith. (Kartahasmara, 1989: 191). The translation is as follows: Starting to create gendhing-gendhing sabrangan accompanied by the sound of trumpet music, drums, bedhug, and other to accompany kapang-kapang and reciprocation of Lelangen Dalem Bedhaya, and Trunajaya dance. The ones who are doing the blend of gamelan with the music are the Dutch men named Van Gought and Smith. In the above source of text it can be attributed to the position of the Sultan as the authority power, the assumption is that the conception of the power of authority will affect the concepts of another life included in the concept of arts (Soedarsono, 1989: 1-5). Thus it can be stated that some terminology of languages such as Karsa Dalem, Dhawuh Dalem, Yasan Dalem, Lelangen Dalem, and so forth, being valid when they are associated with the conception of the Sultan’s authority, and its relation to the conception of art (Soedarsono, 1989: 1-5).

The Period of the Reign of Sultan Hamengkubuwono VIII (1921-1939) The observation of the historical period of the performing arts in Keraton of Yogyakarta becomes more attractive during the reign of Sultan Hamengku Buwana VIII (1921-1939); this is because the Western culture had increasingly influenced the conception of arts in Keraton of Yogyakarta. “Ngayugyakarta Pagelaran” illustrates more clearly on the influence of the position in the Yasan Dalem data for the period of Sultan Hamengku Buwana VIII (1921-1939) as follows: 7. Karsa Dalem njangkepi iringaning Kapang-kapang Bedhaya/Srimpi, 11

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Beksan Trunajaya, Srimpi Pandelori miwah Srimpi Muncar, kanthi tambahan musik gesek/biola (Kartahasmara, 1989 : 193). The translation is as follows: Karsa Dalem completes the accompaniment of Kapang-kapang of Bedhaya / Srimpi, Trunajaya dance, and Srimpi Pandelori and Srimpi Muncar, with the addition of stringed musical instruments / violin. In the excerpt taken from “Ngayugyakarta Pagelaran” above, it is clearly stated that the addition of string instrument/violin in the dance accompaniment, as of the wishes of Sultan Hamengku Buwana VIII. It is known that the period of Governance of Sultan Hamengku Buwana VIII (1921-1939), Keraton of Yogyakarta had a Western musical orchestra that played the Classical Western standard repertoires. At that time Sultan invited Walter Spies to lead his orchestra as conductor and composer. During his tenure as the conductor of the Keraton of Yogyakarta orchestra, Spies lived in nDalem Joyodipuran, he also took time to learn the Javanese gamelan in Kadipaten Pakualaman (Rhodius, Darling, 1980: 21-27). The growth of performing arts of Keraton Yogyakarta was very prominent in the period of Sultan Hamengku Buwana VIII (1921-1939). Particularly in the accompaniment of dance, gamelan was enhanced and many new Javanese music were created to accompany the dance or wayang wong. Sultan Hamengku Buwana VIII fully encouraged the experts in the creative of arts so that there were many works of dance accompaniment became more valuable and vibrant, especially Sultan had figures who were experts in arts such as K.R.T. Wiroguno, K.R.T. Purbaningrat, K.R.T. Madukusumo, R.W. Larassumbogo and so on, even the art of Western music was also developed to accompany beksan. Two experts of Western music, Spies and Gotsch were asked to train the musicians. (Suharto, 1981: pp.119-121). A study of the existence of the Diatonic Music Corps of Keraton Yogyakarta by the Research Team of Indonesia Academy of Music (AMI) in 1982 explains that, the needs of the ceremony protocol did not only cover the use of oversized carriage of a king named Kyai Garuda Yaksa and some other devices, but also on the establishment of a Western music corps that could be claimed to be representative as the welcoming ceremony of the Governor General of the Netherlands (AMI Research team, 1982: 14). AMI Research Team mentions that the growth of the Western Musical Corps began with the presence of Walter Spies in early 1923, but this data is not appropriate if it is matched with the biography of Spies because Hans Rhodius was the one who wrote that the presence of Spies in Yogyakarta and started joining the Diatonic Music Corps of Yogyakarta Keraton in 1924 (Rhodius, Darling, 1980: 21). Spies served as the conductor of Kraton Orcest Djogja for three years (1924-1927). With a heavy heart, Hamengku Buwana VIII granted the request of Spies resigned as the conductor Kraton Orcest Djogja. As a multi-talented artist, before heading off to Bali in the mid of 1927, he also studied Javanese gamelan with K.R.T. Djojodipuro and in Pakualaman, then after that he moved to Bali to be a painter and choreographer (Rhodius, Darling, 1980: 21). After Spies left his job at kraton, the conductor of Kraton Orcest Djogja was held by Raden Lurah Regimentsdochter I. On August 5, 1931, Raden Lurah Regimentdochter I died, then the head of Kraton Orcest Djogja was replaced by Raden Lurah Regimentsdochter II (also known as Raden Riyo Suryowaditra, on January 11, 1950 who was granted a promotion as called Raden Wedono Prodjowaditra (Surtihadi, 2007: 29).


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The names and types of gendhing GATI who are used to accompany Kapang-kapang Bedhaya and Srimpi: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Gendhing Gati Brongto Gendhing Gati Raja Gendhing Gati Mardawa Gendhing Gati Padasih Gendhing Gati Wiwaha Gendhing Gati Sangaskara (Soerjadiningrat, 1980 : pp. 35-39)

In the notation reading of gendhing that has been transcribed into block notation (especially in the accompaniment of kapang-kapang), the musicians should be able to understand the sequence of sentences of gendhing phrase that is ended with the sound of a big gong instrument. This leads to the cessation of the music which is not always at the end of the sentence the music, the music cessation may occur in the middle or even at the front of a sentence phrase of music that is always ended with the sound of a big gong. In accompanying bedhaya dance or srimpi dance it must have to adjust the duration of kapang-kapang which is always different. The size of the bangsal as a place to perform strongly influences the duration of the musical accompaniment.

Conclusion The presence of Western musical instruments in Yogyakarta since the reign of Sultan Hamengku Buwana I (1755-1792) began with the donation of the Dutch trumpet instruments to complement the needs of Keraton protocol. The existence of Western musical instruments continued during the Sultan Hamengku Buwana II (1792-1810) with the additional positions of salompret drums flute servants, this terminology refers to a trumpet player. The combination of Western musical instruments (trumpet and drums) with Javanese gamelan was performed during the Sultan Hamengku Buwana V (1823-1855) to accompany the dance of Kapangkapang, Srimpi and Bedhaya, as well as to accompany the dance of Lawung Ageng by two Dutch men Van Gought and Smith based on the order of Sultan. A blend of Western musical instruments with the Javanese gamelan reached its peak during the Sultan Hamengku Buwana VIII (1921-1939) when the Sultan had a complete Western diatonic musical corps with the conductor Walter Spies. The Bedhaya and Srimpi kapang-kapang dance accompaniment with full orchestra included string instruments, woodwind, brass and percussion instruments. A particular uniqueness that Keraton of Yogyakarta has is becoming the center of Javanese culture which contains of ceremonies of Javanese tradition, but the culture of the Western (western music) is capable of being a part of a tradition of performing arts at Keraton. The development of Western musical orchestra in Keraton Yogyakarta and the use of full instruments of Western music which is combined with the accompaniment of dance have the assumption that it is part of the "political culture" of Sultan Hamengku Buwana VIII who wanted to show his greatness through cultural splendor.


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Bibliography Babad Ngayogyakarta, Vol. III, Yogyakarta: Perpustakaan Museum Sana Budaya Yogyakarta. Carey, Peter and Hoadley, 2000. “The Archive of Yogyakarta” Vol. II, Mason C. (ed.) Documents Relating to Economic and Agrarian Affairs. London: Oxford University Press. Djoko Sukiman, 2000. Kebudayaan Indis dan Gaya Hidup Masyarakat Pendukungnya di Jawa (Abad XVIII – Medio Abad XX) Yogyakarta: Bentang Budaya. Kartahasmara, R.Ng. 1990. Ngayugyakarta Pagelaran. Transliterasi Wibatsu Harianto Soembogo. Yogyakarta: Mahadewa. Kunst, Jaap. 1973. Music in Java: Its History, Its Theory and Its Technique. Third, Enlarged Edition. Edited by E.L. Heins. Vol. I, The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. Lindsay, Jennifer et al., 1994. Katalog Induk Naskah-naskah Nusantara, Jilid 2: Keraton Yogyakarta, Yayasan Obor Indonesia, Jakarta. Mardowo, RB Pustaka. 1981. “Iringan dan Perlengkapan” dalam Fred Wibowo (ed.). Mengenal Tari Klasik Gaya Yogyakarta. Yogyakarta: Dewan Kesenian Prop. DIY. Rhodius, Hans. Darling, John, 1980, Walter Spies and Balinese Art, Amsterdam: Terra, Zutphen. Ricklefs, M.C., 1974. Jogjakarta Under Sultan Mangkubumi (1749-1792), A History of The Division of Java, London: Oxford University Press. R.M. Soedarsono, 1989. “Raja Jawa dan Seni: Sebuah Contoh Pengaruh Konsepsi Seni Pertunjukan”. Makalah Ceramah pada Proyek Penelitian dan Pengkajian Kebudayaan Nusantara, Bagian Jawa, tanggal 25 September 1989. ______________, 2010. Seni Pertunjukan Indonesia di Era Globalisasi, Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press. R.M. Surtihadi. 1995. “Instrumen Musik Tradisi Barat Dalam Iringan Tari dan Upacara Protokoler Kraton Yogyakarta (Sebuah Tinjauan Historis)”. (Skripsi). Yogyakarta: Fakultas Seni Pertunjukan, ISI Yogyakarta. ___________, 2007. “Musik Orkestra Barat di Yogyakarta Masa Pra Kemerdekaan” dalam Resital, Jurnal Seni Pertunjukan . Volume 8 No.1 – Juni. Sartono Kartodirdjo, 1993. Pendekatan Ilmu Sosial Dalam Metodologi Sejarah. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama. Sidharta, Amir. 1999 . “Kabar dari Bali: Surat-surat Spies Kepada Pasangan 14

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Gotsch”, MITRA: Jurnal Budaya dan Filsafat No. 3 - Desember. Soerjodiningrat, Wasisto. 1980. Gendhing Beksan Mataraman, Yogyakarta: Proyek Peningkatan Pengembangan Perguruan Tinggi, Sub Proyek Festival Seni Budaya. Suharto, Ben. 1981. “Perkembangan Tari Klasik Gaya Yogyakarta” dalam Fred Wibowo (ed.). Mengenal Tari Klasik Gaya Yogyakarta. Yogyakarta: Dewan Kesenian Prop. DIY. Sumarsam, 2003. Gamelan, Interaksi Budaya dan Perkembangan Musikal di Jawa, Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar. Tim Peneliti Akademi Musik Indonesia. 1982. “Laporan Penelitian Musik Diatonik Kraton Kasultanan Yogyakarta”, Yogyakarta: AMI.


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Gamelan notation that has been transcripted for music orchestra notation.


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Soliloquies: A Movement-based Approach towards Beckett’s Waiting for Godot Riana Diah Sitharesmi Gadjah Mada University Human’s suffering is perpetuated for another indefinite period of life. Some of those are compliant, some others keep questioning and searching, and the rest of them are ignorant. Life just meets its meaningless inquiries as human being continue to suffer. Today’s wars are even worse than premillennial ones, as we live in a world that offers us a false peace. We have many questions upon chaos without knowing whom should we trust. At the end of the day, we reflect on our contribution to this universe. We question about the existence. But whose existence actually is examined, as the human desperations continue? Samuel Beckett (1906-1989) experienced the shock during and after World War II to witness physical human’s wreckage of war. The unspeakable horror of massive execution by a nation towards other nations brought his concern of human life that was without meaning and absurd (Sternlicht 2005, p. 58). Beckett wrote his script for the play “Waiting for Godot” (1953) within the deep concern towards his own experience as a witness of world’s irony. My research examines another understanding of Beckett’s “Waiting for Godot” (WfG), which is manifested in the form of an essay as a writing component, and a dance piece as a choreographic assessment. The conceptual foreground is drawn from the circumstantial analysis of a duality of human’s strategies confronting the difficult situation in their waits; in this case is Vladimir and Estragon as archetypes of human character and condition. A dance piece entitled “Soliloquies”, embraces choreographic manifestation to represent the essential theme of human struggle through its studio process. An artistic-based research is the base line throughout the process to put practical works as equal level as academic references. Within a concern of human condition today, this project reflects parallel lines of work between my personal enquiry and Beckett’s queries about the meaning of life. The quest is structured in such way that questions and answers can be studied and analyzed, considering a dance piece somehow meets insufficient device to present the abstract. Something more tactile should be developed or reconstructed without necessarily losing its sense of abstract, in this case is the meaning of life and the inquiries beyond. The Soliloquies’ dramatic development refers to Samuel Becket’s WfG both in its artistic staging and in its content. It is for allowing the dance piece to represent an important understanding towards human’s daily waits that is embedded in the play. The play clearly presents the absurdity through the irony of two archetypes (Vladimir and Estragon) who keep their endless waits without assurance the expected one’s arrival (Godot). There are counterparts pulling to each other as if a conflict between faith and doubt, strength and weak, self-reflection and impatience, and serenity and anxiety. The counterparts do not necessarily a rivalry, but to be taken simultaneously as parts of human’s manner to assimilate the difficult situation. Soliloquies’ dramatic tension emerges from two protagonists’ dialogues and monologues, through which I attempt to discover an alternative way bringing the abstract concept of human condition into a tacit understanding.


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The dramatic tension, which Soliloquies much aware to draw for, as in the play, is more inclined to share the individual experiences and character developments during the process rather than expressed through a formal vocabulary and complex dance technique. The prime target is to reveal the unknown, through deconstructing dance routines. I use Balinese dance elements to be explored along with Javanese shadow-puppet (wayang kulit), figural design of “The Thinker” statue and slapstick gestures, to avoid finite forms of traditional spaces. Balinese dance’s distinctive expressions are manifested in the trembling fingers (jeriring), the astounding change of face expression (nelik and manis rengu), and the glancing eyes (seledhét), while the unity of legs, torso and arms embody the significant value of three bodily fractures as a resemblance of Indian’s Tri Bangga. Antonin Artaud found that Balinese dance appearance was like a ‘three dimensional hieroglyph’, woven with a number of certain gestures, which give a mysterious sign correspond to the unknown, fabulous and obscure reality (in Watson et al, 2002, p. 65). This indirectly links to the idea of anything ‘undefined’ in WfG, which allows a sense of uncertainty to emerge. I deconstruct some elements to create something else out of their routine, respectfully to not leaving behind their ontological value. A recognizable static gesture of Augusto Rodin’s The Thinker has been universally used to depict a man in a solemn figure. A powerful and provocative pose is ordinary, but the details of hand position to the chin with the elbow to the opposite knee, and the crouching position of the torso let the statue observing contemplative sphere in a very poetic way. This unique gesture is beneficial to represent philosophical aspect of WfG’s two protagonists. Vladimir and Estragon’s persistence in their plight and without assurance of Godot’s arrival transcend all the knowledge and intellectual consciousness, as Brater cited: Their lines are nourished, too, by faint recollections of Dante, Shakespeare, Calderón, Shelley, Dickens, Schopenhauer, Verlaine, Berkeley, Hölderlin, Joyce, and Yeats (the list is not complete). It was just such an allusive texture that made the critic Vivian Mercier tells Beckett, “You make Didi and Gogo sound as though they have Ph.Ds.” “How do you know they hadn’t?” was the playwright’s prompt response (1989: 75). The way Beckett creates intellectual prattles is to provoke his audiences to think. The Thinker somehow becomes a tribute to Beckett’s intellect and his humanistic concern, while it also emerges the embodiment of intellectual behavior for his two tramps being represented in a dance piece. WfG conveys the ironic through its prattles and actions, which actually embody the deep meaning of both verbal and non-verbal communications. Accordingly, humor that Beckett uses in his play challenges his audience to reveal the tragedy through transcendental ways. Humor could convey the sense of tragedy in a play as well as the play shows the tragedy itself. It is a method that Beckett chooses to present intelligence without tendency to fail the play become a lecture exhibition. Slapstick mayhem and two protagonists’ prattles make the plights less dramatic, which even easy to penetrate audience’s concern. The lonely set, a country road and a tree, intricately juxtapose the suicide provocation with the protagonists’ faith; it is an amusement and a reflection of hopelessness at the same time. Without tendency to make a comical performance, the Soliloquies conquers the slapstick phrases to commence a little enjoyment amongst uncomforted situations. I observe Charlie Chaplin’s silent movies; a lonely little tramp who endlessly experiences suffer, hunger, and 19

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jobless, but he presents his sensibility of helping others and coping his unfortunates within funny, sometimes silly actions. Chaplin brings his audiences into laugh and tear through his cinematic slapstick motions. WfG achieves its irony through its characters that somehow represent Chaplin’s tramp; a bowler hat, a pair of boots, and an icon, as Sternlicht (2005) agreed that ‘Vladimir and Estragon did not evolve far from Chaplin’s “Little Tramp” ‘(p. 52).

Artistic process and Choreographic Orientation

1. The performers and dance techniques: Considering Individual Character The movement is the prime device for Soliloquies to bring the dramatic structure in a dance performance. To achieve the logical and significant movement development, choreographic process is commenced through individual explorations, which most rely on dancer’s characteristic. I refer to Pina Baucsh’s method of repetition and individual development which is significantly helpful during the process. Bausch instructed her dancers to create any movement as a respond towards their own memories of childhood or daily activities. Extensive repetition, for Bausch, was one of the tools to reconstruct dancer’s past experiences that were gradually shaped into aesthetic forms (Fernandes, 2005, p. 26). In Soliloquies’ rehearsals, this method is employed to address each dancer’s character to emerge their on-stage personifications. Their memory of being persons who are waiting is crucial. It is not very surprised to see the differences of each dancer’s gesture as both have some contradictive manners to each other. Above all, their distinctive gestures as the manifest of each owns manner passaging the time create the monologues within the duality. Bausch’s repetition method is also applied to reach meaning for the whole dance structure by repeating sequences or phrases. The sculptural gesture of The Thinker is developed through repetition from the very simple one to its possibilities to grow in complex phrases. In some sequences, there are tendencies to repeat several phrases. The repetition itself could be an alternative way for Soliloquies to represent the absurd. Potential kinesthetic explorations of dancers’ past experiences show its ridiculous senses and express the forms of absurd. Such a technique is adequate indeed, by which my dancers achieve intense feeling within the forms. We somehow get the atmosphere of anxiousness, annoyance, and chaos whereby I reconstruct the dramatic structure of a whole. As a non-verbal language of WfG, Soliloquies elaborates an intercultural sphere covering the process of dialogue among difference “individualities”. Those I called individualities are dance vocabularies, Beckett’s WfG, the two dancers, and my ideas. Dance vocabularies I drew from specific Balinese dance elements are recognisable, so they might represent my identity as an Indonesian contemporary dancer. Two dancers with different cultural perspectives express the essential of WfG by articulating the choreographic idea through dramatic sequences; hence, their embodiment in dance techniques and backgrounds are crucial. Analogically resemblance to Vladimir and Estragon to represent the manner of waiting, each dancer’s persona is observed accordingly. As an outcome of orientating Bausch’s method, and exploring The Thinker’s figural space and Balinese dance during the choreographic process, the dancers’ personas emerge their respective presence, which is somehow distinctive. Such engagement furthermore can necessarily be an individual establishment to develop the choreographic structure. Their 20

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respective cultural background might inform their characters. However, Soliloquies’ dramatic structure less relies on it, and rather intends to emerge it from their personal characters. Nefeli Tsiouti is a female dancer-choreographer who was born in Cyprus and has been embodied to her contemporary culture. She has been learning basic ballet, modern dance and hip hop by the time she participates in this project. As she is given the half-fixed dance materials, she presents the movement phrase within her powerful energy. In the three first sequences, Nefeli’s energy creates sharp direct movements that design short straight lines, which could be associated to the strength, provocation, youth, and impatience. To represent anxiety in fourth sequence, her persona is exposed further using the performance technique of Javanese shadow puppet (wayang kulit). The two dimensional design of wayang kulit is somehow having an intriguing appearance. Obviously, it is performed by dalang in the wide white screen, so the audiences have the shadow to see. The body of the wayang faces forward while its face and gaze are in profile either right or left side. I explore this unique appearance to produce exaggerated looked angst body and gestures as a symbol of a bodily attitude in anxiety. I encourage Nefeli to use her dance body to struggle in finding a way out from limited space through physical enforcement. But the more movements she produces the less space achieved. It triggers a comprehensive manifestation of a dance body that literally keep trying to have more space, but would have less space instead because of its finite range of movement. Martin (2001) corresponds such anxiety to an attitude of passive waiting; thus, it is a confrontation against the action of time itself whenever we have to deal with any matter of waits (p. 50). Fumi Tomioka is a Japanese dancer-choreographer who experiences modern dance for years and embodies the Pilates studies. Pilates has been giving her a kind of self-managing for her limb flexibility and such technique of breathing. Fumi develops dance phrases and sets them into half-fixed dance sequences. In the two first sequences of the dance, her movement development is initiated with the exploration of both metaphysical and literal space. Metaphysical space is conveyed through engagement of moving body with the sense of movement itself, and through concentrating towards the logic of movement’s travel within Pilates’ breathing technique. Literal space is achieved through exploring the stage’s space that allows her to travel around within the movement and floor design. With the action above, Fumi reaches somatic gestures. They are meant to give a sense of reflectivity of moving body, and to explore her persona as a ‘brainy movement’ to create contemplative atmosphere. Being reflective, Fumi somehow represents Vladimir’s questions and wisdom. Her energy is more fluid and soft in communicating the sense of tiredness and age. Fumi experiences the active waiting, thus she passes the time. In Martin’s term it is noted as human tendency to forget the passage of time (2001: 50). 2. The philosophical query, interpreting the “God” in Waiting for Godot Does God still exist in this modern society where the “insurance” system is treated as “God” himself? Why does not man just commit suicide to be set free from suffering and ridiculous poverty? What does man wait for? Is it something better to come that may fix the world’s catastrophe? Or all just fall into a mere utopia, while most of the damages of this world are the results of human behaviors? In all parts, humans tend to play the roles as “lords of the universe”. Perhaps, this time is God’s turn to observe how human disentangle the universe from suffering; He watches over whether people would help each other, or prefer to stand over 21

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others’ plights instead. It is not our concern to ask whether God will help us or not. It might be better if we previously examine our respective presence for others, and for the universe. WfG does not explicitly define who or what Godot is and so do its reviews. Beckett himself, whether his statement is true or political, says that if he means Godot is God, he would have said so in the play. The existence of Godot even becomes paradox as the two protagonists find that Godot hits the messenger boy; yet, they remain waiting for the arrival. As for how Vladimir and Estragon deal with few information about Godot’s identity, their manner of waiting deserves to be questioned: is it emerging from their faith towards Godot’s existence? Or is it departing from their owns’ commitment? Both require strong will for them to keep waiting. Is it perhaps because they instinctively know that Godot is the only one who have the answers for their questions? Yet, Godot never comes, nothing changes to meet their expectations, and they keep waiting. Is it absurd? Such religious ideas constitute often the base of human thinking, and they provide the guidelines to follow a spiritual path. As Bryden (1998) said, perhaps we should not too worry about seeking “Him” when there is no assurance of an answer upon every question. We might commence all our odysseys to move toward any forms of kindness, and within our patience and fortunes, we might achieve our expectations. But if “searching Him” is still very crucial, a strong and consistent faith is required to keep all appointment are worthwhile (p. 130). WfG treats the manner of waiting as the essence of the play. Martin (2001) assumed it is not Godot the subject of the play but waiting, representing the essential manner of waiting and human condition within the characteristic aspects. Waiting is the nature of all human being do entire life, and Godot is the simple representation towards man’s waiting. It could be a person, a thing, an event or death (p. 50). Having undefined characters, an unending resolution, exploring a static situation, and thus, inviting many interpretations and adaptations throughout the world, WfG becomes a credible example of what Martin claims the “theatre of the absurd”. The play does not tell a story. The sequences suggest the audience to feel the dramatic tension upon the words and the gestures of its characters. The meaning does not necessarily emerge from every single sentence or gesture, but it is drawn holistically through the whole structure, the atmosphere of artistic development and its conceptual content. It is obvious that Beckett wanted his audience to consider the value of life through the play. Sternlicht ( 2005) pointed out that ‘Waiting for Godot is a philosophical play.…intangible values, such as belief in the existence of the Deity, patriotism, truth, love, friendship, honor, power, and even intellectual accomplishment.…Beckett wants us to contemplate the smallness of our lives’ (p. 56). The manner of waiting that Vladimir and Estragon show in the play represent a philosophical query in their individual existences. In their waits for Godot’s arrival, they are actually waiting for their owns existence to appear. Vladimir is symbolized being more thoughtful and having more awareness of his place in the world, while Estragon is more responsive towards his own needs and necessarily having more complain upon his misfortunes. Estragon has more bodily interaction with physical things. He complains his boots, experiences pain so much, eats carrot and turnip his friend gives to him, picks up leftover chicken bones, sleeps well and dreams. Estragon is likely a skeptical type and pragmatic. Vladimir appears in contrast to Estragon, with all his curiosity. He doubts and disagrees. He sings and lullabies Estragon to sleep. He has speeches and he draws conclusion of events. Vladimir represents a confident and affirmative attitude. Although they have same prime cause of anxiety, Vladimir and Estragon develop different strategies to confront reality. Things happened, passed by and flowed within the time they have, Vladimir and Estragon keep doing the routine; meeting others, helping others and serving social contacts. Mayhems of Pozzo and Lucky have to be served as 22

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well as their waits, so time allows them to go forward to the changes. ‘They, like all humans, continue to wait, to hope, and to expect while trying to maintain some semblance of dignity, some communication with others, and some concern for those with whom their lives are linked … And when all is said and done, we hope we shall be able to say, like Vladimir, that at least we have kept our appointments’ (Sternlicht, 2005, p. 49). Godot is a metaphysical concept of an expected savior to whom Vladimir and Estragon could ask for helps. But the absence of Godot is profoundly repeated and the protagonists remain waiting. It is inevitably absurd, so that Martin (2001) analyzed waiting is just a constant change that flows through action of time. The change is merely an illusion if nothing real happens, but the routines bring an unending activity of time; a purposeless, null, and void self-defeating. The world meets its terrible stability by changing things that are actually same (p. 67). I argue there is nothing purposeless for every single action of waiting. Vladimir and Estragon experience the constant change of time through every single self-defeating that is not empty, nor meaningless. If waiting for something indefinitely takes them into the territory of the absurd, Vladimir and Estragon’s unsolved problems might be looked at as a reflection upon different kinds of faith. WfG’s last scene allows indefinite protagonists’ decision to choose whether they prefer to be drown in desperation (considering Estragon’s suggestions of committing suicide) or to keep waiting and hoping. Afterwards, that is not other existences WfG wants to talk about except its protagonists’ journeys. It is an ontological query about how we, within the absurd world’s utopian state, reconstruct our self-existence to finally meet our Being, and that by doing so, we will meet some achievements at a later stages. 3. Soliloquies’ Dramatic Sphere There are many aspects, in addition to the humanistic terms embodied in WfG, that open plenty of possibilities to bring the play to become an icon for other related subjects beyond the theatre itself. My version of the play might have a quality as a more subjective interpretation considering I often work intuitively. This creates conflicts among ambiguous ideas that somehow restrict my perspective for being logic. However, I believe of metaphysical meaning addressed through absurd communications and actions, while there is also real situation suggested by the whole structure of the play. Sternlicht (2005, p. 57) noted that WfG is both abstract and sensual because of the blends between natural and unnatural, the real and the absurd, the poetic and dramatic that Beckett elaborated with the verbal economy of a modern poem. I do not use a pure logical and exact approach, as it is not enough to understand the richness of Beckett’s mind in WfG. Rather, I trust my intuitive choreographic knowledge to commence the work. I consent furthermore, that Soliloquies achieves its artistic manifestation through dialogues between primal aesthetic experiences and theoretical investigation, which counterbalance to each other. The humane circumstances, the faith, the doubt, the twilight scene of set, the tree, the country road, and the timeless wait, develop dramatic spaces to meet the absurd. Soliloquies’ movement development intends to focus on protagonists’ coping strategy in constructing dramatic structure into four sequences. The introduction scene initiates distinctive manners of the characters through juxtaposing Fumi and Nefeli in visual figures, movements, properties, shape of the boxes, and the spotlight. Dressing in black housemaid uniforms, the two dancers represent the female workers generally. The green kitchen apron highlights an aging thoughtful 23

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figure, while red kitchen apron translates impatience, youth, and desire. The stage is warmed up by a nuance of contemporary Bali from Mc. Phee’s Nocturno. The first sequence talks about “counting”; it could be counting the days that have been passed during the waits, or contemplating the present and the future time. Elaborate the differences, Fumi brings her motion out of the spot and explores the whole stage in circular. Nefeli on the contrary is barely outs of her spot, moves frontally and explores the box instead. An irregular rhythm of Paradise Regained by I Wayan Gde Yudane helps the second sequences to intensify contradictive movement qualities. The elements of slapstick dominate third sequence to represent the consciousness of friendship and the effort of being playful, which somehow creates an ironic mayhem covered by Strauss’ Blue Danube. Although the piece does not intend to build the battle between those two – the body and the mind –, the movement development within dynamic differences characterises body and mind’s monologues, which analogically resemblance of Vladimir and Estragon’s different strategies confronting helplessness and hopelessness. To refer to how the protagonists build their faith in Godot’s arrival, the Soliloquies brings the optimistic attitude to consider their waits for the sake of their respective existence. The body and mind are crucial parts of human being’s existence. They are not supposed to be separated, nor exist on their own. This concept frames the idea of creating a duality based on each character’s individuality, and it helps to develop the simultaneous monologues into a dialogue. A dialogue itself does not necessarily imply questions and answers, although these might often appear. For example, if ones speak about the hat and the other one speaks about the boot, the dialogue seems broken. They do not seem to connect, and they never meet. But at the same time they are connected; they simultaneously share time and space. One’s sceptical presumption juxtaposes with other’s strong faith. Such juxtaposition brings a mirroring experience, which is reversing the roles. This moment of reversal is conveyed in the fourth sequence, which is the last sequence, towards the end. It is manifested through merging the two contradictive energies of Nefeli’s anxious gestures and Fumi’s contemplative journey. There is a moment for the specific gestural icon is transformed into that of its counterpart. At one point, as Nefeli is compliant to deal with the limit, she has “space”, which is inner space that produces the fluidity of movement. Fumi’s fluidity, however still exist, is less obvious as she tends to occupy Nefeli’s space. Then, their monologues blend: naive within contemplation, impatience within nurturance, faith within hopelessness, and unawareness within self-reflection. At the end of the phrase, Fumi has less space, stuck on the up right in a puppet-like, but maintaining her tenderness, as if the occupation of her mind can limit the motions. Nefeli becomes fluid, has a soft and tender spinning motion as if she compliantly surrenders to the limit, to show the freedom of the body and therefore it can “feel” and invigorates the mind. The reversal is the moment in which everything seems meaningless; it is null and absurd. Having the limit is not necessarily negative. Fumi learns to feel the anxious body without the absence of mind, while Nefeli acknowledges how to think within the limited space. This moment is a transcendence of knowledge to find the equilibrial existence of the body and mind. The richness of Beckett’s WfG lies not only in its meaning but also the stage actions, which somehow creates unclearness direction of representing it into another form of performance. As Brater (1989) observed, Beckett’s actors in WfG convey the dramatic through both their “acting” and “repertoire of spontaneities”; they do pantomime, crazy pratfalls, prattles, sight gags, songs, dances, and they think, take off the shoes, try on the hats, fall asleep, and dream. 24

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These complex on-stage daily actions make Beckett’s set speak a complete vocabulary of stage business (p. 73). Accordingly, Soliloquies uses vocabularies that are not necessarily stylish or being virtually spectacle. The simple, clear gestures and movements within straightforward and modest designs may lead the sequences to reach a matter of complexity. Conclusion This artistic work of choreography undergoes delicate challenges during its whole process. The tri bangga fails to appear as expected, although I could not say that it is unsuccessfully explored. This “three dimension hieroglyph” of Balinese figure tends to require the detail of gestures in which my two Western dance trained-dancers hard to master. However, within the efforts and comprehensive discussion, my dancers finally well attached to Balinese energy and its unique. To bring wayang kulit be more familiar to Nefeli, I apply similar reference that indigenously lives in Greek culture, the karagiozis. Karagiozis is a Greek shadow theatre that plays satire themes representing social injustice and ‘common folk’. Its main character, Karagiozis, is a man who wears ragged clothes, walks barefoot, has no proper job, but always want to struggle to get one for supporting his family. He does anything either helps or fools others mischievously and often ends up being beaten or whipped. Karagiozis could respectfully be associated to WfG’s vaudevilles archetypes, who also experience of being jobless, hungry, beaten and painful. This form of shadow theatre is apparently suitable for Nefeli to explore the anxious body. Her familiarity towards karagiozis assists her to range the movements within individual energy and style. The reversal of movement characters represents the effort of finding the balance between mind and body activity to encounter difficult situation during the daily waits. The presence of Javanese shadow puppet needs to dominate the scene of reversal. Unfortunately, towards the ends of our last rehearsals, the puppet-looked gestures and movement seem to less appear. Timing problems in some rehearsals somehow challenge the artistic process to be compressed and for not too ambitious to convey the uniqueness. But new vocabularies are embedded inside the phrases to reach the dramatic tension from one sequence to another. The climax is not sharp, as I establish a modest form of summary of what have been said previously in the last scene of the piece. This meant to represent the cycle of life itself that everything in the past is somehow repeated either in the similar appearance or being manifested into another shape in present. Nevertheless, the similar re-appearance of so-called “the past” might not be absolute; it comes to the present together with the experiences of how it was encountered. It brings the knowledge in which human may learn to make the right decisions either for herself or other peoples around. Soliloquies’ last scene imbues each character’s decision to place her selfexistence at the more suitable position and condition. My decision to work with two dancers is not intentionally because they both are so much different to each other. That is primarily encouraged by their personalities to whom I could feel comfortable expressing my ideas. Realizing that I myself is also much different from them both, as a matter of fact provides me the challenge to look more widely into any possibilities happened at the process. The strain between what we are agree or disagree often highlights our dialogues. But many solutions bring us more to find forms of understanding each other rather than mastering others. This hermeneutic sphere brings my choreographic experiences to the next phase of artistic-based research as a part of philosophical reflection. Above of all, the hermeneutic aura of two dancers elaborated through dialogues with each other, with the theme 25

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underlines, with their respective dance technique, with my ideas and with new dance vocabularies provides a whole creative process a new color and to merits further artistic investigation. Overall, the research works somehow include the deep personal involvement. It leads to some spectacles to articulate the concept. The cycle of time brings human into daily repetitions; many things happen are for passing the time, and at least some of them are precious enough to be recognised as parts of the voyage. Since my Soliloquies represents inexplicit final decision, it allows the essence of Waiting for Godot to be captured with varied interpretations. There never be a definite truth, as the final is only the departure of another query.

References Banes, Sally. (1987). Terpsichore In Sneakers: Post – Modern Dance. Middletown: Wesleyan University Press. Barrett, Estelle & Bolt, Barbara (eds.). (2010). Practice as Research: Approaches to Creative Arts Enquiry. London & New York: I.B Tauris & Co Ltd. Beja, Morris, with S.E Gontarski and Pierre Astier (eds.). (1983). Samuel Beckett: Humanistic Perspectives. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University Press. Blom, Lynne Ann & L. Tarin Chaplin. (1989). The Intimate Act of Choreography. London: University of Pittsburgh Press. Brater, Enoch. (1989). Why Beckett. London: Thames and Hudson. Brooker, Peter. (2003). A Glossary of Cultural Theory. London & New York: Oxford University Press. Bryden, Mary. (1998). Samuel Beckett and the Idea of God. Hampshire & London: MacMillan Press LTD Burkman, Katherine H. (1984). The Arrival of Godot: Ritual Patterns in Modern Drama. London & Toronto: Associated University Presses. Chaplin, Charles. (1964). My Autobiography. London: Penguin Book. Essif, Les. (2001). Empty Figure on an Empty Stage: The Theatre of Samuel Beckett and His Generation. Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. Fernandes, Cianes. (2005). Pina Bausch and the Wuppertal Dance Theatre: The Aesthetics of Repetition and Transformation. New York, Washington, D.C./Baltimore, Bern, Frankfurt am Main, Berlin, Brussels, Vienna, Oxford: Peter Lang. Fletcher, John. (2000). A Faber Critical Guide: Samuel Beckett. London: Faber and Faber Limited. 26

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George, David E.R. (1991). Theatre in Focus: Balinese Ritual Theatre. Cambridge & Alexandria: Chadwyck-Healey Inc. Gordon, Lois. (2002). Reading Godot. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. Karic, Pol Popovic. (2007). Ironic Samuel Beckett, Samuel Beckett’s Life and Drama: Waiting for Godot, Endgame, and Happy Days. Lanham, Boulder, New York, Toronto, and Oxford: University Press of America Inc. Martin, Esslin. (1980). The Theatre of the Absurd. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Plunka, Gene A. (ed.). (1994). Antonin Artaud and the Modern Theatre. London and Toronto: Associated University Press. Prasad, V.R.N et.al. (1995). Understanding Absurd Drama. Aurangabad: Kirti Prakashan Sternlicht, Sanford. (2005). Masterpieces of Modern British and Irish Drama. Connecticut & London: Greenwood Press.


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THE SECRET OF BRAHMS CELLOS SONATA NO. 1 OP. 38 AND SHOSTAKOVICH CELLO SONATA OP. 40 Asep Hidayat Wirayudha Abtract This study aims to find a technique solution behind the Far interval and Octave interval in Brahms Cello sonata no.1 opus 38 and Shostakovich cello sonata op. 40 through literature and Discography approach. The fingering problems may poses special difficulties to any cellists. According to the author’s assessment, there are two problems that warrant special attentions of the cellist. Both intervals may cause serious problems on the performance of short fingers cellists. The size of the fingerboard on the cello as compared to other string instruments are longer, resulting in harder difficulties regarding obtaining tone (Stowell, 1999). From the results of the Far Interval and Octave Interval and active involvement of the researchers, the results show that, what is shown that every cellist are anatomically different. The fingers of the cellists are naturally very flexible. It can not be converted to another cellists. so flexibly that it is possible to overcome the problem in a simple and convenient. Keyword : Brahms Sonata cello No.1 opus 38,Shostakovich, octave ,Interval Introduction The principles of neck-positions fingerings on cello have been evolved since the cellist of eighteenth-century extended their range beyond the first position. The principles have greatly improved the skill of cellists to performs musical composition. However, by its nature, fingering is a personal matter. What is regard as suitable principles or rules to one hand will not always suit another. Therefore, one can not lay down any strict rules of fingerings although there are certain general principles that can be followed. Among many factors determines the suitability of any principles of cello fingering, the size of cellists fingers is one factor that seemingly out of notice. The available cello fingering methods generally suitable for cellist having relatively long fingers. Those having relatively short fingers may find many difficulties to apply the principles. The aforementioned condition, which may cause serious problems on the performance of short-fingers cellists, warrants new methods or approaches to improve their skills. It is in this contexts the author process modifications of the available octave and far interval etudes in order to improve the performance of cellist. The Brahms cello sonata cello No. 1 op. 38 and the Shostakovich cello sonata op. 40 are used as cases of point. Within the context of Brahms Sonata cello No. 1 opus 38, and the Shostakovich cello sonata opus 40, the author divides the problem into two types. They are : (1) octave interval and (2) far interval problem. In order to make the problems clear, it is imperative to define first the octave and far intervals. Octave interval are intervals where cellist have to play two musical notes from the necessity to place the fingers in two far-separated positions. Such a necessity may cause the short-finger cellists pain and discomfort. Some cellists moreover may not reach the proper position at all. Far interval are intervals where cellists have to move from one note to another that at least one octave higher or lower in a short time. Far intervals, especially those required cellists to change position, are classic problem for virtually any cellists. The following passages describe the 28

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octave interval in the Brahms cello sonata No. 1 opus 38 , and Shostakovich cello sonata opus 40 which according to the author’s assessments, may become serious problems to any shortfingers cellist. There for, those intervals were selected from the point of view of the relatively short-finger cellists. It followed then by the expositions of far intervals, from the same sonatas that may become problem for many cellist. Octave Interval Problems There are seven octave intervals of Brahms cellos sonata No.1 opus 38 that present special difficulties for the short-fingers cellists. The first difficulty is located at the first movement, measure (figure 2-1)

The difficulty to perform this interval come from the fact that it requires the first and the fourth fingering to spread on two relatively far-separated notes, especially on the lower note. The second difficulty is located at the first movement measure 130 (figure 2-2)

This interval became difficult to be performed since it compels two far-separated notes-the Bь and F to be played at the same time in the context of fortissimo. The similar difficulties are found at the third movement, measure 13,35 and 45 (see figure 2-3 to 2-5).


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The sixth and relatively difficult octave interval situated at the second movement, measure 49 (figure 2-6)

The problem on this octave interval occurs from the difficulty to use the first and the fourth finger in order to exploit optimally lower notes in the contact of fortissimo. The seventh point of difficulty is found at the third movement, measure 31 (figure 2-7)

The difficulty to play the aforementioned interval come from the necessity to play the nearscroll interval atfast tempo and the dynamics of fortissimo.In the Shostakovich cello sonata Opus 40, the author finds four octave intervals that may become problem to the short-fingers cellist. The first interval is located at the first movement, measure 71 (figure 2-8).

The difficulty to perform this interval occurs from the necessity to move the lower F≠ to upper F≠ at short time under the legatissimoexpressivo. Other point of difficulty is located at the first movement, measure 149 (figure 2-9). This interval in figure 2-9 become difficult to be performed since it requires twofar-separated notes-the lower Eь and upper Eь to be played in the context of fortissimo. The similar difficulty are found at the first movement, measure 130, in the Brahms cello sonata No.1,Opus 38, (see figure 2-2)


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The fourth point is situated at the third movement,measure 74 (see figure2-11)

The interval above may become a problem since it necessitates the cellists to play the interval in the dynamics of piano phrase. Such a necessity may cause the phrase unclear. The Far Interval Problem There are four far intervals of the Brahms cello sonata No. 1 Opus 38. They are located at the first movement, measure 26-29 and 110-112 and at the third movement, measure 115 and 166-169. The difficulty to play the first point (figure 2-12) occurs from the fact that, firstly (at measure 26), it compels the cellist to move from the first to the fifth position and, secondly (at measure 28), from the fourth to the sixth position.

The second point of difficulty (figure 2-13) necessitates the cellist to move, in a short time, from the Dь in the fourth beat of the measure 110 to the same note situated one octave higher. Moreover, such a movement is followed by the shifting, also in a short time, from the lower F of measure 112 to the upper Fthat is two octave higher.


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The far interval at the third movement, measure 115 (figure 2-14) presents the optimality problem of the sound quality since it necessitates the cellists making a relatively far shifts.

The last far intervals that difficult to be performed, located at the third movement, measure 166169 (figure 2-15). They compel the cellist to move from the noteB to the note C≠ that is threeoctave higher. This is difficult to be played (it is the farthest interval in the Brahms cellos sonata No. 1 opus 38). Moreover, this may become a problem since it is located at the third movement. At that moment, the fingers may have already exhausted from the previous movement. According to the author’s assessments, there are two far interval problems in the Shostakovich cello sonata Opus 40. They are located at the first movement, measure 33 and 42.

The first difficulty (figure 2-16) present a classic intonation problem. It compels the cellists to move from F in the fourth position to D in the fifth position.

The second point of difficulty (figure 2-17) present a specific difficulty to short-finger cellists since they would find a constrain in order to spread their fingers properly on the note C and F in the seventh position.

Solution to the Octave Interval Problem Fingers, by theirs nature, are flexible since they are built mainly by soft tissues and muscles. The flexibility of fingers is one main factor responsibility theirspreadability. Considering the cello playing, the spreadability of cellists fingers is very important since it has a direct correlation to their ability to play the octave interval. The short- fingers cellists would find difficulties to play the octave intervals at the first,second, third, and fourth position. Nevertheless, short-fingers are not dead-end for cellist. The spreadability of finger, up to some 32

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extend, might be increase through practice and exercises. It is with this spirit the author proposes some stratagems, which may be used to increase the spreadability of a cellists fingers in this section, using the octave interval problems as case of pint. The discussion on the types and styles of problem show that even though the octave intervals in Brahms cellos sonata No. 1 opus 38, and Shostakovich cello sonata opus 40 are different in details, but fundamentally they are the same : the problems came from the difficulty of the first and the fourth fingers to reach the proper note when the size and length of the fingers are limited. The difficulty may be solved through the exercises depicted in figure 3-1. The authors proposes six of exercises that may be used to increase the spreadability of short-fingers cellist. The exercises are directed to the G string. All of the excercises, however may be applied and modified to other strings, fingers, and rhythms according to the personal need. Solution to the Far Interval Problems Solution to the Problem at the First Movement, Measure 26-29 of the Brahms cellos sonata No. 1 opus 38 The fingers shifting always become problems. In the case of the movement 1, measure 26-29 of the Brahms cellos sonata No. 1 opus 38 (figure 2-12), the requirement of fingers to shift from E (first position) to Bь(fifth position) may result the discordant tone of the Bь . To solve this problem, the author proposes the following exercise (figure 3-2). It consist of the playing of the E and G (open string) in slow tempo, to make sure that the intonation are concordant, following by the sifting from the E to A (open string) in slow tempo and glissando using the second finger. Such a position would make the Bь could be reached easily using the third finger. The repeatation of this exercise using the E-A-Bь, Bь-A-E, and their variations would give a better results.


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Solution to the Problem at the First Movement, Measure 110-112 of the Brahms cello sonata No. 1 Opus. 38 To solve the problem at the case of the movement 1, measure 110 of the Brahms cellos sonata No.1 Opus 38, (see figure 2-13), the author proposes the following exercise (figure 3-3). Firstly, play of the lower Dь, and approaching the fifth position ,its role is changed by the second fingers. The pressing of the D string (flageolet) by the third finger should be used as an intonation controller.

The solution to the problem at the movement 1, measure 112 of the Brahms cellos sonata No.1 Opus 38, (figure 2-13) is basically the same as those for the measure 110. There are two alternatives to shift from the lower F to the upper F notes. The first alternative is pressing the lower F note that is located at A string using the second finger (four position). Consequently, the D note that should be play at the first beat of the measure 111 is located relatively far from the F note and may not be reached properly. The possibility to use this alternative successfully would be increase through the following exercise (figure 3-4). Firstly, play the F note using the second finger in the slow tempo. Secondly, shift to the fifth position. By the end of this motion, the D major scale is established which, in turn, making the D note reachable. The second alternative (figure 3-5) is started by pressing the lower F note that is located at the D string using the first finger (fifth position). The pressing of the D string (flageolet) by the 34

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thumb should be used as an intonation controller. In such a configuration, the upper F note may be then reached by the second finger at the A string (fifth position).

From the aforementioned explanation, it is clear two alternative are similar the main difference in the string used to define the lower F notes.

Solution to the Problem at the Third Movement, Measure 115 of the Brahms sonata No.1 opus 38. To solve the problem at the third movement, measure 115 of the Brahms cellos sonata No. 1 opus 38, (see figure 2-14), the author proposes the following exercise (figure 3-6). Firstly, press the D≠ note using the third finger. Secondly, shift to find and reachable easily using the third finger. Pressing the A string (flageolet), before shifting from D≠ to C, may be done control the intonation.


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Solution to the Problem at the Third Movement measure 169 of the Brahms Cello sonata No. 1 opus 38. To solve the problem at the third movement, measure 169 of the Brahms cello sonata No. 1 opus 38, (see figure (2-15, the author propose the following exercise (figure 3-7). In essence, the exercise is similar to those for the third movement, measure 115 of the Brahms cello sonata No.1 opus 38, explained above. Firstly, press the B note using the third finger. Secondly, shift to find and press the A note using the thumb in glissando. By controlling the flageolet, to make the fifth position, then the C≠ would be reached easily.

Solution to Problem at the First Movement, Measure 33 of the Shostakkovich Cellos sonata. Opus 40 One alternative solution for the problem of the first movement, measure 33 of the Shostakovich cello sonata opus 40 (see figure 2-16) is depicted in figure 3-8.

Firstly, play the F note in the fourth position using the second finger. Secondly, shift to the D note in the fifth position using the third finger. Control the last note using the open string D. The next exercise in to shift from the F-Gь to D notes, and conversely. Repeatation of the aforementioned exercise to make the stratagem second mature and, in turn, make the shifting from the F to C notes could be done directly. Solution to the problem at the First Movement, Measure 42 of the Shostakovich Cello sonata opus 40 36

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The following exercise (figure 3-9) might be used to solve the problem of the first movement, measure 42 of the Shostakovich cello sonata opus 40 (see figure 2-17). Firstly, play the C-E-F notes using the first, second, and third fingers, respectively. This exercise should be done repeatedly and the C note should be controlled using the open string C. All notes might be varied as depicted in figure 3-9. To minimize the strain during this exercise should be stopped when the cellists feel pain in any part of the body.

Conclusion The fingering problems may poses special difficulties to any cellists. According to the author’s assessment, there are two problems that warrant special attentions of the cellist. They are the octave and far intervals. The octave intervals may cause serious problems on the performance of short-fingers cellists. The problem occur mainly from the limitation of the spreadability of the short-finger cellists. Nevertheless, the author believes that the inherent short finger are not dead- end. The proposes simple stratagems explored in details in this thesis show that there are many ways to compensate such limitation. More importantly, the author believes that there are still many stratagems to be explored. The far intervals, that become serious problem for any cellists, may also be mastered through some simple stratagems. As we can see many far intervals that may previously be seen difficult problems may not be difficult in their self. The problem may actually come from our limitation to find many side track. Such side-tracks, that may not follow the traditional principles or rules of fingering, should not be regarded as a kind of desertion. They should be regards as products of creative minds, instead. The results show that, what is shown that every cellist are anatomically different. The fingers of the cellists are naturally very flexible. It can not be converted to another cellists. so flexibly that it is possible to overcome the problem in a simple and convenient.


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Bibbliography Clarke, Eric. 2010 Music and Mind in Everyday Life. Oxford University Press. Cograss, Ulla. 2001. For The Love of Music. Mcmillan Ltd, New York Eisenberg, Maurice 1957.Cello Playing Today. London. Lavender Publication LTD. 147 G, Verlag Henle. 1977.Brahms Sonata Klavier und Violoncello No.1 op, 38 Munchen. Leonard Rose. 2000 Shostakovich Cello Sonata International Music Company no. 2087 New York Stowell, Robin. 1999. Enjoyment of The Cello. United Kingdom. Cambride University Press. Stowell, Robin. 2000 String Quartet. Sage, London Pleasant, Hendry. 1990. Music Criticsms, Sage, London Welden, V. 1999.The Cambride Companion To The Cello. Cambride University Press.269 Zen-On. 2000. Shostakovich Sonata Cello and Piano opus 40, Tokyo.


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By EMRIDAWATI (Magister of Music Study) Lecturer of Music Department of ISI Padangpanjang, West Sumatera watiemrida @gmail.com Hp. 085263632765

ABSTRACT Music learning creativity applied in SMAN (public high school) 3 Padangpanjang aims at covering the lack of students and teachers’ abilities in fulfilling the need of art internally and externally. In this high school, it was applied a new learning system that was different from previous learning system namely transforming the pattern of rhythm of drum set music into the drum band music. Method used was qualitative method with the approach of case study or action research. The techniques of data collection were library research, observation, interview, and documentation. Data analysis was conducted based on questions asked to interviewees theoretically and practically and then classified according to the needs. If there was lack of data, they could be recollected to research location. The collected data were interpreted, assessed for their validities, and then triangulated based on source, method, and time. Learning process used several steps namely the explanation about drum set and drum band and the transfer of drum set technique drum band as an experiment. Proponent material of this learning was the song of “Pergi Pagi Pulang Pagi” composed and written by Aslama Nanda Rizal and performed by Armada Band. Research results are: students receive knowledge and skill about the creativity of drum set music into drum band music and perform it on the stage. This kind of learning can give special additional values in the field of art creativity. And finally, music education is able to have important role in facing social problematic at school such as: participating in school farewell party and the competition of music creativity among schools. Key words: Drum set music, drum band, creativity, and learning


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A. Introduction The progress of music learning activity especially drum band music in SMAN 3 Padangpanjang, West Sumatra has run successfully and happily. It can be seen from the participation of this high school on parade or 17 August events in Padangpanjang city. Drum band music is also used for participating in high school competition and having good achievement. This learning of drum band music learning is greatly enthused by students and fully supported by school party that can be seen from the availability of adequate facility of drum band music. Although the activity of drum band music playing in SMAN 3 Padangpanjang has run well and happily, there are still several lacks such as complying other schools’ invitation in the field of music creativity and filling in school farewell party with music performance. According to music teacher in that school, whenever school farewell party has music event, school party brings in teacher from outside of this school and rents drum set equipment from the nearest music studio. Meanwhile, school party is not able to buy this equipment because of fund limitation. Therefore, drum set music activity on the farewell party of SMAN 3 Padangpanjang is only active when it’s time for it to be performed. Besides, school is not able to complying other schools’ invitation of their music creativity activities (Titin, interview with music teacher of SMAN 3 Padangpanjang on 18 December 2015). On the other hand, teachers and students do not have ability to create something new from music at hand to solve their problems and they cannot utilize music that’s already available in that school. Hence it needs research that produces new ideas with creative ways from music at hand. According to Getallt in Mackler & Sontz (1970), it can be done holistically through insight process toward environment. Djojonegoro also said that creative is redefinition. Redefinition is problem reviewing ability based on perspectives that are different from what people have been known previously (1994: 7). That creativity has new, unique, useful, right, or valuable characteristics seen from certain needs and more heuristic characteristic namely performing method that’s never or rarely performed by other people (Amabile, 1989: 33). Therefore, to work creatively means that something new needs to be added to the previous work or different object needs to be created. Agus Sachari said that through creative power/ability, human is able to do restructuration and evolution in his/her culture (2002: 150). Based on researched phenomenon and experts’ arguments above, it’s important to make innovation toward music that’s available in SMAN 3 Padangpanjang such as drum band music, so this music instrument can be utilized and used for certain needs. Learning system applied is transferring the rhythm pattern of drum set music into drum band music. This system gives good solution for problem that arises whenever school farewell party and need of music creativity exist. This kind of learning is motivated from the history of drum set first appearance in 1800s in United States of America. At that time, there were many music ensembles that used marching band and military bands. Each of these bands had two or more person who played snare drum, bass drum, and cymbal. These bands usually performed and played at stage in every city. Besides playing in the outside, these bands also played in a room for social events, entertaining people, and picnic. When there was request to perform and play in a limited room and it’s not possible to play a lot of instruments; it’s need other way to overcome this difficulty so that drum band elements can be played on the stage. Finally, they set drum band in order to be played as drum set and it’s arranged on the stage in order to be played by one person. In accordance with the development of era, drum band can be performed and played by single person and it’s called as drum set instrument (Burns, 2004: 20).


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B. Discussion Learning system applied in SMAN 3 Padangpanjang is very useful to be applied in music related event such as school farewell party, high school music competition, and etc and to be used for the need of music creativity. Music instruments used are music instruments that are already available in this school because school is not able to buy new ones. Besides, teachers and students do not have ability to create something new in music area and they cannot utilize available music to solve their problem. Therefore, it is important to create new learning system in music area, namely by transferring the rhythm pattern of drum set music into drum band music. And this transfer is an experiment. To understand this learning system, there are several things that need to be understood first related to this learning system. 1. Definition of Drum Band Music Music is a kind of art that uses tones produced into a creation or music piece such as rhythm, melody, and harmony supported by nature, idea and color of music like drum band. Drum band is music performance done while walking. The form of compactness in the playing of drum band includes several percussion instruments that play rhythm pattern such as snare drum, tenor drum (small tom-tom), tritom, bass drum, and cymbal (https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orkes_barisan). Besides those instruments, the performance of drum band music also has supporting music that plays melody such as lyre and pianika. In drum band, one instrument is played by one person. Therefore drum band music is also called as field music and this can be seen in the following picture (see picture 1).

Picture 1. Drum Band Music The performance of drum band music usually has one until three field commanders and it’s performed in the open area or close area. Drum band players make formation with changeable patterns that are in accordance with the choreography plot of song played and they are accompanied by dance performed by a number of flag players. Drum band players usually 41

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wear same costume, except for the majorettes and flag players. However, there is drum band group that the majorettes and flag players’ costumes are the same with drum band players’ costumes. It depends on this group ability (whether the group can afford it or not). 2. Definition of Drum Set Music Drum set is the group of percussion instruments that consists of stretched membrane and these instruments are hit by hand or a rod called as stick (Denny AJD, 2004: 7). The equipment of drum set music consists of snare drum, small tom-tom (tenor drum), lart tom-tom, bass drum, cymbal, and hi-hat. The equipment of drum set music can be seen in the next picture (see picture 2). Cymbal Smal Tom-tom Hi-hat

Lart Tom-tom

Snare Drum

Bass Drum

Picture 2. Equipment of Drum Set Music Each of this drum set music equipment has its own function and use in every group within. Drum set music is played by one person who plays various kinds of instruments and various patterns of rhythm according to the needs. Drum set music is used for accompanying melody instruments and song sung by human voice. 3. Learning of Drum Set Music into Drum Band Music Playing The use of drum set music and drum band music are different. Drum set is often used as song accompaniment of band group and tempo keeper in music playing, while drum band is often used as field music to participate or fill in the events of parade, carnival, and ceremony. There are several learning stages applied to transfer drum set rhythm in drum band music playing namely: a. Design of Music Learning Music learning needs to be designed in order to make the activity of music learning can run smoothly namely various steps done as anticipation in learning activity in order to achieve desired objectives. Learning design of drum set music into drum band music playing is used as the solution of problem existed in SMAN 3 Padangpanjang. Therefore, the learning material of trained music instruments must be adjusted to the needs of this school. Besides, other designs are needed, so that the learning can run successfully. Other designs are: 1.

The Determination of Learning Material The determination of material must be adjusted to its use namely participating in school farewell party and music creativity. Song chosen is song liked by students in that school namely “Pergi Pagi Pulang Pagi” written and composed by Aslama Nanda Rizal 42

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and performed by Armada band. This song is arranged, and then several rhythm patterns of drum set are prepared as its accompaniment rhythm.

2. The Selection of Time and Place Time chosen for this learning is extracurricular time that is 14.30 (West Indonesia Time) after the completion of co-curricular activity in the morning. The objective of this time selection is in order not to disturb co-curricular activity. While school hall is chosen as the place of training session because it’s wide and activity free. 3. The Selection of Students as The Supporter of Learning Activity Students are chosen in order to assist learning. Students chosen as the supporter of this learning are those who are obedient and able to play music instrument and also have talent, high musicality, volition, and time to practice; 4. The Selection of Music Instrument and Vocal Music instruments used as the proponent of learning material are music instruments that are available in SMAN 3 Padangpanjang namely drum band music. This music is appropriate for drum set music activity because does not have budget to buy new music instruments. Besides that, instrument selection is done because not all of drum band music instruments can be used for playing the rhythm pattern of drum set music. This is adjusted to the need or arranged song. The instruments of drum band music chosen are instruments that have good sound colors. The instruments are non melodious instruments such as snare drum, tenor drum, bass drum, tritom, and cymbal. While melodious percussions are lyre, pianika, and vocal. 5. The Selection of Rhythm Pattern The learning of special rhythm pattern for percussion section uses Latin rhythms as the accompaniment of song material and these rhythms are played on certain parts namely the parts of intro, song, and bridge. Rhythms used are cha-cha rhythm and bossanova rhythm. Besides those two rhythms, dangdut rhythm is used in the part of song chorus. The following examples are the examples of drum set rhythm played on drum band music playing.

a. Rhythm of Cha Cha

Cymbal Snare Drum


Snare Drum

Bass Drum

Notation 1. Rhythm of Cha Cha Rhythm of cha cha drum set for the playing of drum band can be seen at the piece of song melody arranged below.


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Tenor Drum


Snare Drum

Bass Drum


Notation 2. Rhythm of Cha Cha on The Playing of Drum Band b. Rhythm of Bossanova

Notation 3. Rhythm of Bossanova Rhythm of Bossanova drum set for the playing of drum band can be seen at the piece of song melody arranged below. Tenor Drum


Snare Drum

Bass Drum


Notation 4. Rhythm of Bossanova on The Playing of Drum Band c. Rhythm of Dangdut

Notation 5. Rhythm of Dangdut Rhythm of Dangdut drum set for the playing of drum band can be seen at the piece of song melody arranged below.


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Tenor Drum


Snare Drum

Bass Drum


Notation 6. Rhythm of Dangdut on The Playing of Drum Band B. Learning Creativity of Drum Set Music into Drum Band Music Playing Creativity is someone’s ability to produce something new, whether it’s in the form of ideas or concrete works that are relatively different from previous works (Dedi Supriadi, 1994: 7). Therefore, basic principle of creativity is similar to innovation namely giving additional value to a product in order to stimulate the appearance of new products that are better than previous ones (Nooryan Bahari, 2008: 23). This creativity is closely related to personal style because the process of creation of art work is the fusion of internal and external factors (ibid, 24). Therefore the learning of drum set music for drum band music playing is a creativity of music area namely transferring the pattern of drum set music into drum band music playing and it is related to personal style. In this learning, researcher gives the arrangement material of song “Pergi Pagi Pulang Pagi” performed and published by Armada Band. This arrangement can be seen at the piece of full score below.

Notation 7. The Melody Piece of Armada Song Arrangement of Pergi Pagi Pulang Pagi In the implementation of this learning, percussion section is divided into 2 big parts namely non melodious percussion (music instrument that uses rhythmic element) and melodious percussion (music instrument that has melodious element). Melody is a series of up and down notation arranged orderly and beautifully so it becomes a song (Hendro, 2004: 3). The separation of this percussion section is based on rhythm and melody that will be played.


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1. Non Melodious Percussion a. Snare Drum In this learning, in drum band music playing, snare drum is played on the parts of intro, song, bridge, chorus, and coda as seen in the below.

Notation 8. Rhythm Pattern of Snare Drum of Intro Part in Drum Band Playing

Notation 9. Rhythm Pattern of Snare Drum of Song Part in Drum Band Playing

Notation 10. Rhythm pattern of Snare Drum of Bridge Part in Drum Band Playing

Notation 11. Rhythm Pattern of Snare Drum of Chorus Part in Drum Band Playing

Notation 12. Rhythm Pattern of Snare Drum of Coda Part in Drum Band Playing b. Tenor Drum In this learning, in drum band music playing, tenor drum is played on the parts of intro, chorus and coda as seen in the below.

Notation 13. Rhythm Pattern of Tenor Drum of Intro Part in Drum Band Playing In the bridge part, tenor drum is in the state of intermission, while in the chorus part, tenor drum plays again as seen in the below.

Notation 14. Rhythm Pattern of Tenor Drum of Chorus Part in Drum Band Playing 46

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Notation 15. Rhythm Pattern of Tenor Drum of Coda Part in Drum Band Playing c. Bass Drum In this learning, in drum band music playing, bass drum is played on the parts of intro, song, bridge, chorus and coda as seen in the below.

Notation 16. Rhythm Pattern of Bass Drum of Intro Part in Drum Band Playing

Notation 17. Rhythm Pattern of Bass Drum of Song Part in Drum Band Playing

Notation 18. Rhythm Pattern of Bass Drum of Bridge Part in Drum Band Playing

Notation 19. Rhythm Pattern of Bass Drum of Chorus Part in Drum Band Playing

Notation 20. Rhythm Pattern of Bass Drum of Coda Part in Drum Band Playing d. Tritom In this learning, in drum band music playing, tritom is played on the parts of fill in 1, fill in 2, and coda as seen in the below.

Notation 21. The form of Tritom Rhythm Pattern in Fill in 1 Part in Drum Band Playing

Notation 22. Rhythm Pattern of Tritom of Fill in 2 Part in Drum Band Playing 47

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Notation 23. Rhythm Pattern of Tritom of Coda Part in Drum Band Playing e. Cymbal In this learning, in drum band music playing, cymbal is played on the parts of intro, song, bridge, chorus, and coda as seen in the below.

Notation 24. Rhythm Pattern of Cymbal of Intro Part in Drum Band Playing

Notation 25. Rhythm Pattern of cymbal of Song Part in Drum Band Playing

Notation 26. Rhythm Pattern of Cymbal of Bridge Part in Drum Band Playing

Notation 27. Rhythm Pattern of Cymbal of Chorus Part in Drum Band Playing

Notation 28. Rhythm Pattern of Cymbal of Coda Part in Drum Band Playing 2. Melodious Percussion a. Lyre Lyre melody, in this learning, in drum band music playing, is played on the parts of intro, song, bridge, chorus, and coda as seen in the below.

Notation 32. Rhythm Pattern of Lyre of Intro Part in the Song of Pergi Pagi Pulang Pagi

Notation 33. 48

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Rhythm Pattern of Lyre of Song Part in the Song of Pergi Pagi Pulang Pagi

Notation 34. Rhythm Pattern of Lyre of Bridge Part in the Song of Pergi Pagi Pulang Pagi

Notation 35. Rhythm Pattern of Lyre of Chorus Part in the Song of Pergi Pagi Pulang Pagi

Notation 36. Rhythm Pattern of Lyre of Coda Part in the Song of Pergi Pagi Pulang Pagi b. Pianika and Vocal 1) Pianika Pianika melody, in this learning, in drum band music playing, is played on the parts of intro, song, bridge, chorus, and coda as seen in the below.

Notation 37. Melodious Pattern of Pianika of Intro Part in the Song of Pergi Pagi Pulang Pagi

Notation 38. Melodious Pattern of Pianika of Song Part in the Song of Pergi Pagi Pulang Pagi

Notation 39. Melodious Pattern of Pianika of Bridge Part in the Song of Pergi Pagi Pulang Pagi

Notation 40. Melodious Pattern of Pianika of Chorus Part in the Song of Pergi Pagi Pulang Pagi


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Notation 41. Melodious Pattern of Pianika of Coda Part in the Song of Pergi Pagi Pulang Pagi 2). Vocal

Vocal melody, in this learning, in drum band music playing, is played on the parts of song, bridge, chorus, and coda as seen in the below.

Notation 42. Melodious Pattern of Vocal of Song Part in the Song of Pergi Pagi Pulang Pagi

Notation 43. Melodious Pattern of Vocal of Bridge Part in the Song of Pergi Pagi Pulang Pagi

Notation 44. Melodious Pattern of Vocal of Chorus Part in the Song of Pergi Pagi Pulang Pagi

Notation 45. Melodious Pattern of Vocal of Coda Part in the Song of Pergi Pagi Pulang Pagi In the learning process of drum set music into drum band music, there are several stages conducted in learning strategy. Learning strategy is an activity of learning that must be conducted by teachers and students so the objectives of learning can be achieved effectively and efficiently (Warsita, 2000: 126). These stages are conducted in the practice. Practice is a media for improving artistic ability in the form of repertoire enrichment, skills, and creativities that finally produce work of art (Pande Mande Sukerta. 2009:105). Proposed practices in this research are: 1. Stage one, rhythm pattern of drum set is transferred into the format of drum band and the giving of direct tempo at practice time. 2. Stage two, the practices of melodious instruments and arranged song melody are conducted. 3. Stage three, the fusion of all instruments whether it’s non melodious instrument or melodious one. 4. Stage four, the fusion of all instruments namely non melodious instruments, melodious instruments, and vocal. 5. Stage five, the performance of drum band music that applies the rhythm pattern of drum set. The transfer of drum set rhythm pattern into drum band music playing is a creativity of music learning. This practice is categorized as an experiment that uses the fusion of drum band 50

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music and duo vocals by using the pattern of drum set. The use of vocal in the making of this drum band music aims at participating in school entertainment event (farewell party). The following picture is the picture of performance of drum band music that applies the rhythm pattern of drum set and is accompanied by duo vocals.

Picture 2. The Performance of Learning Creativity of Drum Set Music into Drum Band Music Playing C. Conclusion Learning of drum band creativity in SMAN 3 Padangpanjang is an experiment of drum set rhythm pattern transferred into the playing of drum band. This is useful for solving problems in this school particularly music related problem such as music event in farewell party and creativity in music area. The final results of this learning are: students of SMAN 3 Padangpanjang are able to do a real performance and students and students get knowledge about the benchmark of music performances such as for entertainment performance and creativity performance.


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Reference Amabile, T.M. 1983. The Social Psychology of Creativity. New York: Springer-Verlag. Denny AJD. 2004. Panduan Praktis Bermain Drum. Jakarta: Grasindo Djojonegoro, Wardiman. 1994. Kretifitas, Kebudayaan dan Perkembangan IPTEK. Bandung: Alfabet. Bahari, Nooryan. 2008. Kritik Seni. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar. Burns, Roy. 2004. Mau Jadi Drummer Profesional? Ini Panduannya, Jakarta: PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama. Hendro S.D. 2004. Cara Praktis Berinprovisasi. Jakarta: Puspa Swara. Sachari, Agus. 2002. Estetika. Bandung: ITB. Sukerta, Pande Mande. 2009. Gong Kepyar Buleleng, Perubahan dan Keberlanjutan Tradisi Gong Kepyar. PT. Program Pascasarjana Bekerjasama Dengan ISI Press Surakarta. Supriadi, Dedi. 1994. Kreativitas, Kebudayaan & Perkembangan Iptek. Bandung: Alfabeta. Warsita. 2000. Istrategi Pembelajaran Berorientasi Standar Proses Pendidikan. Jakarta: PT Gramedia. https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orkes_barisan


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THE STUDY OF SAFETY BACKPACKING IN PENANG THROUGH MOBILE APPLICATION Edzreen Syahira binti Jamil Faculty of Art and Design, Universiti Teknologi MARA(UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor Malaysia e-mail: [email protected] telephone: +6012 435 6931

Abstract The purpose of this paper is to innovate and persuade the mobile application for backpackers during travelling. Nowadays, interaction by mobile phone is a part of daily human behavior and activity, which involves speaking, listening, touching and performing other tasks, in order to communicate. At the present of time, most of the people have their easy access to the source of information. The aim of this research is to convince the backpackers to use the mobile app as a safety platform and guide them to prevent and minimize unexpected accidents and medical emergencies especially for those who plan to travel in Penang. By taking advantage on the advancement of technology, an application was invented to meet peoples’ requirement whereby they can have all the information through one click away. In the same time, it can help to solve a backpacker’s problem in term of finding accommodation, searching for places to eat and even to share photos and moments on social media, however, there are backpackers who have concerns about their personal safety. For this study, the researcher chose to use the qualitative and quantitative method in order to achieve the research objective. The proposed research method is first to collect data and information on the level of safety for backpack travelling followed by the content based on safety related issues and guidelines that will be used and implemented into the mobile app. With this study, the researcher hopes this study will motivate the society, especially for those who want to start their backpacking journey mentally and physically prepared. Keywords: Mobile Application; Technology; Backpacking; Facility; Safety


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INTRODUCTION At present time, most people have easy access to source for information. By taking advantage on the advancement of technology, an application was invented to meet peoples’ requirement whereby they can have all the information from just one click away. Based on May (2005), mobile software is designed to run on handheld computers, personal digital assistant (PDAs), enterprise digital assistant (EDAs), smartphones and cellphones. Since the first handheld computer from the 1980s, the popularity of these platforms has risen considerably. Many cellphone models of the late 2000s include the ability to run user-installed software. While technology has helped solve a backpacker’s problem in terms of finding accommodation, searching for places to eat and even to share photos and moments on social media, however, there are backpackers who have concerns about their personal safety. In this writing, the researcher focuses on the problems that occur when backpackers go travelling, especially for those who love travelling to remote islands. The first problem is on health issues that probably happen due to climate change, where some people are susceptible to fever or cold flu outbreaks due to weak antibodies. Another problem pertaining to that is when backpackers have asthma, migraines or other permanent illnesses; in general, it is recommended if backpackers carry a basic first-aid kit for use in cases of emergencies. Backpackers should avoid going to locations with harsh weathers if they do not like dealing with unexpected issues in an area they are unfamiliar with. Based on Rodgers (2002), she has stated an advice to backpackers who want to plan their travel agenda: “The best way to stay safe in a foreign country is to find out as much as you can before travelling. You are less likely to become a target of crime if you understand the local culture and don’t draw attention to yourself.” Strategic locations that are close to the city center and equally close to public transport stations are the ideal criteria for most backpackers. Emergency location points such as police stations, hospitals, clinics and pharmacies should be easy to find in the event of an injury, robbery or even shortage of medical supplies. In these problem identifications, the researcher focuses on using mobile apps that can help make the journey for backpackers become smoother. Now that people can use smartphones during takeoff and landing, there is no other opportune time like the present to utilize their devices into becoming their own personal travel assistant. 1.1 1.2

THE STATISTIC OF TOTAL BACKPACKERS What are most challenges of being backpackers?

Regarding the chart below, it shows that 64% are the most challenges of being a backpacker is dealing with unexpected. 24% of respondent facing living on a strict budget and 4% of them are being separated from close friends and family. Other than that, 8% have stated that difficulty to communicate with the local people who cannot speak English. Finding a good food, and friend’s punctuality makes the backpacking tour distracted.


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Being separated from close friends and family Dealing with unexpected Living on a strict budget Other Chart 1: Challenges of being backpackers (%)


RESEARCH BACKGROUND Many travel apps, while excellent in principle, are too complicated, wonky or simply not practical enough to earn a spot on your smartphone home screen. Some, however, can make travelling easier. The researcher has met the executive creative director of MotioFixo Sdn. Bhd, Mr. Fariz Hanapiah, who has stated that it is a relevant idea to create a mobile app for backpackers. He added: “I really need an apps for guide me when I’m travelling. I have downloaded a few apps for search a place, an accommodation; communicate with dealer and other important things. I like something that manageable content to make me easy to use them.” Mobile phone interaction is nowadays part of daily human behavior and activity, which involves speaking, listening, touching and performing other tasks, in order to communicate. A good interface on a mobile app is proven when consumers interact with the page with ease. This is related to, “One of the main goals of a mobile phone interface is to relate phone functions and operations to elements of interaction that are performed well” (Banga, 2014). According to the writings of “Essential Mobile Interaction Design” e-book, Weinhold (2014), a great visual design is a very important component of interaction design; if a designer cannot fully represent how to interact with apps via simple text, iconography, and interactive features users would not be able to understand the software, and in turn, the app would not see much success. Chosen as the No.2 must-visit destination for 2009 by The New York Times readers, Penang also known as one of the heritage city was actually long regarded as the food capital of Malaysia. These are reflected with Penang induces visitors with its stunning coasts and mouthwatering cuisines. The most unique thing is where Penang include tradition and modernity while retaining its old world charm through its harmonious multiracial populace and well-preserved heritage buildings, which led to George Town being accorded a listing as a UNESCO World Cultural Heritage Sit. 55

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AIM AND OBJECTIVES This research aims to convince backpackers to use the mobile application as a safety platform to guide them to prevent and minimize unexpected accidents and medical emergencies especially for those who plan to travel to Malaysia’s islands. Therefore, there are the main objectives as below: a) To identify the potential problems that they need to overcome when backpackers travel to islands in Malaysia. b) To educate backpackers about the importance of protecting themselves from unexpected incidents during traveling. c) To source for information on safety issues, preventions and guidelines deemed necessary towards building an effective interface for mobile apps. 4.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS From the specified research objectives, the researcher has identified the research questions, which are: a) b)

How does a mobile app help backpackers stay safe whilst travelling on the islands in Malaysia? What elements and formatting are included for the interface design on a backpacker’s mobile app?


METHODOLOGY The proposed research method is firstly to collect data and information on the level of safety for backpack travelling followed by the content based on safety related issues and guidelines that will be used and implemented into the mobile app. Information is used to discover problems and guidance for backpackers. Other than that, it would help to create a structured process to designing mobile apps. According to Rodgers (2002), by reading a book, people will gain-self confidence and knowledge that they can share with friends and family. Then many people can make the world a safer place in which to live. Besides being on the island, the researcher will also contact some backpackers who had been backpacking before by utilizing the social network on Facebook. This tool proves to be very well structured in connecting people. 5.1 Qualitative Research: Interviews A Conduction of several interviews with the Admin of Malaysia Backpacker Club, Nazri Arshad and Fariz Hanapiah, the Executive Creative Director of MotioFixo Sdn Bhd. This is to respectively get an idea on the backpacking expedition experience and opinion regarding the interface design insights on mobile apps. The researcher will find more respondents to gain the theory of this study. 5.2 Qualitative Research: Observations A visual observation is to be held at Penang, Malaysia as well as self-observation with other backpackers to get the travel experience to be recorded that will help in producing good data collection. 5.3 Qualitative Research: Survey of Respondent This survey method usually comes in the form of distributing questionnaires to the subject of study for data collection. The researcher will use the website as a part of the online survey and the printed copy to get the result statistics. 56

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Research Diagram Sample is selected from the population

Baseline data are collected

Subjects are randomized

Experimental group

Control group

Post-test data are collected

Post-test data are collected

Diagram 1: Research diagram process by Malins, J. and Gray, C.


Prototype Development Analysis




Diagram 2: Mobile application prototype developments flow


DELIMITATION A backpacker should come prepared for any situation. Keep up-to-date with the latest technologies and current issues. When travelling abroad, do research, and never assume that what is legal at home will be legal elsewhere. The scope of this study is focused on the development of a one-stop mobile application, which provides the guidance and tools a backpacker needs to have a manageable and safe travel experience.


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The research outcome will encourage backpackers to download and use the mobile app when they are travelling to give them an added advantage towards understanding their destination so that they are well prepared. The backpacking mobile app can be one of the Malaysian applications that offer an allin-one source of information, an integrated travel plan and potentially valuable new travel experiences. New media companies could gain more on this study on the effectiveness of an interface design on a mobile app by incorporating an acceptable approach in visual research.






This study will motivate the society, especially for those who want to start their backpacking journey mentally and physically prepared. Malaysia will remain as a favorite holiday destination; especially chosen by backpackers who are looking for serenity in our beautiful islands, at the same time feeling reassured for their safety. Certain organizations, for example the government & tourism organized community groups will also offer support and encouragement for backpackers to have a happier and healthier lifestyle, so that they can fully enjoy their stay here in Malaysia.




VISUAL ANALYSIS For this mobile application, the researcher has chosen one of the famous travel apps, which is Airbnb.

Figure 1: Airbnb mobile apps 58

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Design: Image of view that can attract users to view the contents of this mobile application.


Icon: The icon that been used look attractive and seems to be a difference between icon and background before users login their account.


Image: Image of woman showing a happy expression. It represents the pleasure of using mobile application when travel.


Typography: The use of simple typography makes this application looks neat and manageable.


Color: Limitations on the use of color in illustrations are easier for users to understand the section of the content. There are no unattractive colors.


CONCLUSION As a conclusion, Malaysian needs to create and produce mobile apps that can attract backpackers to download and have benefits for them. With modern technologies nowadays, it is one of the best solution for backpackers for them to find sources of information for travel related planning and discovery. For advance research is to develop functionality in a mobile app with the additional of new features and enhancement of interface design, which manage new interactive service that needed to attract consumers to download and they can have this all in one app directly in their hand. Furthermore, the purpose of this study is to educate backpacker about the importance of their safety against unfortunate event and so that they prepare themself and at the same time it can help them facilitate while backpacking in Malaysia.


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Rodgers, J. (2002). Safe At All Times. London: Carroll & Brown Publishers Limited. Malins, J. & Gray, C. (1992). Appropriate Research Methodologies for Artists, Designers & Craftspersons: Research as a Learning Process. Weinhold, J. & Banga, C. (2014). Perfecting Interface Design in Mobile Apps: Essential Mobile Interaction Design. United States: Pearson Education, Inc. Nazri Arshad (2014). Interview Session With Admin of Malaysia Backpacker Club. Facebook: Malaysia Backpacker Club Fan Page. Fariz Hanafiah (2014). Interview Session With Executive Creative Director of MotioFixo Sdn Bhd. Kuala Lumpur Motiofixo SDN BHD. Backpacking Matt: 7 Challenges of Being a Backpackers. Retrieved from June 17, 2010 from http://www.backpackingmatt.com/7-tips-for-successful-long-term-travel/ Sarfati, P. and Martinez, A. Bamba Experience: Backpacking in Malaysia. Retrieved 2005 from http://www.bambaexperience.com/-c137i0.html# Mashable: Mobile Apps. Retrieved http://mashable.com/category/mobile-apps/





Aldridge: 12 Tips For Backpacking Through Europe. Retrieved from February 16, 2015 from http://www.roughguides.com/article/backpacking-through-europe/


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PROMOTING CHARACTER AND A FILM IN CINEMA BY USING HOLOGRAM AS A MEDIUM Muhamad Nur Hafriz Azizee bin Abdul Halim, Mohd. Fadhil bin Kamarudin, Adzrool Idzwan Hj. Ismail, Faculty of Arts & Design, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia Abstract Hologram is a 3D image that created from the diffracted light. That hologram is a medium that projecting what visual that has been created. The images change according to the position and orientation of the system changes the view in the same way as when the object was still there, so the recorded image will appear three-dimensional (3D) commonly called the hologram. Today we can see posters placed in cinemas have become a common. This research purpose is to make some changes in a cinema to attract film lovers in Malaysia. This research is about to use a new medium as promoting a film character, to save the use of space in cinema to save the cost of printing and to propose the new way as a medium to attract film lovers in Malaysia which is hologram medium. A questionnaire and interviews were used to collect data about the important of using hologram medium in cinema to promoting a film and character as well. The preliminary results of the research show that film lover from every genre of film have different level of knowledge about the hologram but majority of them love to explore about the aesthetic of hologram in film promotions. The conclusion can also be drawn that film lover among Malaysian to be attract to a new entertainment ideology or medium that can entertain them in the cinema. Following an in-depth multi-dimensional analysis of preliminary research results, some recommendations for writing instruction will also be presented. Keywords: hologram, 3D image, film promotion, cinema


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I. INTRODUCTION The research is aimed to explore the use of hologram medium as an advertising tool on promoting film and introducing film character. By understanding the use of hologram in promoting or advertise a film and character as well will going to increase the level of attraction in cinema. This medium also can be use as a promoting tools in advertise product or anything for commercial purposes. As an additional part of this research, a few selected ways of making hologram tips and tricks are put up to the test and being explored. The usability of these techniques will be discussed and verified through this research. This research was conducted to make some changes in a cinema to attract film lovers in Malaysia. This research will help film makers to promote their film in cinema by using hologram as medium.This research also help promoting character in a film in cinema as well. The objective of this research is to use a new medium as introduction of film character. This research also focusing on to save the use of space in cinema and also save the cost of printing. This research also to propose the new way as a medium to attract film lovers in Malaysia as well. II. LITERATURE REVIEW A. The rise of the Malaysia industry today have been increasingly moving towards Vision 2020. More and more new objects that have been created by certain parties and more people are venturing into fields of art. However, such efforts should be channeled to effective methods so that the target audience can accept and interested in what they want to be served by individual narrators. Moreover, people are begin to tire of the same media often served to them. With all these factor being a big opportunity, this research on “Introducing Character In A Film By Using Hologram As A Medium” is most relevant. Firstly, this study will look at whether the public that moviegoers are interested or not with the use of hologram as a medium to promote a film and also to introduces a film character with this different medium and way. Secondly, it is important to know that this is a very effective way as with the hologram on the entrance cinema will help promotion to be more effective. Thirdly, with the use of this hologram as a medium to long-term cost savings. The cinema no longer need to spend money to print. With the use of this hologram as a medium to long-term cost savings, the cinema just need a soft copy for transmitting and promoting a new film through holographic media. Fourthly, through this study holography are capable to attracting moviegoers to come and see the advertising through the holography medium. There are many strength in advertising by using hologram as a medium. Moviegoers will feel more appreciated and feel more recognizing the character before go to watch the movie by themselves. B. Holography is a technique that allows the light scattered from and object that was recorded and later reconstructed so that the object as if it were in the same relative position to the recording media recorded. The images change according to the position and orientation of the system changes the view in the same way as when the object was still there, so the recorded image will appear three-dimensional (3D) commonly called the hologram. Recording technology uses a three-dimensional image of pure light (such as laser) (Dorling, K, 1997, pp. 56) There are a lot of ways to advertise a product, no matter with physically or digital medias. It has been for centuries, advertising has become a major way for businesses to promote and sell their products. The whole concept of advertising has changed in the last 3-4 decades, it has 62

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become a most vital force that forms & changes opinions of millions (Kaptan, 2002). Advertising using hologram is not widely used until recently. Hologram such as Luna 180, Luna 180 XL, Aurora 360, Aurora 360 XXL, One Cube and Trasparente has made it possible to use hologram as a medium to promote and advertise product or non-product. These services are used to impress guests with these ideal for holographic systems exhibitions, conferences, events and product presentations. This is also an innovative way to give message and interact with client. III. METHODOLOGY The main idea is to collect as much information as possible. This information will be used as a catalyst of ideas that can help to identify, a better understand and also to resolve the lack of attractiveness in the cinema as well. This is also to solve these problems more effectively and give an impact towards the country. Qualitative methods base on observation of focus group [24](Barrios et al.,2008), or using in depth interviews, which have exploratory nature. They generate oral descriptive, non-numerical information, and are usually used with smaller population groups. This study will use the interview sessions to get the right information as the primary data. The interview session will also be made to the parties concerned. Observations on this issue will be continued to identify problems and issues contained in the case. IV. SUMMARY This research is a new studies that will improve promoting techniques. This research also made the promoting style more attractive. Even though this research is still new and hard to find a references but this research manage to find a similarity that related to this topic. As hologram it self will bring more changes in our industry. There is a lot of cinema that need this style of promoting in type of advertising.


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REFERENCES Dorling, K, Cahaya Laser, Jendela IPTEK Cahaya ,1997; 56. Gerson, R. F. (1994). Marketing Strategies for Small Businesses: Thomson Crisp Learning. Kaptan, S. S. (2002), Advertising, New Concepts: Sarup & Sons. Mohamad, N. (2008). An Interview with the Director of Zoo Negara (Director: Zoo Negara ed.). Stafford, M.R, & Faber, R.J. (2005). Advertising, Promotion and New Media: M.E. Sharpe, Inc. Thomas J. Kuegler, J. (2000). Web Advertising and marketing: Make the Web Work for You! (3rd ed.): Prima Tech, Prima Publication.


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The Artist: The New Technique in Film Form Agustinus Dwi Nugroho Indonesian Institute Of Art Yogyakarta [email protected] Film Studies August 8, 2016

ABSTRAK The Artist is a film that uses the silent era techniques to visualize the film. This study sought to uncover what the motivation behind the use of techniques to the silent era films with his observation of the text of both aspects of the narrative as well as aspects of the technique. The findings of the observation process could be the basis of analysis. The Artist makes this silent era technology into a cinematic technique to visualize the film. This has become a strong motivation and able to demonstrate the strength of the story as a whole that tells about the silent era transition process from the perspective of the player. The silent era techniques were used to make this technique as a force in the film. This study focuses on how the technique of the silent era emerged as a new technique in the world of film and brings new perspective in film studies. This new technique emerged because it was never used fully in the present. Keyword: Silent era, Narrative, Technique.

A. INTRODUCTION. The Artist movie is a phenomenon in the film industry. The Artist released in 2011. The film uses a technique of classic Hollywood films in the silent era in visualizing this film. On the whole this technique has not been used before. The silent era classic Hollywood movie itself exists as a period of development of world cinema in 1908 until 1927. The period of the silent movie era when it is a manifestation of a period, which has not been able to find a sound technology. The Artist makes this silent era technology into a cinematic technique to visualize the film. The importance and novelty of this study lies in how to uncover the silent era technology that could be a movie cinematic techniques in the present era. As well as revealing about the motivation why the silent era technology was used as a cinematic technique in visualizing this film. The film is very different from mainstream films in general. The film gives a critical view of the international film industry that a good film and exciting technology can use silent era techniques, although silent film technology no longer exists. With the technique offered in the silent era, The Artist earned trophy oscar in the Academy Award event for Best Picture and other prestigious categories. The film offers a critical perspective on the world film industry anywhere to return attention to aspects of the content and techniques that are the essence of a film. 65

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The film became a phenomenon and a valuable lesson that we can use as a reference application era silent film techniques which can later become a force. This phenomenon brings a research question of the presence of new techniques to be studied and assessed in order to provide new insights into the world of film. This study sought to formulate this new technique into new knowledge to film studies. B. LITERATURE. The literature review serves to obtain an overview of the research that has been done with regards to the era of silent film techniques in journal articles. By searching for journal articles in the data base we will find out about the position of our study compared with studies that had been there before, to seek a theoretical emptiness. Here are the articles that I got at the base of the data.

The emergence of staining in silent movies at the beginning of cinema is discussed in the article The Temporalities of Intermediality: Colour in Cinema and the Arts of the 1920s written by Sarah Street and Joshua Yumibe. This becomes an interesting discussion because discourse staining manually films have been applied, although in a very simple form, by coloring the film (celluloid) with a uniform color and limited. Sarah Street and Joshua Yumibe say "From a technical perspective, a number of firms Began to specialize specifically in coloring films in the early 1900s". (Street and Joshua, 2013). Technical exploration firms bring movies in Hollywood at that time conducting experiments on the use of color in the film (celluloid). The discussion in the journal article about the typical technique silent era also discussed in the article Those Funny intertitles Subtitles: Silent Film Intertitles In Exhibition And Discourse. Katherine Nagels in his article saying, "Intertitles are a complex and understudied component of the film." (Nagels, 2013). Intertitles an important part in the film, especially in the silent era. Nagels added "This article investigates two aspects of intertitles: their role in exhibition practice in the 1900s, and the discourse around them during the silent era." (Nagels, 2013). The focus of the discussion of this article is to investigate how the use and presentation of intertitles in silent films and discussion on the intertitles during the silent era. Aspects of silent film techniques in reflected in how the acting of the players. Chaplin and Keaton is one of the silent film character has a distinctive character. Articles The Sound Of Silence, The Space Of Time: Monsieur Hulot, Comedy, And The naural-Visual Cinema Of Jacques Tati (An Essay And An Interview) written by Robert Cardullo describing Jacques Tati that resembles Chaplin and Keaton. He said, "Also like Chaplin and Keaton, Tati played Essentially the same character in each of his pictures. That character is inevitably a loner, an outsider, a charming fool Whose human incompetence is preferable to the Inhuman competence of the life around him ". (Cardullo, 2013). This article discusses the characterization of the acting player Tati which is a technique that has similarities with the acting player of the silent era films which Chaplin and Keaton. In addition 66

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to articles that discuss how visualization acting who resembles a silent era is the article also discusses about the actor's own Chaplin silent associated with key scene in the City Light. The article titled City Light: Five Scene. In this article discussed about the actor who face certain situations in locations that symbolize a particular story. Discussion of the silent era film maker became a topic in research on the silent era. Articles 'Turn Again, Tourneur': Maurice Tourneur between France and Hollywood demonstrated how the director Maurice Tourneur Silent Era discussed relation to the participation of his works in Hollywood before he moved to France, and the influence of Hollywood style he brought to France. People tend to forget as cinematographer silent era, Suchenski said that, "Although he was regarded by many of his contemporaries as the greatest visual stylists of the 1910s, Tourneur occupies an Increasingly marginalized position within the film history, barely figuring as more than a footnote in recent scholarship on silent cinema." (Suchenski, 2011). This study focuses on how the process of a silent filmmaker in the world of work and Problems in the Hollywood film industry. In this study also mentioned about the techniques he used to work in that era, which eventually inspired him to work later in France. From the overview article about a silent movie era findings article concept that became the focus of discussion can be concluded that the object of his research have a different focus but still within the same theme, namely about the silent era classic Hollywood. Discussion about staining techniques, the techniques of storytelling in intertitles, and acting techniques player whose character resembles the character actor silent era, the discussion of the key scenes in City Light movie case studies, as well as a discussion of the silent era filmmakers. Problems of articles that appeared not discussed how technology and techniques of the silent era into a cinematic technique in visualizing the movie in the present era. Discussion dwell on the techniques used in the movie itself and the silent era nostalgia to the times of the silent era both in the film and its characters. Emptiness theory lies in the lack of discussion on how technology is used as a silent movie technique in visualizing today. This is what will be the new knowledge if the film The Artist who uses the technique investigated using research methods to obtain formulas and concepts of knowledge about the concept of the silent era techniques.

C. METHOD 1. Method of Collecting Data. Method of collecting data conducted to examine The Artist is using observational techniques. The first step to do is to make observation instruments that contain aspects of the film is primarily associated with silent film techniques. The aspects in the film that became the object of observation is the aspect of content (narrative) divided into sequences and scenes and aspects of his own technique, covering the aspects of acting player with regard to mimic the expression of a silent movie, aspects of cinematography seen from the type of shot that is dominant in the film, aspects of editing transitions typical silent film, as well as their Intertitles who become 67

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guides the story is very typical of the silent movie era. Data retrieved by observing the film itself, by watching the film several times and the data collection is rotated slowly in a way to pause technique described in written form in the table will be an observation data. 2. Data Analysis Method. The raw data generated in the form of sampling collection narrative aspects and technical aspects that are ready to be analyzed. The steps to analyze is to do the coding. The purpose of coding is the process of data reduction. Not all of the data generated will be used for analysis, for it needs to be reduced. In the reduction process itself is also the process of analysis. Encoding itself has three phases, each of which has a process of analysis with different levels of depth of analysis. As for the encoding through the first stage is the stage of descriptive code, interpretive code, and subsequently generate the code pattern. Pattern code that is the basis for describing the findings in the discussion. D. RESULT AND DISCUSSION From the result of the encoding process has been done in the process of data analysis is produced findings that could answer the research question. Then the following discussion will describe the findings. The following is a discussion section that will explain how the consistent use of the technique in the silent era in The Artist. And more important to explain inconsistencies in the silent era techniques in several scenes. But that's where the real key that could explain the motivation of the use of techniques throughout the silent era films associated with aspects of the narrative. Then, in the third section will discuss the relationship of narrative and technical aspects of the silent era itself in The Artist. In the last two sub-chapter will discuss how the emergence of new techniques and applications in film form style. 1. The Consistency of the Silent Era Technique in The Artist. To demonstrate of the silent era technique we have to see how the use of techniques throughout the film packaging in both the visual and sound elements. From the technical aspect we can see a pattern of consistency to show the image aspect both technical and engineering techniques that show the silent era. The technical aspects throughout The Artist who uses black and white and the aspect ratio of 4: 3 is strongly associated with a new technology that silent era reached technologies black and white and fullscreen aspect ratio. From the aspect of visual technique appears there are some that are typical of the silent movie era that is acting players, type of shot, editing transitions, intertitles and sound techniques such as the use of music throughout the film. From the aspect of visual techniques such as expression of his players demonstrated consistency expression and gestures same with the players in the silent era. The actors and actresses such as dialogue through expressions mimic as exaggerated and with the motion of non-verbal body language. From the aspect of cinematoghrapy the type of shots taken also looks very dominant use of medium shot for example Medium Close Up (MCU), Medium Shot (MS), Medium Long Shot (MLS) and very rarely use the wide shot. It is associated with the era of silent films who at that time using a shot which tend medium. From the aspect of editing is consistently using editing techniques Fade transition style (round 68

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/ circle) either fade out (black circles are enlarged into the next scene) and fade in (the circle is reduced to a black screen). Wipe transition is also commonly worn with style clockwise. The use of techniques Fade or Wipe transition is associated with the technique of film editing transitions in silent era who also uses the technique of editing Fade and Wipe transition. Another typical thing is intertitles were also consistently used. Intertiles is guiding the story in the form of a black screen containing the text in the middle of the player are in dialogue. The contents of the text is a dialogue form of dialogue between the players. From the aspect of sound consistently in all the dominant movie without sound elements. In the silent film screenings at the time, the cinema screen playing a movie and immediately accompanied by the orchestra. In The Artist is as reconstruct the event by placing music throughout the film. Although in certain sequences and the scene will appear sound elements. This is what will be our next discussion. Although it is predominantly the film is said to be "silent" but there are in the some scene using sound. It was to indicate the specific motif in the narrative film.

2. "Sound" Sequences in the The Artist. Of the code pattern that has been done there is the most interesting findings clearly that although the techniques used in The Artist predominantly use the techniques of the silent movie era in visualizing the movie, but there are four scene and a sequence in the film that uses sound technique. Four of this scene is the scene of "Dream" in a sequence of four (The coming of sound), “the simulation dancing scene”, "filmed dancing George and Miller scene," and "cut scene" in the sequence of eleven (Dancing). The sequence that uses existing sound on sequences of seven: a montage sequence of Peppy Miller on the rise. Four scene using technique sound aspects. Sound techniques used there that use sound effects, songs and dialogue. In the "Dream" scene in a sequence of four (The coming of sound) using the technique of sound effects in using a scene like the sound of glass, the sound of the comb, the sound of atmospheric environment, a chair shifted and fell, the sound of a dog barking, the sound of the phone ringing, the beating of the feet, the sound of the opening the door, the sound of people laughing, and thump. In the "simulation dancing" scene the beating sound of dancing feet with the movement on the floor using the technique of sound effects. Similarly, in the scene "filmed dancing George and Miller" also uses pulse patterned legs. At the "cut" scene using sound technique with dialogue in the movie ending. We've heard the voices of George Valentin as the main actor in the ending. In a sequence of seven: A montage sequences of Peppy Miller rose leaves using techniques songs with shrill voice. Here's the explanation of each scene and sequences that have sound elements. a. "Dream" scene (sequences of four) In the "Dream" scene (the sequence of four) refers to the point in time where the sound technique appeared in 1929. We were taken from the viewpoint of George as a man who felt the presence of the silent era technologically sound and feel disturbed by the presence of these 69

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technologies, because he is a silent actor who is not accustomed to dialogue. It makes sense why all the films made with pictures and sound technique silent era. This is to show the atmosphere and the transition process in the silent era and follow what happens to the main character is George. b. Sequence 7 (montage sequences Peppy Miller Rising) In a sequence of seven serving with the song sequence "ride leaves Peppy Miller" using sound techniques that appear in the song. It appears likely to show how the development of the sound era in the period was marked by the appearance of the song. The song is sung by the "shrill" voice as the silent era reminiscent of the problematic transition that many actors / actresses who voiced shrill difficult to adjust or even no longer used during the sound era. c. Simulation Dancing Scene, Dancing Filming Scene and Cut Scene. (Sequence 11) At the end of the sequence of sounds again raised in the form of sound effects and dialogue (on sequences eleven: Dancing) visible from three scenenya namely simulation dancing scene, filming a dancing scene, and the cut scene. These sequences show the sound effects of dance shoes sound as a form of compromise actor to play the movie again. It shows George has received sound technology and willing to compromise with these technologies with the filming of the movie Sparkle of Love.

From these findings it is concluded that throughout the film is not entirely by voice. But here is a key point in the film answers about why the predominant use techniques silent era. From the findings of the scene and the sequence above, then associated with the context and scenesequences which uses sound technique. And consider the narrative structure is built, then we will know that sound techniques that are put in specific scene that has a particular motive. Motive associated with narrative or story associated with the actor (George) facing a transition process silent era. In principle, these findings seen from the pattern of sound technique used in a specific sequence and also pay attention to the silent era in technique throughout the film are also used. In the following sub-chapters will be explained about the relationship of narrative and technique in The Artist.

3. Relationship of Narrative and Cinematic technique in The Artist. Film form a union aspects and elements that build up a film. There are two important aspects in the film, namely the aspect of content and technique. Aspects of content are often called narrative and technical aspects are often called cinematic. In the book The film's introduction Art said that "In a narrative film techniques can function to advance the cause-effect chain, create parrallels, manipulate story-plot relations, or sustain the narration's flow of information" (Brodwell and Thompson, 2004: 175 ). The relation between the two aspects of the film was very close and mutually influential. The unity of the two films that form a style in the film. Aspects of forming the film that became the focus of a study to examine how the style of the silent era in all its aspects can be used as a technique in The Artist. 70

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In the context of narrative The Artist in essence, is to follow the main character (George Valentin) who is an actor Silent Era undergoing the process of transition in Hollywood from the era of silent to sound technology, then from the point of view that we can see that the technical aspects of silent is a cinematic techniques most appropriate to describe and visualize the story, which is entered in the world of George as the main character. Silent era techniques to visualize the life of the silent era actor who experienced the rise and fall up. From these findings we get a final conclusion or final findings could answer research questions, namely causality appears from technical aspects and aspects of the story in the film. His findings were silent era technical aspects used as a medium to visualize the film is due to reinforce the narrative aspect, which is directly related to the plot of the silent era at that time.







Silent technique is very effective to explain how the feel and atmosphere of the silent era, there were experienced by the audience. Thus these findings it can be visualized as follows:

Visualization of the above can be explained that the first ring is an aspect of the narrative and the second circle is a cinematic aspect. Both of these aspects indicate causality answer research questions about why The Artist using silent era. Narrative aspects affect the use or selection of proper technique to visualize the film. Judging from these findings it can be concluded that the analytical technique selected aspects in a film to visualize the film becomes important for strengthening the film. Aspects of the techniques used to visualize the film should have a strong motive associated with aspects of the narrative. Silent techniques in a style that can be used to visualize the film with highly precise and strong. Because of the techniques used is a representation of the story of the film. There are some films that the theme of the story about the silent era to the era of transition for example voice Sunset Boulevard but the cinematic approach used different characters with The Artist which directly uses cinematic techniques silent era itself. The Artist with a story theme silent era actors in the transition process and the sound era with a cinematic approach technique silent era shows that the theme of the film is directly related to techniques stlye. The film became extremely unique. Because the techniques used reflect the theme of the story that is being built.

4. Silent Era Techniques. Cinematic aspect in film studies very interesting discussion that produces theories unresolved discussed. Similarly, the discussion of cinematic techniques in silent films. In the world of film knowledge has been much discussed all aspects of the cinematic approach in silent movies such as research in scientific articles I have mentioned in the literature review. In accordance with 71

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the literature review and the results of the discussion of the previous section let us see the position of the findings regarding the silent era techniques are fully used in The Artist as compared to scientific articles that address what silent films in the past. Staining technique in the article The Temporalities of Intermediality: Colour in Cinema and the Arts of the 1920s discussing the coloring of the film in the 1900s into a discourse on the typical coloring techniques performed in silent movies. Street and Joshua in his article, "... D.W. Griffith, for example, describedhis tinting and toning of Intolerance (1916) as Carried out with the care of an'impressionist painter'in order to'suggest the mood of the scene ', rather than to dominate the story' ( 'Written on the Screen'1916). (Street and Joshua, 2013). Silent film identical to the color film was black and white, but with the development and innovation to do the coloring manually in the film in the early 1900s, making his film into a slightly different shades. Color techniques to work to build the atmosphere and tone of the movie. Staining in the film should be also the aesthetic aspect in times of silent era. In addition to color techniques in the silent movie era, intertitles technique has also become one of the studies are also interesting because this technique is a typical in the silent era. Intertitles into research on typical technique in silent films studied in depth to show how the technique of "dialogue" with the audience using text. In the article, titled Those Funny Subtitles: Silent Film Intertitles In Exhibition And Discourse Nagels quoting Nebesio said: "Similar to Expository intertitles, informational inserts served a key role, but were actually part of the diegesis: the textual element was integrated into the narrative as something being written, looked at, or received by a movie character ... (Nebesio 1996 694) "(Nagels, 2013). The role of the text that appears as a media narrative in the silent movie era to be the key to building a narrative film. In the present era intertitles text that appears the same as movie dialogue today. In addition to being a key role in a silent movie, the placement of the text in between scenes required separate consideration in order to provide information to the audience. Not all the dialogue scenes in the film will be intertitles. By relying on body language, the audience will understand what is being talked about. Discussion of the intertitles be associated with the interesting aspects of the film narrative. The Sound Of Silence, The Space Of Time: Monsieur Hulot, Comedy, And The naural-Visual Cinema Of Jacques Tati (An Essay And An Interview) written by Robert Cardullo discuss about the figure of Jacques Tati with his characters' distinctive and linked to silent era actor. Cardullo said: "Again like Chaplin and Keaton, Tati's Hulot Neither looks nor moves like anyone else in the universe. He leans forward at an oblique angle-battered hat atop his head, pipe thrusting from his mouth, umbrella dangling at his side, trouser cuffs hanging two inches above his shoes-an odd human construction of impossible angles, off-center and off-kilter . "(Cardullo, 2013) Jacques Tati into character compared to the silent era actors Charlie Chaplin and Buster Keaton because his character is almost like the two figures. Characterization of players acting in a silent film is important because without dialogue the body language that will speak. 72

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Acting players who rely on non-verbal language such as body language gestures and expressions as well as the expression of costumes and props used will tell you about the movie. Article entitled City Light: Five Scene also discussed relation to key scenes depicting the relationship scene by setting the location of a key symbolizing the story. In the article City Light: Five Scene is divided into five main scene is "Scene One: A city intersection, Scene Two: A city street, Scene Three: A city corner, Scene Four: Evening, a dark river embankment, Scene Five: A city street. (Miller, 2015). The scenes that is to be a portrait of how the scenes with interrelated key setting. Visualization in The Artist who used to see in black and white and the aspect ratio of 4: 3 and predominantly using techniques such as acting player who acted with body language and expressions exaggerated, and the techniques of cinematography which uses the type of shot that tend medium, the transition editing fade and wipe very distinctive associated with silent film, as well as the use of music in the whole film as reconstructing orkrestra played in the theater in time silent movie to exist, as well as the use of intertitles it can be concluded that The Artist as a whole using the techniques of the silent era in throughout the film, then the integrity of the techniques used can we call the "silent era cinematic technique". Thus let us position this research to study the articles above. Of the discussion on the articles of the above can be concluded that the discussion of these articles refer to a discussion of the techniques in the silent films of the era. The discussion of the techniques formulate theory about the techniques formulate used in the era of silent films in the 1900s. The uniqueness of the technique is used as study materials for researchers. Whereas if such research compared with research on "technique Silent Era" used in The Artist, the techniques of the era of silent discussed in the article only discusses the peculiarities only, while the discussion of The Artist discusses the integrity and unity of these techniques throughout the film eventually called the "silent era of cinematic technique". Discussion about The Artist becomes new as well as a discussion of the "silent era techniques" that could be a whole new cinematic techniques appear as emerging film The Artist. The use of "techniques silent era" into a new discussion because of the articles of the silent movie era film techniques discussed in the silent era itself and not the technique that is used in the films of today. This new technique in the perspective of knowledge is a new finding that could eventually become a force in producing a film. Not only as a reference for the production of a movie, this new cinematic techniques into a cinematic study of world knowledge in the realm of discussion of the film.

5. "Silent Era Techniques" and Style Application in film form. This silent technique can be a force that is used to visualize themed films either silent or other subjects that might be appropriate to use force techniques silent. Silent Era which is a form of technological achievements before the invention of sound into a new cinematic techniques used in The Artist. The style is very possible the silent era was applied again in a movie. Approaches aspects of picture and sound that no technique has become a reference for filmmakers to use 73

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this technique as a way to visualize the film. In the development of the history of film there are several cinema movement that occurs in many countries such as German Expressionism, Soviet Montage, French New Wave and others. Styles of films from the cinema movement into an approach for filmmakers today. Examples Tim Burton with his films often use cinematic approach of German Expressionism. Quentin Tarantino with the approach of the French New Wave. The approach of the present director be a force in making the film. If the technique of cinema movement in films that particular cinema movement will be applied to its own style. However, this is not the silent movie era cinema movement but the period by the achievements of technology at the time. The applicability of the technique in the era of silent film The Artist becomes the first milestone of the first of style with silent era technique that the future they can be used as a movie style. E.CONCLUSION In the research on The Artist who uses the silent era techniques Classical Hollywood, it was found that the existence of a causal link between the technical aspects and narrative aspects have a strong relationship, the main aspects of the silent era techniques which have very effectively visualize and strengthen aspects of the narrative. This has become a strong motivation and able to demonstrate the strength of the story as a whole that tells about the silent era transition process from the perspective of the player. This study focuses on how the technique of the silent era emerged as a new technique film studies.

F. REFERENCE. Bordwell, David dan Kristin Thompson. 2004. Film Art an Introduction. Seventh Edition. US: McGraw Hill. Cardullo, Robert. 2013. The Sound Of Silence, The Space Of Time: Monsieur Hulot, Comedy, And The Naural-Visual Cinema Of Jacques Tati (An Essay And An Interview).Contemporary French and Francophone Studies. Vol. 17, No. 3, 357–369. Miller, Andrew H. 2015. City Lights: Five Scenes.Raritan Summer. Vol. 35 Issue 1, p34-44. 11p. Nagels, Katherine.2012.Those Funny Subtitles: Silent Film Intertitles In Exhibition And Discourse.Early Popular Visual Culture. Vol. 10, No. 4, November 2012, 367–382. Streeta, Sarah and Joshua Yumibeb. 2013.The Temporalities of Intermediality: Colour in cinema and the arts of the 1920s.Early Popular Visual Culture. Vol. 11, No. 2, 140– 157. Suchenski, Richard.2011.‘Turn Again, Tourneur’: Maurice Tourneur Between France And Hollywood.Studies in French Cinema. Volume 11 Number 2.


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Making wayang along anthropology and art by Giulia Panfili [email protected] FCSH-Universidade Nova de Lisboa ISCTE-University Institute of Lisbon Centro em Rede de Investigação em Antropologia (CRIA) ISI Yogyakarta

Abstract Practices of art and anthropology are interlacing a dynamic dialog especially for the methodology of research, the process for awakening knowledge. Historically anthropology treated art in its various expressions as privileged field of study for being in a certain way caught up in social and cultural relations. Nowadays more and more the both practices share ways of thinking through making and making through thinking in processes of active going along, engagement with the surroundings and self-discovery. In researching how wayang kulit is being alive in Yogyakarta at the present on going time, art to be intended as creative doing and practical understanding became all in one object, subject and process of the research. Learning by making and performing wayang kulit as well as observing, sharing and discussing with people gives path to experience and question some issues about ways of knowledge and skill transmission; practices of growing between forces, materials and gestures; borders of completion of never-finished objects and practices; relations between practitioners, materials and surroundings; projections of imaginative design between local and global dynamics. Keywords: anthropology and art, making, wayang kulit, liveness


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Introduction In this paper I intend to explore the traces that the fieldwork research is leaving along its creative process. This fieldwork experience is part of a PhD research project that carries the working title “Making wayang in between. Performing cultures with rasa, komunitas, Nusantara and UNESCO”. Its utopian aim is to draw/portrait how wayang kulit practices are being alive - in the continuous tension between changing and permanence - at the contemporary on going time in Yogyakarta, and to which extent its practices are being shaped by 2003 UNESCO designation of Indonesian Wayang Puppet Theatre as Masterpiece of Humanity and by related Intangible Cultural Heritage discourses. Similarly Sarah Anaïs Andrieu studied for her doctoral degree the political anthropology of the Sundanese (West Java) wayang golek and its process of patrimonialization, questioning the present and contemporary appropriation of wayang golek (Andrieu 2009). As several scholars especially in the field of heritage studies widely demonstrated, heritage as well tradition is being made, invented. The heritage formation indeed is a dynamic field of social action with power relations, involving different actors at local, national and global levels (Smith 2006). In her doctoral dissertation Sadiah Boonstra also illustrates the dynamics of heritage formation such as standardization, codification and institutionalization from the colonial to the postcolonial era, at national and global levels, as well as the political dynamics at play on wayang (Boonstra 2014). It is to explore anyway how people engage with society, its politics and economy, so how people perform culture and address issues of inclusion and exclusion, in a kind of linkage between the past and the future. In another way and in this specific case, it is to disclose how in the life/alive experiences, multidimensional relations between puppets, people, stories and places make wayang alive. A concert of many voices, opinions, methods, subjects, perspectives and processes are being taken into account. For the sake of time and space in this paper I only try to express some resonances of my research. In that intention particularly enlightening has been the reading of Tim Ingold’s Making (2013) whose argument is that anthropology, archaeology, art and architecture are ways of thinking through making since making is a correspondence between maker and material. Said another way all four disciplines are linked by the practices of “knowing is movement”, an incessant correspondence with the world. It definitely helped to handle with the unavoidable and nevertheless not less unbearable fragmentations of experiences, reflections, sensations, actions and the mores of life, showing a possible way to correspond with it, proposing me one of the threads to pull for untangling the previously created and amassed skein. Art and anthropology interaction along history The relationship between anthropology and art is old. The early anthropologists for long time have investigated and collected together with private collectors and museums the artefacts of often small-scale non-western societies, represented in the western myth of the noble savage. Those far away ethnic groups’ objects were referred as primitive art, a controversial term that later was criticized for being based on ethnocentric criteria, therefore replaced by tribal, folk, ethnic and adjectives the more. This previous remoteness between the scholars and their “object of study” was then shortened at the end of the 19th century-beginning of the 20th by the new anthropologist – now an individual fieldwork researcher – which marked the modern phase of the discipline. The encounter with the other and its intensity opened up wider methodological and epistemological issues to discuss. Anthropology have revealed the plurality of cultures and strove to interpret other societies in its own terms and values, distancing evaluative judgements. In the analysis of other cultures’ works of art, an ethnographic approach seeking to relate them to their 76

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context of cultural meanings and values prevailed. In so doing, the same art definition criteria were challenged. During the second half of the 20th century the anthropology of art treated art in its various expressions as a privileged field of study for being in a certain way embedded into sociocultural relations and related processes of shaping identity, to be observed and interpreted (Gell 1998). It came that the works of art were mostly treated as finished objects, so analysed in a reverse attribution of meanings and intentions. Similar approach can be found in the fields of material and visual culture that mainly focused on the dynamics and interactions that create, use, make circulate and confer values to the objects and images (Appadurai 1986). Notwithstanding the creative, direct, practical and sensuous processes that give rise to art were not contemplated. In the wake of postmodernity and the “writing culture” critique in the 1980s reflexive or critical anthropology, however, new theoretical frames emerged. The ethnographer authority as well the observer neutrality was criticized for a new understanding of ethnography: no more a ready-made and neutral knowledge rather a creative process that is inescapably based on the experiences of the subject, therefore partial, being one perspective among potentially many (Clifford 1988). That is that the third-person writing was gradually replaced by the first-person. This new theoretical frames were not only auto-reflexive, anthropologist’s navel-oriented, it goes that in parallel anthropologists redesign the position and approach with the object of study, if of the object of study it is still possible to talk. The growing and renewed attention paid to the subjective dimension in the engagement with the surroundings paved the way for a kind of reawaken of senses as is reflected in the contemporary anthropology of emotions. The relative dimension of the experience highlighted the importance to be aware of the particular space and time in which the experience itself happens. Its dynamicity and in a certain way its elusiveness for being in constant changes are now highlighted. Cultural processes, practices, actions and changes are questioned in the field of anthropology of performance (Schechner 2002) and in the wake of autocriticism the definition of the other itself were questioned. The fieldwork was redesigned to include together with the classical small-scale non-western societies also metropolis, urban communities, the researcher him/herself. New disciplines such as anthropology of complexity and urban anthropology arose and what was until now considered objects and subjects blurred. Back to the art, keeping in mind what has been shortly described above, it can be understandable in which directions can be recently traced a dynamic dialog between art and anthropology. Increased attention is paid to individual artists and their processes of creativity. New life is conferred to the previous dead-objects through the movements of nouvelle museology and critical museology. Anthropologists are exploring new forms of research and representation beyond written texts: the so-called visual anthropology offers some examples of the wide possibility to link research methods and visual representation between anthropology and art through drawing, photography, video, digital media and so on (Banks and Morphy 1997; MacDougall 1998; Grimshaw 2001; Pink 2004). Since early the drawings, then the photographs and later the videos, were first used for illustrative purposes as accompaniment of the words, then - given the reconfiguration of ethnographic strategies - take a role no longer merely auxiliary but as one of the research and questioning media of anthropology, as illustrated by the pioneering work of Margareth Mead and Gregory Bateson in Bali on 1942. On the other hand, following the so-called “ethnographic turn”, contemporary artists have adopted an “anthropological” gaze and methodologies such as fieldwork and observant participation or appropriation of the archive of the memory (Enwezor 2008). Collaborations between anthropologists and artists have been few (Schneider and Wright 2006, 2010) nevertheless art and anthropology nowadays more and more share their practices, their 77

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ways of thinking through making and making through thinking in processes of active going along, engagement with the surroundings and self-discovery. Most illustrative examples however are found in the field of art. “Born into brothels: Calcutta’s Red Light Kids” (2004) an Indian-American documentary film about the children of prostitutes in Sonagachi, Kolkata’s red light district directed by Zana Briski is based on the increasingly common technique in visual anthropology to give informants cameras. In so doing photography and video are both recording device and research tool. In 2014 a young Argentinian-born artist called Amalia Ulman used her Instagram and Facebook profile for staging a five months elaborate online performance called Excellences & Perfections. Selfies taken on her iPhone became one of the most original artworks of the digital era, shown in Tate Modern’s “Performing for the Camera”, which examine the relationship between art performance and photography, and at the same time it could be perfectly an ethnography. Finally, another type of collaboration can make us reflect in general on disciplines and fields of knowledge as well as on art as a catalyst for investment today: the European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN provides artist residencies and research at its laboratory with the conviction that “particle physics and the arts are inextricably linked: both are ways to explore our existence, what it is to be human and our place in the universe. The two fields are natural creative partners for innovation, research and development” (http://arts.cern/home). Fieldworking “Remind, this is a PhD in anthropology not in art” - my lecturer’s advice is still resonating in me. At that time, sitting in the seminar room at the university, although surprised by the direct recommendation to respect the boundaries between disciplines, I felt prepared to receive it being in a certain way already aware of the institutional codes and pretending to know where those moreover fictitious margins resides. Anyway once in the fieldwork it happened the inevitable: art and anthropology correspond to each other and blurred. Its unavoidability was due to the encounter itself between the student carrying on this PhD research project – a not irrelevant aspect if considering the reflexive turn in anthropology – and the fieldwork. She is a nearly 30 years old Italian, cultural anthropology student, traveller and art practitioner. The field of research is wayang kulit liveness in Yogyakarta and despite its polysemy does not leave to be stressed, in several situations wayang is considered seni (art) as well as its performers seniman (artists). Along the encounter or the negotiation that as anthropology student I was expected to pretend, I realized the difficulties to fully explain – or be understood, depending on the angle – the reasons for my presence or rather the research objectives. It seemed as if on one side each one of my interlocutors pulled toward his or her nearest conceivable experience the reasons for me to be there and as though on the other side I feed these understandings since my actions imitate their own. After some attempts I went to the game, so the chameleon performance has begun. As I am learning in practice how to make and perform wayang kulit, suddenly I became an aspiring puppeteer or possibly a singer in the midst of puppetry students – “Mau jadi apa? Dalang atau sinden?” – and an artist or artisan even with some previous mastery as already at the doctorate – “sudah S3!” – in the middle of puppet-makers students. Since my arrival in Indonesia on July 2015 I was told that “for being a dalang take much imagination, for that art especially if heart and mind are not fused it would be difficult. On the contrary if heart and mind are already merged and pleased observing continuously and practicing, after time you will be able to” (from a short talk with Bapak Sumardi, coordinator of Museum Wayang at Jakarta and also dalang, puppeteer). 78

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Key words such as menyatu (becoming one) and pake rasa, senang dulu (with feelings, enjoy it first) are repeated several times and actually they are practiced too. Observing, listening, feeling and doing became mainly the learning process. That is for learning both how to make and perform wayang kulit puppets, after a brief demonstration if any, I was soon sat up in front of the leather, tools in the hands. I had the privilege to attend carving and coloring (tatah sungging) class from the State Academy of Art and Culture Community Yogyakarta (Akademi Komunitas Negeri Seni Budaya Yogyakarta AKNSBY) held at Mr. Sagio studio (Griya Bapak Sagio), in Gendeng village, Bantul. These weekly three days classes are part of the one year Experts Primary Education Program, a joint program between the Yogyakarta Regional Government (Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta DIY) and Institut Seni Indonesia ISI. Already at its second edition, this program is funded by the Yogyakarta Regional Government and can be only attended by Yogyakarta residents. Its purpose is to train puppet makers as well as dancers and gamelan players who once passed the final exam according to the contract should work for Desa Budaya (Culture) or Wisata (Tourism), villages in DIY. For learning how to perform wayang kulit, I have followed the first semester of theoretical and practical course of puppetry (pedalangan) at Institut Seni Indonesia ISI Yogyakarta University. After that, I enrolled in the puppetry evening course at the sultan palace (kraton) traditional school (sanggar) named Habirandha. As the performance involves music, vocal technique, Javanese language and the more, I am joining the basic singing and vocal technique (macapat) course at sanggar Hadiningrat, another traditional school of the kraton and I am having private lessons of Javanese language. With time, making and performing wayang kulit as well as observing, sharing and discussing with people gives path to a personal deeper understanding of Javanese wayang kulit. By Making’s revelatory reading I realized that my fieldwork could correspond with what Tim Ingold experienced at his early career and later stressed, namely that “the only way one can really know things – that is, from the very inside of one’s being – is through a process of self-discovery. To know things you have to grow into them, and let them grow in you, so that they become a part of who you are” (Ingold 2013: 1). Studying with people, being involved in their activities, learning by doing lately reconfigured the fieldwork or rather the researching process. Learning revealed itself to be a personal inner understanding in practice, not an already made package of knowledge to acquire. In his thesis that “making is a correspondence between maker and material” Ingold argued that the material is alive and that the maker intervenes in worldly processes that are already going on. That is making is a practice of growing between forces, materials and gestures. Working with leather it is vividly confirmed. Leather from goat, cow and buffalo – in order from the least to the highest quality – is used for making wayang kulit. Therefore as part of animals, the leather undergoes a particular process for being transformed into parchment. “The parchment should not take neither light nor water” the man who treat and prepare the raw leather ready to be cut and curved, advised me. I was probably not yet aware of tropical weather consequences and part of the leather I bought for making wayang became an abstract painting while I was away for a while for the Christmas holiday. Visibly other forces such as humidity, fungi and insects preceded me into the process of giving form to leather to become possibly wayang. Making, giving form to things, arises through movement, the dynamic properties of materials and the balance of the forces at work. Indeed the leather is carefully carved with wood gavel beating metal spikes whose ends are previously sharpened against a whetstone (batu asah). To avoid that the spikes ends are broken the leather is leaned on a log of sawo wood (manilkara zapota, commonly known as sapodilla) the consistency of which dampens the hits. At the same time the 79

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leather remains stable thanks to a weight whose top moreover is covered by wax in which systematically the spikes ends are rubbed in order to impart more slipperiness. The puppet maker sat at the table, the right hand rhythmically hit with the gavel while the left hand guides the spikes on the leather. In act there is a mutual correspondence between the maker and the material. In this kind of empathy the maker mood is especially involved in the creation of the puppet character. The master maker Bapak Sagio revealed that he used to spend one week for his own preparation for making a new character. He needs to feel and behave as the puppet would feel and behave. Nowadays a drawing photocopy or another existing puppet is used as pattern for new creations. Anyway each one is still different, reflecting the mood and temperament of its maker as well as the surroundings circumstances. In practice together with my companions I learned that the leather is not all of the same thickness, therefore the more the puppets are small and graceful more the leather should be thinner, vice versa the more the puppets are big in size more the leather is thick. It happened to me to make a seemingly graceful and delicate female puppet, that however once removed from the flat surface it bent, it could not stand. So I realized that also the single puppet requires the thickest part of the leather to its base at the foot and the thinnest at the head. I could realize that only performing and manipulating the puppets. Once again only performing I could understand the importance of the puppets sizes as they seem to be reached and established for a comfortable handling. In this progression of making and learning another issue was opened up that is if there is any point of completion establishing when the puppets is finished. Ie making the puppets corresponds to what will be their function and somehow it is uncertain to affirm when the process is complete. Nevertheless of course takes a different direction, different performative ways, this problematic exists even in the case of puppets made for decoration, collection or touristic souvenirs to be exhibited on the wall or in any other way. In fact puppets made for these purposes require attention and care for their maintenance such as for example the white gloves of the museum conservator or the ritual pusaka (heirloom) cleansing at the kraton (sultan palace). It seems to be puppets are rather never-finished objects, continuously in movement, alive. According to Jan Mrazék “it is fruitful to discuss visual and performing arts together because in Indonesia they are indivisible in their world” (Mrazék 2008: 292-293). Objects are practices. The coloration given to the puppets allows and helps the puppeteer to empathize more with the character that he or she is performing – moving, giving voice and making alive. Performing we look at the puppets, especially the face, and when there is action especially battle which is rapid the colours help to quickly identify the key parts of the body. That is a reason for reading from book is not so helpful. Other reason is that do not train memory for memorize the stories and the dialogues, so even the improvisation becomes more difficult Finally as can be seen learning in practice and sharing activities allow me not only to know wayang kulit from the inside but also to experience and question how wayang knowledge and skills are transmitted. Actually its transmission can occur through family tradition and inheritance, informal learning at local sanggar (studio), governmental initiatives namely vocational high schools, graduate programs and specific courses and also as autodidact mostly with the help of video recordings. As earlier pointed out the first appreciated approach to wayang is a full involvement by feelings (rasa), to be interpreted however not only literally and innocently inasmuch patterns to follow are provided. Indeed these models are a source of discussion for the next generations since both in making and performing wayang by some is considered to affect the dimension of improvisation and creativity while by some others is highly recommended in order to secure the local style. 80

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Taking part of the wayang kulit liveness at Yogyakarta, it was possible to meet and share with people differently related to it: lecturers and teachers, students and lovers, puppeteers and scholars, artisans and artists, association members and politic representatives. In the middle of those relations (or lack of relations) and their discourses became evident what anthropologists and other social scientists remarked that culture is also politics. Despite the research inevitably has led to other regions as well, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta DIY constitutes the main place where the until now one year fieldwork focused. Its scenario shows itself to be particularly challenging in order to question and open up how the interactions between diverse individuals, groups and organizations evolve and shape wayang kulit for international appreciation and local tasks. Wayang kulit is performed in the court, in rural areas and in museum for tourism promotion, it is used for business and political purposes while its aesthetic is borrowed by visual and performance artists. This makes the boundaries between what can be considered traditional and contemporary wayang continuously blurred; the same can be argued in relation to the global and the local dynamics of art and heritage formation that are also continuously blurred. The peculiarity of DIY as the designation itself suggests is in term of its decisional autonomy e authority, a separate administrative entity as recently the law reaffirmed through Undang-Undang Nº 13/2012, concerning the privilege of Yogyakarta (Keistimewaan Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta) and reinforced by the Regulation of the Special Region of Yogyakarta (Peraturan Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta) Nº 1/2013, on the Authority in Privileged Affairs (Kewenangan Dalam Urusan Keistimewaan). Its distinctiveness is also known for the Special Region of Yogyakarta being a center of classical Javanese fine art and culture. It is reflected in cultural realities and politics, aiming for a dynamic and creative region especially for what concern culture, education and tourism. However its transisi situation and multidimensi character is also often stressed as at the meeting “Peran Komunitas Budaya di Era Keistimewaan DIY” (Role of Community Culture in the Age of the privilege of Yogyakarta) held on August 2-3, 2016 at Yogyakarta. Places and ways of living are continuously shaped and affected by politics as it is tangible with Desa Budaya and Desa Wisata national program. So far, there are 42 cultural villages across the four regencies (kabupaten Bantul, Gunung Kidul, Kulon Progo and Sleman) and the city (kota Yogyakarta) that constitute DIY. DIY and Bali were appointed by the Indonesian Ministry of Foreign Affairs as ambassadors for cultural diplomacy thus the cultural village as the front guard and the cutting edge in preserving the culture (http://nasional.republika.co.id/berita/nasional/daerah/16/04/05/o55zc5382-kulon-progo-dangunung-kidul-jadi-pusat-percontohan-desa-budaya). Despite being emphasized a synergy with the local community, most of the initiatives for developing the cultural villages came from dinas, the local governmental department, as well the funding. In some cases what is called gotong royong mutual assistance between villagers play an important role too. Anyway the law Undang-Undang Nº 23/2014 requires the grantee for tourist village shall be a legal entity. Almost all of the initiatives in tourist village in the province of DIY have not legal status. Some have the status of village-owned enterprises, Badan Usaha Milik Desa (BUMDes), but the status BUMDes still unable to receive the grant because the Ministerial Regulation Nº 4/2015 on the establishment, management and dissolution of BUMDes failed to provide clear and specific guidelines regarding the ownership and management of village assets. These cultural initiatives and politics reflect dynamics between local, national and global dimension. In a certain way they are indicative of an imaginary design for the future. To think about how life is in specific times and places, how might or could be like, is or ideally should be the aim of doing anthropology and therefore the utopic aim to strive for in each meeting and discussion along this research. 81

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Trying to do so I use the drawing as also a learning practice. Drawing has all to do with the way one observe and imply a real and deep engagement with the surroundings. In a certain way the practice is also transformational, it changes the way to look at so the way to be in relation with it, to correspond to the world. Drawing as ethnographic instrument however occupied various roles in the history of anthropological methods. For some authors it was indispensable for thinking and describing sociocultural realities, especially the invisible one. For some others drawing was ignored or relegated to a minor or subsidiary role in the fieldwork, if compared with other methods based on writings or words such as interviews, questionnaires, family stories, biographies and so on. Recently anyway drawings regained a certain prominence in the ethnographic practices (Afonso 2004), as for example in urban contexts (Kuschnir 2011) and in the imaginative logic of discovery (Taussig 2011). In my experience turned out to be not entirely compatible the idea to draw at the same time of conversations. Probably it can sound trivial, but apparently it wasn’t at least for me at the time I was projecting myself in the fieldwork. I imagined myself talking to people and at the same time to draw their portrait. With time and some initial frustration I realized it was not possible in the way I want it. Drawing and discussing, both practices each in its own way, are engagement with, correspondence, sharing and cannot be done at the same time or better said I am not able to. I need to halt one of the activities to be fully committed to the other as also my interlocutor often stops his or her activity for corresponding. “Anyway I appreciated that you were learning making wayang, instead of just reading about it” one of my puppet maker colleagues with a master degree in forestry said to me at the closing ceremony. Finally someone revealed to me to be aware of my approach with wayang. “With hand into the mass” along the research I realized that the process of the research itself constitutes a creative doing and practical understanding where object, subject and process became all in one. Borrowing a performance studies’ expression, it is a kind of “performing fieldwork”, a dialog between anthropology and art in which objects are subjects are practices and in which learning is transforming the way to be in life.


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References AFONSO, Ana Isabel (2004), “New graphics for old stories. Representation of local memories through drawings” (with drawings by Manuel João Ramos) in PINK, Sarah, Kurti LÁSZLÓ and Ana Isabel AFONSO (eds.), Working Images. Visual Research and Representation in Ethnography, pp. 72-89, New York, Routledge. ANDRIEU, Sarah Anaïs (2009), “Heritage and Paradox”, Inside Indonesia, nº 97, Jul-Sep, in (consulted on November 14, 2014). APPADURAI, Arjun (1986), The social life of things: Commodities in cultural perspective, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. BANKS, Marcus and Howard MORPHY, eds. (1997), Rethinking Visual Anthropology, New Haven, Yale University Press. BATESON, Gregory and Margaret MEAD (1942), Balinese Character: A Photographic Analysis, New York, New York Academy of Science. BOONSTRA, Sadiah (2014), Changing Wayang Scenes: Heritage Formation and Wayang Performance Practice in Colonial and Postcolonial Indonesia, Amsterdam, VU University. CLIFFORD, James (1988), “On Ethnographic Authority” in The Predicament of Culture. Twentieth Century Ethnography, Literature and Art, pp. 21-54, Cambridge, MA. ENWEZOR, Okwui (2008), Archive Fever: uses of Document in Contemporary Art, Gottingen, Steidl, New York, International Center of Photography. FOSTER, H., 1996, The Artist as Ethnographer, The return of the real: The Avant-Garde at the end of the century, Cambridge, MIT Press. GELL, Alfred (1998), Art and Agency: an Anthropological Theory, Oxford, Clarendon Press. GRIMSHAW, Anna (2001), The Ethnographer's Eye: Ways of Seeing in Modern Anthropology, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. INGOLD, Tim (2011), Being Alive: Essays on Movement, Knowledge and Description, London and New York, Routledge. INGOLD, Tim (2013), Making. Anthropology, archaeology, art and architecture, London and New York, Routledge. KUSCHNIR. K., 2011, “Drawing the City. A Proposal for an Ethnographic Study in Rio de Janeiro”, Vibrant, V.8 N.º.2, pp. 609-642. MacDOUGALL, David (1998), Transcultural Cinema, Princeton University Press. MORPHY, H.; PERKINS, M. (eds.), 2006, Anthropology of art: a reader, Oxford, Blackwell. MRAZÉK, Jan (2008), “Ways of Experiencing Art: Art History, Television, and Javanese Wayang” in MRAZÉK, Jan and PITELKA, Morgan (eds.), What’s the Use of Art?, pp. 272-304, Honolulu, University of Hawaii Press. PINK, Sarah (2004), “Situating visual research” in PINK, Sarah, Kurti LÁSZLÓ and Ana Isabel AFONSO (eds.), Working Images. Visual Research and Representation in Ethnography, New York, Routledge. SCHECHNER, Richard (2002), Performance Studies: An introduction, London, New York, Routledge. SCHNEIDER, Arnd and Christopher WRIGHT, eds. (2006), Contemporary Art and Anthropology, Oxford, Berg. SCHNEIDER, Arnd and Christopher WRIGHT, eds. (2010), Between Art and Anthropology: Contemporary Ethnographic Practice, Oxford, Berg. SMITH, Laurajane (2006), Uses of Heritage, London, New York, routledge. TAUSSIG, Michael (2011), I Swear I Saw This: Drawings In Fieldwork Notebooks, Namely My Own, Chicago, University of Chicago Press.


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Study of Computerized-Batik Technique Using “Batik Kelowong” Machine in Developing Batik Bekasi Pattern Waridah Muthi’ah Universitas Mercu Buana

ABSTRACT Implementations of technology in batik processing have been done in numerous innovations; one of them was made by Agus Martoyo in 2010 and currently used at Adelia Workshop, Bekasi. Differs from other tools that still relied on artisans’ craftsmanship, this machine worked full-automatic by integrating Computer Aided Manufacturing system. This machine was adopting CNC (Computer Numeric System) technology formerly used in metal and wood engraving into the process of ‘writing the outline’ or ‘klowongan’ in batik, hence the name, which means ‘a machine to make the main pattern’. This research aimed to study the linkages between machine’s capabilities with characterization of patterns produced, specifically the character of design elements such as dots, lines, and shapes. This preliminary research was the first part of three consecutive stages initially planned to study and improve this technique in batik production. First stage was the identification of design element’s characters made by computerized-batik technique, conducted by studying patterns formerly made in Batik Adelia using qualitative-descriptive methods. Second stage was aimed to formulate design specifications, conducted by making experiments with various designs and measuring the data using quantitative approach. The results will be used as background data in third stage, which aims to develop Batik Bekasi’s pattern designs. It was concluded that by using this machine, effectiveness and efficiencies in the process have been increased. The workshop doesn’t have to rely on pattern and klowongan makers, thus cut off some expenses and time. By using vector-based software in design stage, designer can experiment with various techniques digitally, such as repetition and mirroring, thus affecting batik’s design. Using the machine also enhances precision, neatness, and exactness of the patterns. But since it can only be used in the making of main outline, not for isen-isen (detail of an ornament) or tembokan (blocking the patterns with malam), batik artisans still be needed to complete the projects. Keywords: Batik Bekasi, pattern design, technology, computerized batik technique


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A. Introduction Although considered as ancient traditional technique, the process required in the making of a sheet of batik has been developed through centuries. Started with ‘proto-batik’ technique using kwas, the era of classical batik had reached the peak of writing technique using manual tools like tjanting, that gave ways to the development of manual-printing technique using tjap in the era of 19th century’s industrialization. Those two techniques, also known as ‘traditional’ and ‘real’ batiks, are still widely-practiced nowadays. In the era of modern technology, in the name of wide-range production, some developments have been made in batik processing, but only a few selected techniques have been considered as ‘batik’. Batik, not only as specific patterns or fabrics but also as a technique, must obey one principle: the using of malam as resistant medium in its resist-dye technique. Implementations of technology in batik processing have been done in numerous ways, for example electrical tjanting with integrated thermostat (P.A. Surahmat, 2009; Toto Sukatma, 2013; S.D. Tyasputri, 2013) and mechanical batik-table (Surya Utama Teknika SMA Muhammadiyah Pekalongan, 2014). One of those innovations was made by Agus Martoyo (2010) and developed by SMK 4 Jakarta, currently used at Batik Adelia, Bekasi. Differs from other tools that still relied on the artisans’ craftsmanships, this machine worked full-automatic thanks to its Computer Aided Manufacturing system. This machine was adopting CNC (Computer Numeric System) technology, which formerly used in metal and wood engraving, into the process of ‘writing the outline’ or ‘klowongan’ in batik. Hence it made the name, which literally means ‘a machine to make the main pattern’. The study in this topic had been previously conducted by another researchers, such as B. Purposes and Aims The aim of this research was to study the linkages between machine’s capabilities with characterization of patterns produced, specifically in the character of design elements such as dots, lines, and shapes. C. Methods This research was the first part of continuous research initially divided into three stages. First stage was the identification of design element’s characters made by computerized batik technique, conducted by studying patterns formerly made in Batik Adelia using qualitativedescriptive methods. Second stage was aimed to formulate design specifications, conducted by making experiments with various designs and measuring the data using quantitative approach. The results will be used as background data in third stage, which aims to develop pattern design of Batik Bekasi. In conducting this research, data have been collected mainly by observation to Adelia Workshop, located in Jl. Perwira VIII no. 33 RT 004 RW 05 Kaliabang Nangka, North Bekasi, City of Bekasi, to watch the process and find the samples. Direct interview has also been held to Fauzi, technician of Batik Adelia, to find reliable data concerning the mechanical aspects of said technique. Characters of lines and shapes made by this technique were formulated by analizing 16 batik samples produced in the span time of three years, between 2013 – 2016.


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D. Results

Picture 1. Kelowong Batik Machine (Dokumentasi pribadi, 2016) Kelowong-batik machine had been developed by Agus Martoyo in 2010, by integrating CNC system to the mechanization of automatic-batik writing. The tip of CNC-head, which usually made by metal to engrave patterns into wood or metal, was replaced with tube-heater consisted of wax used in batik, completed with copper tip that could flow the liquid wax into the fabric, mimicking the tip of a tjanting. These head was attached to a flat bed, where a sheet of was spread horizontally. Controlled by a mechanism that moved and stirred this head in its axis, this mechanization translated batik pattern into the movement of its tip in x (horizontal, parallel with warp thread), y (vertical, parallel with weft thread), and z (up and down) coded-numbers, resulted in the drawing of a line of wax following the pattern. Specification details of this machine can be seen in the table below.

Tabel V.1. Specification of Batik Kelowong Machine, Batik Adelia Specification Tube Heater - Tube Metal alloy Material - Tjanting’s tip copper Material - Wax Kelowong wax


Picture 5. Tube heater and tjanting’s tip (Muthi’ah, 2016) 86

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- Maximum axis speed

3000 mm/minutes

Picture 6. Tube heater dan motor (Muthi’ah, 2016) Power Source and Motor - Power Source - Motor Drive

- Power Consumption

Design Software Program - Design


- CAM - CNC Controller PC Based Dimension

220 VAC/50 Hz Precision Stepping Motor max. 4 Nm 500 Watt

Picture 7. Main circuit (Muthi’ah, 2016)

Vectorbased Software (CorelDraw) 3-D Software (Autocad) Picture 8. CNC numerical models as showed in Vcarve Pro main monitor during process V5 / Mach 3 (Muthi’ah, 2016)

- Length 3000 mm - Wide 1750 mm


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Main Shaft

- Length 3000 m - Wide 1500 mm - Linear Motor Guide - Industrial Standard

Picture V.9. Vertical shaft (lungsi) (Muthi’ah, 2016) Working area

- Length 2600 mm - Wide 1100 mm

Fabric types used - Katun mori - Sutra

Gambar V.10. Horizontal shaft (pakan) (Dokumentasi pribadi, 2016) Brosur Mesin Tulis Batik Indonesia, 2015 The process of batik-making in Adelia Workshop, Bekasi, was conducted through several stages. Generally, it can be divided into four stages, i.e. Designing (digitally using design and computer-aided software), Automatic-Batik Writing (using klowongan-batik machine), Manual-Batik Writing (using manual technique with tjanting), and Finishing (coloring the fabric and removing malam part from the fabric). Design stage was the part which really differentiated this technique from traditional batik, since the initial pattern must be translated into CNC numerical models used in directing the movements of tjanting tip on later automatic-writing process.


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Batik Process in Adelia Workshop, Bekasi (Muthi’ah, 2016)


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E. Conclusions The practice of computerized-batik technique by using batik-kelowong machine in batik production, as conducted in Adelia Workshop, Bekasi, has increased effectiveness and efficiencies during the process. A batik workshop doesn’t have to rely on pattern makers and klowongan makers, thus cut off some expenses and time. Other than the line of process, it also affects batik designs. By using vector-based software in designing process, designer can experiment with various techniques digitally, such as repetition and mirroring. Using the machine also enhances precision, neatness, and exactness of the patterns. But the recent development of this machine can only be used in the making of main outline, not for isen-isen (detail of an ornament) or tembokan (blocking the pattern with malam), thus batik artisans were still needed to complete the project.


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Collaborations and Design Development of Local Craft Products: Service Design For Creative Craft Community Rasa Suntrayuth/Silpakorn University ABSTRACT Local craft product is one of the key elements in expressing different identities of local culture in different countries. Local craft communities in Thailand have quite unique skills in producing different craft using local materials and techniques. However, the craft production is later facing the problem of missing their own identity. The products are also unable fit to the demand of international market. This research is a result of the co - creation project on developing local craft products which is a part of the research on a service design for creative craft community: A case study of Phanusnikom district, Chonburi province, Thailand. The benefits of this study will stimulate the development and preservation of local craft products and communities in a more sustainable way. This study aims to explore the possible methods of how designers, local craftsmen, academic institutions and local business clusters can collaborate and raise new opportunities for the communities to become a creative craft space. The study has concentrated on a case study of Phanusnikom District, Chonburi Province, Thailand where most of the people are creating wickerwork from bamboo. The data collected within the research come from ethnographic fieldwork, which consists of basic methods such as site visits and interviews. The research also includes the concept of Service design thinking and tools, which can help to analyze the data into different sets of relationship between service users, service providers, and environment. Groups of product design students, local craftsmen, local business clusters, professional designers, and artists are co – creating new craft products. The results express throughout the process which emphasize on presenting the ability of local craftsmen beyond what they are expected; exchanging knowledge; creating a more comfortable collaboration between the stakeholders; and strengthen the local craft community for more future sustainable developments. Keywords: Product Design, Service Design, Local Craft Community, Craft Development


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INTRODUCTION Craft usually refers to products, which are produced either completely by hand or with the help of tools. Mechanical tools may be used as long as the direct manual contribution of the artisan remains the most substantial component of the finished product. They are made from raw materials and can be produced in unlimited numbers. Such products can be utilitarian, aesthetic, artistic, creative, culturally attached, decorative, functional, traditional, religiously and socially symbolic and significant (UNESCO, 2009). Craft products are the community and the country pride as they are the trace of cultures, intellectuals, wisdoms, and aesthetics. They reflect ways of life of people who are living in the areas. Each local area in Thailand, people are creating unique craft products. They started from realizing of how abundant of raw materials they have which can create products that distinctive from other areas, from only a household product to be a national identity product. Local craft communities in Thailand are vast and diverse. Craft productions can provide opportunities for employment and lead to Thailand economic growth (Lisuwan, 1986). Craft practices can be found in every part of Thailand. Many provinces have communities that are capable of making very outstanding and unique crafts. The majority of the craftspeople are working at home. When a community becomes a craft community, it contains with a lot of houses in the community that are working in the same craft productions. People get together into small groups and designate a leader who has more connections outside the community, in order to build up strength and get large orders. The leader works quite different roles, for instances, as a group manager; a product designer and a developer; and even a marketer who plans out marketing strategies to achieve their business success. The management of the local craft communities in many areas is quite similar. The leader of the group manages to get order from outside the community or even outside the country. The leader can also control the design as well as how the work should be done. The Government organizations come to help to promote and to support the communities but might not meet what the communities really need. There are some attempts to improve craft productions and local craft communities in Thailand. Many districts are trying to create their own distinctive craft traditions. One Tambon (Subdistrict) One Product program (OTOP) has started by the government in 2001. The OTOP program was inspired by a Japanese regional development program - The One Village One Product Movement (OVOP) which began in Oita Prefecture in 1979 (Natsuda et. al., 2015). It was intending to support local products in each sub-district in Thailand. Different levels of product qualities receive different number of stars. It starts from one star to five stars for superior products. Consumers can be sure of the quality of anything awarded this level. The principles of OVOP as well as the OTOP are 1) Elevating local products to a global standard; 2) Providing self-reliance and creativity for people in the local communities; and 3) Developing human resources. However, the Thai OTOP program has unfortunately not been successful in a long run as it was one the political ploys in order to gain popularity from grass-root people (Chotiratanapinun, 2015). There were also so many corruptions going on at that time. The program’s name is later changed but the OTOP brand was kept and used until now. Phanusnikom district is the main focus of this research. It is in Chonburi province, which is located in the Eastern region of Thailand. It is famous for their bamboo wickerwork. The craft production of Phanusnikom started at the same time as when the community started to settle in the area. The original populace of Phanusnikom was mostly from The Laos Kingdom once it was governed by the monarchy (Phanusnikom Municipal, 2012). In the past, craft products were made to use within the household, for examples, a rice container, a fishing equipment, or 94

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a hat. They made them when they had a free time after harvesting rice. The knowledge has inherited from their ancestors along with their profession of agriculture. The craft products are later created for a more commercial activity. They are made to sell within the community, as the occupations of local people are now various. They also sell their craft products outside the communities and even outside the country. They have products from normal household objects to very delicate, luxury expensive products, such as, handbags and furniture. Another reason why Phanusnikom has became quite well known is how during the mid-year season, they have a festival called “Boon Klang Ban”. The festival is basically made to respect to the nature for giving the locals opportunities to grow better crops with enough water and sunlight. This festival does not only appear in Phanusnikom but also in many communities in the Eastern and Central region of Thailand. However, Phanusnikom creates quite a unique festival by putting up a contest on the most beautiful and the biggest bamboo wickerwork. That was why Phanusnikom has got the name “The Biggest Bamboo Wickerwork Community” (Phanusnikom Municipal, 2009). Phanusnikom bamboo wickerwork used to have quite a unique identity. They were trying to design weave patterns of their own. The patterns represent the outstanding features, which connect to people way of life and the culture of the community. The raw material was abundantly found within the community itself. Local people lived absolutely a self- sufficient life.

Figure 1: Images show Phanusnikom bamboo wickerwork. Source: http://nwnt.prd.go.th/ However, the way Phanusnikom community does their business has changed according to the global economic current. Local people started to produce fast and easy to sell products. It makes every shop and every sub-community in Phanusnikom district to sell products that look exactly the same. This problem is one of the main problems that other craft communities are having as well. When travelling to the craft community, there is no excitement going from one shop to another due to the lack of variety in the design of their products. The craft products are missing their own identity and also unable fit to the demand of international market, as well as, the demand of the modern life style. Moreover, the number of Phanusnikom craftsmen had gradually decreased. The knowledge is not easily transfer to people who want to learn. The knowledge of making craft is view as tacit knowledge, where specialized skills are embedded in a person or within a local community. The tacit knowledge possessed by the local artisans is acquired through extensive experience of working with materials and processes and it can primarily be acquired by practical and personal contact between master and apprentice (Polanyi, 1997)(Fang, 2012). Local people in Phanusnikom community form small groups in order to produce and to sell their products themselves as mention before. Every group is able to create almost every part of the products but one thing they cannot do well enough to export their bamboo baskets outside the country is the basket rim. Only one person in Phanusnikom community is able to do it well. Though, he is trying to transfer his knowledge to the younger generation but it is not a very easy thing to do. Learning craft needs a lot of attentions and it is quite time consuming to practice. Due to the modernization phenomenon, younger generation 95

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tends to move and work outside the community. As a result, the transmission of knowledge on craft is not as good as it should be. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES This research is a result of the co - creation project on developing local craft products which is a part of the research on a service design for creative craft community: A case study of Phanusnikom district, Chonburi Province, Thailand. It is an example case that further develops from the result of the previous research. This study is a practice-led research and it aims 1) to investigate the characteristics and relationship between different groups of stakeholders; 2) to explore methods in collaborating and developing new products in the most comfortable and sustainable ways for local craftsmen and stakeholders; and 3) to strengthen local craft community for a craft knowledge conservation and lead to the possibilities of being developed to a creative craft space. RESEARCH PROCESS As mention before, this research is a result of co-creation project represents a part of a research on a service design for creative craft community: A case study of Phanusnikom district, Chonburi province, Thailand. The main research is created to find out the potentials of local craft communities in Thailand and the possibilities for them to be developed in different facets. The research is based on an ethnographic approach and qualitative data collection. The ethnographic approach to qualitative research comes largely from the field of anthropology. The emphasis in ethnography is on studying an entire culture (William, 2006). It is the systematic study of people and cultures and designed to explore cultural phenomena where the researcher observes society from the point of view of the subject of the study. (Fetterman, 2009) The ethnographers rely on participant observation to gather data. As a participant observer, the ethnographer is socially and physically immersed in the case to accumulate local knowledge. (Parthasarathy, 2008) The research also includes the concept of service design thinking and tools, which can help to analyze the data into different sets of relationship between service users, service provides, and environment. Service design is an interdisciplinary approach that combines different methods and tools from various disciplines. It is a new way of thinking as opposed to a new stand-alone academic discipline. Service design is an evolving approach, this is particularly apparent in the fact that, as yet, there is no common definition or clearly articulated language of service design. (Stickdorn and Schneider, 2011) Within this study, the process is separated into five phases as following; 1) Contextual Understanding phase is the starting of the whole process. The main idea of this step is to understand the context of the subject and other subjects that related. The methods used in this step are observation, literature review, case studies, trend studies, and semi-structure interview which is a bit more open and allow problems and new ideas to be brought up during the interview; 2) Field Research phase is how the researcher initiates field research and gather all the information. Field research step consist of different service design techniques, for instances, service safari and semi-structure interview. The interviews in this step consist with open-ended questions within the space and see what happen and how the interviewees react during the interview. The questions are also focusing on getting into users’ insights (five whys). After having all the data needed, the stakeholder maps, persona, and user journey maps are created to represent the relationship within the service; 3) Competitive Analysis phase is how the researcher identifies problems and sets up hypothesis for the solutions. The methods used within this step is focusing on idea generations, for instances, Brain storming, storytelling, case 96

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examples, and S.W.O.T analysis. After information is gathered, Kano analysis techniques is used to classify attributes based on how they are perceived by users and their effect on user satisfaction; 4) Design Development phase is how the information is analyzed and turned into different design developments, design concepts, service design blueprint, and strategic opportunities for the local craft communities to be developed to creative craft spaces; and lastly 5) Design Implementation phase is how to implement the concepts into a guideline for service design for local creative craft community. This paper is a part where the guideline is tested which concentrates on a small part within the human development on their design capability, particularly on craft product design and development.

Figure 2: The diagram shows the five-research process phases and the pink color overlay represents the phase that this paper is on. Source: Rasa Suntrayuth In Thailand, local craft community is one of the very important communities in the country in term of economics, which can create profits from the local craft products and creative tourism. Creative tourism program is also one of projects that Thai government found it has such an impact on economic and social development, as tourism is always a major economic factor in Thailand. In accordance with the definition given by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), Creative Tourism is a tourism related to community development for a sustainable way of life. The activities provided had to be harmonious and connected to history, culture and way of life in terms of learning and experience. Tourists gain experience and knowledge from the real life of the communities they visit. Additionally, communities had to set creative tourism as a tool for maintaining innovations for in-house tourism and benefits to communities in terms of economy and sustainable development. (Dasta, 2013). In consequence to the new tourism project that is made to reignite the growth of Thailand’s tourist industry in a more profound way, local craft community becomes a place where people come and experience indigenous knowledge and local wisdom. Currently, a lot of people have realized the importance of knowledge and skills that are hidden in each local 97

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area. They are interested in the know-how and want use them in the creation of their own art and product design. Thus, there are quite often when artists, designers, and academic institutions around the area collaboratively work with the craftsmen within the local craft community. With the initiated concept of preserving and developing craft product of Phanusnikom craft community, the information gathered within the phase two “field research” provided a map called “stakeholder map”. A stakeholder map is a visual or physical representation of the various groups involved with a particular service. The interplay between these various groups can be charted and analyzed. (Stickdorn and Schneider, 2011) It is for the research team in planning for user research activities, and guiding appropriate communication with stakeholders throughout the project development process. (Martin and Hanington, 2012) It can also present the characteristics and relationship between different groups of stakeholders, which can answer the first objective of this paper.

Figure 3: The diagram shows a stakeholder map of Phanusnikom craft community. Source: Rasa Suntrayuth From Figure 3, the diagram explains the relationship between three groups of stakeholders. The first group is between Phanusnikom craft community and academic institution around the area. Their relationship goes quite well according to the activities they have together. Phanusnikom craft community, as mention before is an excellent place for students to come and learn from real experiences in many ways. They can provide wickerwork knowledge, techniques, and local 98

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materials. On the same hand, the academic institutions can also provide the local community knowledge on management, business, community development, and design thinking depend on the field they specialize at. The second group is Phanunikom craft community and customers (service users). Customers or service users which basically are separated into five groups which are 1) local users are people who live within the community and buy craft products and use them within their households; 2) business people who buy big bulks of craft products and sell them agian at their stores or export the products to other countries; 3) general tourists who travel to the local community for leisure purposes and happen to be interested into craft products or just buy them as souvenirs; 4) creative tourists who come to the local craft communities to learn and use the knowledge of craft making for their own creation. They usaully are designers, artists, and anyone who interested in taking craft product further; and 5) other local business clusters which are local people who do other businesses within the area, for instances, restuarents, coffee shops, spa products, and etc.. They sometimes use craft products to add more cultural values to their own products and make them more unqiue and interesting. Customers or service users are not expected much from the local community, they only want to experience the culture and buy the craft products. Thus, their relationship is quite settled. The last group is between Phanusnikom craft community and government organizations. The government organizations are not fully understand what the local craft community really needs. Therefore, the supports they have for the communities are not exactly help them in a long run. According to the information from the stakeholder map, researcher is able to set up four different product design and development group projects. Each group is working within their own group to create new craft products by concerning about traditional craft techniques, sustainable and self-sufficient approaches for the locals. They are allowed to create their own design briefs and concepts according to the information they have. The four groups are 1) a group of third year product design students and local craftsmen; 2) a group of third year product design students and local business cluster which is Baan Ngam bath and spa products; 3) a group of third year product design students, a group of third year community development students and local young generations (with the age between 18 – 20 years old, university education) within the community; and 4) professional designers, researchers, and artists. The product design students, community development students, and local young generations are from the universities around the area of Phanusnikom community, which are Burapha University, and Rajabhat Rajanagarindra University. Therefore, they are quite familiar with the community itself. Before the design and development projects started, the participants got to visit the local craft community, learned about their products and history, and had a small workshop of basic bamboo weaving. The first group of product design students spent more time visiting the craft community, interviewing craftsmen and retailers, observing the craft production process, conducting a bamboo wickerwork workshop, and visiting the bamboo fields to see how the raw material is processed. The second group of product design students spent a bit more time working with Baan Ngam bath and spa products. They had an extra task to understand Baan Ngam products and their markets in order to pick out suitable products and design new packaging for them. The third group of product design students joined up with community development students and local students. Their mission is to find a more fun and excitement point of view from people in younger generation. And lastly, the fourth group consisted with professional designers, researchers, and artists from different backgrounds. They spent different among of time in the community but likely to be less then other groups due to the limit of their time. The local craft community culture and style also have less influence over their designs. 99

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Figure 4: Images show local craft community study field trips and workshops Source: Rasa Suntrayuth PRODUCT DESIGN OUTCOMES To create new products for the local craft community, home décor, personal accessory products, and packaging were proposed. The outcomes are quite varied due to their different design intentions and approaches. The first group of product design students and local craftsmen were working together in order to exchange new knowledge. Local craftsmen introduced the information on the material, weaving techniques, and local traditional wickerwork that they have been producing for many decades. Product design students introduced design thinking and new perspectives to the local craftsmen. They came up with the idea of creating home decoration products that adapted their forms from the traditional wickerwork they used to use in their everyday life, such as, rice and dried food containers, fishing traps and equipment. They wanted to preserve the traditional forms and styles and at the same time, to add new functions to the new products. For the production process, these designs are created to be easy to produce in order to capture the attention of the new generation craftsmen who think that working with craft is too difficult to start. The new products are simple but can represent the craftsmanship and cultural wisdom of Phanusnikom community. The design outcomes from the second group of product design students and local business of Baan Ngam bath and spa products are quite different from the first group. As mention before, the young designers were not only explore the Phanusnikom craft products but also need to understand very well about the products of Baan Ngam bath and spa. They had to be able to design and apply wickerwork into packaging that suitable for the physical and the emotional of Baan Ngam bath and spa products. The bath and spa products that were selected to be redesigned were best seller products of Bann Ngam brand, such as, a bergamot shampoo, some herb soap, oil and incent burner set, and product gift set. The design brief was also to create more cultural uniqueness and add more value to the products. The outcomes were quite easy to produce. The new packaging designs brought up the dominant features of both Baan Ngam products and the wickerwork of Phanusnikom community. It was an interesting way to bring all the local businesses within the community together and that can lead to a more development in a bigger picture as a creative craft community in the future. 100

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The third group of product design students, community development students, and the local young generations were working to create new lines of fashion and home accessories. Apart from learning and experiencing the local ways of life and how they create their craft products, this group of students was working together and presented their perspective about product design and development to the group. The product design students presented their idea in terms of design. The community development students presented their idea of producing products in the way to help develop the community in a more sustainable way. The students who lives within the local community presented the perspective of a user and how they familiar with seeing their parents making craft products since they were little. The activity was mainly story telling and listing what their ideas were. The product design students took all the idea and designed products according to the information they have. As they are all new generation, their design brief was more to change up the group of target audience to be a little bit younger than it used to be. Lastly, the groups of designers and artists from different backgrounds were working on their personal interests and specialty. Local craftsmen were only producing what designers and artists planned for them to do. Local craftsmen did not exactly affect the designers and artists in terms of their opinions. However, the concept of culture and how the locals work with material can inspired them in some ways. The outcomes from this group are totally varied. The shapes, forms and functions are somewhat different from what the local craftsmen have done before. The local craftsmen were not familiar with the designs they had to produce, which make it a little confuse and difficult for them to do at first. Nonetheless, it was an opportunity for them to learn and experience new things, which can actually remind them of the potential they have.

Figure 5: Images show product outcomes from different design groups. Source: Rasa Suntrayuth 101

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DESIGN DIRECTIONS AND COLLABORATIONS Working in a local craft community and understanding the local setting, skills, materials, and products are somewhat very important. It is one of the main activities in the collaboration process. This understanding would help designers to get information in order to identify main problems and explore for more opportunities. During the collaboration process, designers can act as connectors and facilitators to connect and transfer ideas, knowledge, and skills into products. The project was quite challenge to the stakeholders in many ways. Students and academic institutions get to have opportunities to learn from the real experience. At the same time, local craftsmen and the community get to explore design knowledge during the project. Moreover, as the other local businesses like Baan Ngam get to participate in one of the design projects, apart from the new packaging designs that they get, they also gets a chance to interact to each other within the community, create a good vibe and relationships which can benefit to everyone. It can also strengthen the local community for more future sustainable developments. This similar strategy also has happened in some other local craft communities. One of the very famous pottery communities of Thailand is in Ratchaburi province. Their handmade ceramic water jars with dragon patterns have been using in Thai household for so long. Rachaburi has a very nice consistency of soil that can create a very durable ceramic. Wasinburee Supanichvoraparch is a fourth generation of his family business from China - Tao Hong Tai ceramic factory. He was educated in Germany for his master's degree in fine arts and returned to his hometown- Ratchaburi Province after he graduated. He realized that water jar production know-how was not a family secret any more. The whole community in Ratchaburi is making the same exact products. (Chinmaneevong, 2013) The factory under the management of Wasinburee is opened for trainees and designers to use the studio and display their works at its showroom. With the idea of bringing designers and artists to the local community, can actually open the local craftsmen to some new perspective on design and lead them to shift from the conventional ceramics model of copying popular products to focus on original designs. Moreover, with different activities he creates for the local community, it can pull the people together and push forward Ratchaburi province to be an art city in the future.

Figure 6: Wasinburee Supanichvoraparch,Tao Hong Tai Ceramics Factory and d Kunst Gallery - the first contemporary art gallery in Ratchaburi province. Source: www.tcdc.co.th, www.drphot.com, www.tatnews.org CONCLUSION As mention before, local craft communities in Thailand are playing as an important role in terms of economic and cultural representative of the country. However, they recently have been facing different problems of losing the interestedness and excitement in their products and tourism. 102

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Local people are moving out of the community to do something else rather then making craft products. The methodologies used within this project can bring people back to the community to work together. The collaboration provided local craftsmen and their stakeholders with an opportunity to learn and gain new experiences, which can lead them to become a creative craft center as mention earlier in the article. The knowledge and experiences gained from this study can be as a model, which can be applied by other practitioners for further research developments as well. REFERENCES Chinmaneevong, W. (2013). Bangkok Post article. Retrieved May 5, 2015, from http://www.bangkokpost.com/print/337696/ Chotiratanapinun, T. (n.d.). The emergence and existence of sustainable craft practices: Case studies from Indonesia and Thailanders. Retrieved May 1, 2015, from http://mfarchive.plymouthart.ac.uk/journalvol1/papers.php DASTA. (2013). Creative Tourism Thailand. Retrieved March 24, 2015, from http://www.dasta.or.th/creativetourism/attachments/article/112/20_9271 .pdf Fang, W. (2012). Weaving with Rush: Exploring Craft-Design Collaborations in Revitalizing a Local Craft. Retrieved July 12, 2016, from http://www.ijdesign.org/ojs/index.php/IJDesign/article/view/1077 Fetterman, D. (2009). Ethnography: Step by Step, Third edition, Thousand Oaks CA, Sage. Lisuwan, Viboon. (1986). Thai Folk Crafts. Office of the National Cultural Commission, Thailand. Martin, B. & Hanington, B. (2012) Universal Methods of Design. Massachusetts: Rockport Publishers. Natsuda, K., Wiboonoingse, A., Igusa, K., Cheamugphan, A., Shingkharat, S., & Thoburn, J. (n.d.). One Village One Product - Rural Development Strategy In Asia: The Case of OTOP In Thailand. Retrieved May 1, 2015, from http://www.apu.ac.jp/ Parthasarathy, B. (2008). The ethnographic case study approach | The Global Impact Study. Retrieved July 12, 2016, from http://www.globalimpactstudy.org/2008/07/theethnographic-case-study-approach/ Phanusnikom Municipal (2009). Sub-Community 1: The biggest Wickerwork in The world Publications. Chonburi: Ngan Chang Print and Media Company. Phanusnikom Municipal (2012). History of Phanusnikom Wickerwork : Phanusnikom Municipal Publications. Chonburi: Ngan Chang Print and Media Company. Polanyi, M. (1997). The Tacit Dimension. In L. Prusak (Ed.), Knowledge in Organizations (pp. 135-146). Newton, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann. 
 Stickdorn, M. & Schneider, J. (2011). This is Service Design Thinking: Basics, Tools, Cases. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 103

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UNESCO. (2009). Building confidence: Crafts for development. Retrieved July 12, 2016, from http://portal.unesco.org/culture/en/ev.phpURL_ID=35418&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html William, M. K. (2006). Qualitative Approaches. Retrieved July 12, 2016, from http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/qualapp.php


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Graphic Design Methods of a Science Museum Exhibition for Children Natsuangphon Tongnua-nual Graduate School, Doctor of Philosophy Program in Design Arts (International Program), Silpakorn University, Bangkok, Thailand. Email: [email protected]; [email protected] Asst. Prof. Namfon Laistrooglai, Ph.D. (1 st Supervisor), Yodkwan Sawatdee, D.F.A. (2 nd Supervisor)

ABSTRACT A science museum exhibition is designed to give children the opportunity to learn and discover a new science experience apart from learning within the school. The graphic design is important for the exhibition affecting the perception and motivation of children. The graphics are always used in the exhibition to communicate the visual to visitors by synthesising images and complex texts that visitors can quickly recognise, understand easily, and have also worked with other elements to draw a child attention to focus on various objects in the exhibition. This study observes the graphic design methods of a science museum exhibition for children. The researcher used fieldwork case study analysing of literature by selected 27 exhibitions from 3 countries in different regions and cultures include the United Kingdom, Japan, and Thailand to compare in 11 topics are 1) site and space 2) image 3) text 4) layout 5) colour 6) lighting 7) material 8) interactive 9) model 10) sensory perception and 11) mood and tone. The analysis methods have been clarified in the table, and descriptive summary already was given. And also interviews the experts in three fields include the science museum, exhibition production, and children learning. The study result indicated that the graphic design of the exhibition in all countries with the consistent in several items such as illustration styles, visual symbols, gestalt, graphic layouts, character types, and graphic colours. Among various parameters discussed, the mood and tone vary depending on the exhibit presented, and the role of the graphic is different because of the socio-cultural context of each country. The conclusion can be drawn that the study result can be the guide or sources inspiration of further artistic creation and design that is attracting children further stage of development. Keywords: graphic design, science museum exhibition, children

INTRODUCTION A science museum exhibition is designed to give children the opportunity to learn and to discover a new science experience apart from learning within the school. The graphic design is important for the exhibition affecting the perception and motivation of children. The graphics are always used in the exhibition to communicate the visual to visitors by synthesizing images and complex texts that visitors can quickly recognize, understand easily, and have also worked with other elements to draw a child attention to focus on various objects in the exhibition. The case of an exhibition, the designer must consider both visual images and texts in the area that the visitor stood to watch. All elements which in the large area of the exhibition have affected recognition and reading whether models, VDO, diorama, distances of panels or graphic boards, movement of multimedia, lighting, etc. 105

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In the same way, the ability of the graphics has affected to the visitor recognition. For example, "Eat and Be Eaten" the exhibition of Liberty Science Center, the United States of America. The Jury of Society for Experiential Graphic Design (SEGD, 2006) commented "A wonderful exhibit of live animals housed in hexagonal structures with large-scale interpretive graphics allows the visitors to engage fully with the animals and their habitats. Visitors can navigate by the four different colors used within the signage and graphic displays. The use of large-scale photography and up-close shots of the animals engages the visitor." Another example is "What is in Sneeze?" the exhibition of Science Museum of Minnesota, the United States of America. The graphic lures visitors to open a small door over the young girl's face. When they do, a sound and a spritz cause them to jump back as they get sprayed. This an experiential, interactive graphic that is funny, surprising and causes a physical response (Polly McKenna-Cress and Janet A. Kamien, 2013: 96).

Figure 1. “Eat and Be Eaten” exhibition of Liberty Science Center, New Jersey, USA. (Source: https://segd.org/content/eat-and-be-eaten downloaded 29 March 2015)

Figure 2. “What is in Sneeze?” exhibition of Science Museum of Minnesota, USA. (Source: Polly McKenna-Cress and Janet A. Kamien. (2013). Creating Exhibition: Collaboration in the Planning, Development, and Design of Innovative Experiences. New Jersey: Wiley & Sons, p 96.)

When referring to the children visitors who are just starting to a school-age, they will have the opportunity to acquire knowledge and experience from the exhibition in the science museum. However, children are thinking and experience to recognize different from adults. Even between young children and older children, their ideas are not the same. George E. Hein (1998: 143) states that to classify all young visitors simply as “children,” meaning the glossing over vast developmental differences as Jean Piaget’s major stages of development all occur within the population labeled as “children.” Obviously, the youngest visitors still unable to read are developmentally different than older, elementary school visitors. But these latter, in turn, are quite different from teenagers. Also, Pam Locker (2011: 47, 121) suggested that children will require a hierarchy of information that is of interest to a range of age groups and learning abilities. Their exhibitions 106

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will require specialist design decisions regarding height, size, colour, and use of materials. The age group will dictate their literacy levels and will influence how they engage intellectually. Children require the use of appropriate language, font choices, and images, and tend to respond positively to interactive environments. Similarly, the use of graphics in children's exhibitions, including interactive and object labels, will need to consider literacy level, child-friendly typefaces, and content as well as engaging imagery. With the background and significance of the preceding, the researcher has the objective to study the graphic design that encapsulating the content to communicate the visitors to interact with space and also allow visitors to learn and experience something back. So, this study observes the graphic design methods of a science museum exhibition for children, serving as guide or sources inspiration of further artistic creation and design that attracting children further stage of development.

METHODS The conceptual research framework involved three main issues, including graphic design, exhibition design, and children learning. As a qualitative research, this research is going to observe directly to obtain accurate information and reliability. The researcher involved in some events and activities to test the presentation and explained certain behaviors manually, along with in-depth interviewed with experts who are the key informants and stakeholder in this research by using the interview schedule, documents, field notes, and taking photos.

Figure 3. Diagram of the research methodology.

1. Criteria The selection criteria of the science museum exhibitions as follows: first, the researcher analysed to classify the categories of the science learning course for Thai students in the elementary school grade one, two, and three according to the Basic Education Core Curriculum A.D. 2008 (Bureau of Academic Affairs and Educational Standards, 2008). As 107

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the result, the science learning is divided into five categories including Animal & Plant Life, Earth & Environment, Human Life, Science & Technology, and Space & Universe. After that, the researcher used fieldwork case study analysing of literature by selected twentyseven exhibitions from three countries in different regions and cultures include the United Kingdom, Japan, and Thailand both a permanent exhibition and a temporary exhibition that are exhibited during the years 2015-2016. Those are an exhibition for education about science and nature for children and people. The following is a list of science museum exhibitions: 1. Natural History Museum, London, the United Kingdom; 4 exhibitions are as follows: 1) Dinosaurs, 2) Ecology, 3) Human Biology, and 4) Sensational Butterflies 2. Science Museum London, the United Kingdom; 6 exhibitions are as follows: 1) Atmosphere, 2) Cravings: Can your food control you?, 3) Exploring Space, 4) Launchpad, 5) Pattern Pod, and 6) Who am I? 3. National Museum of Nature and Science (Kahaku), Tokyo, Japan; 4 exhibitions are as follows: 1) ComPaSS, 2) Investigation Technology for the Earth, 3) Navigators on the History of Earth, and 4) Origins of Biodiversity 4. National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation (Miraikan), Tokyo, Japan; 5 exhibitions are as follows: 1) Curiosity Field, 2) Earth Environment and Me, 3) Songs of Anagura, 4) Stories of One, Everyone, and You, and 5) This is ISS, go ahead 5. Children’s Discovery Museum, Bangkok, Thailand; 4 exhibitions are as follows: 1) Creative Science, 2) Dino Detective, 3) Incredible Me, and 4) Miracle of Life 6. Science Center for Education, Bangkok, Thailand; 4 exhibitions are as follows: 1) The Blue Planet, 2) Inspired by Astronomy, 3) Kid City, 4) The Secret of Life The selection of exhibitions is consistent with the categories of the science learning that used the selecting specific methods. Selected exhibition is designed to young visitors can visit and also be a popular exhibit for children. The information is provided by the curators and studying the documents. 2. Analysis Review of twenty-seven selected exhibitions into five science learning content categories classified as follows: 1. Animal & Plant Life: 1) Dinosaurs, 2) Sensational Butterflies, 3) Pattern Pod, 4) ComPaSS, 5) Origins of Biodiversity, 6) Dino Detective, 7) The Secret of Life 2. Earth & Environment: 8) Ecology, 9) Atmosphere, 10) Navigators on the History of Earth, 11) Earth Environment and Me, 12) The Blue Planet, 13) Kid City 3. Human Life: 14) Human Biology, 15) Cravings: Can your food control you?, 16) Who am I?, 17) Curiosity Field, 18) Stories of One, Everyone, and You, 19) Incredible Me, 20) Miracle of Life 4. Science & Technology: 21) Launchpad, 22) Investigation Technology for the Earth, 23) Songs of Anagura, 24) Creative Science 5. Space & Universe: 25) Exploring Space, 26) This is ISS, go ahead, and 27) Inspired by Astronomy


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Figure 4. Analysis of the selected exhibitions into five science learning content categories.

The research was conducted by studying the graphic design principles and exhibition design approach to compare in eleven topics: 1) site and space 2) visual image 3) text 4) layout 5) colour 6) lighting 7) material 8) interactive 9) model 10) sensory perception and 11) mood and tone. The analysis methods have been clarified in the table, and descriptive summary already was given. 3. Interview Furthermore, the researcher interviews the experts in three fields namely science museum, exhibition production, and children learning. Everyone is a stakeholder with this research. The total number of seven people from three organizations including Science Center for Education, Children Discovery Museum, and National Science Museum, Thailand.

RESULTS The research results can be concluded as follows: 1. Site and space The exhibition separated into three sizes, namely a small-size is less than 200 square metres, a medium-size is 201-500 square metres, and a large-size is more than 500 square metres. The exhibition spaces are in various forms. They are exhibited in rectangular area shape and may be constructed in different ways depending on the exhibits presented. In the same way, they used various devising paths, mostly the areas of affinity that allow visitors to make immediate visual connections between exhibits, compare them directly and follow a thread of exploration from one artefact to another, and secondary is star exhibits that visitors enliven the areas around them, and also tend to draw visitors through a gallery and create a sense of expectation throughout the journey (Philip Hughes, 2010: 76, 77). 2. Visual image The stroke and style of visual images or illustrations; all exhibitions usually used an image representation, a silhouette and contour drawing comes as the second. However, a pictograph, exhibitions of the United Kingdom and Japan more used than Thailand. Experts agreed that a representation image should be applied to children while some experts thought different that a silhouette is suitable for children because it helps them to build imagination and creativity. Moreover, mostly exhibitions used cartoons and diagrams to be the visual symbols, consistent 109

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with the opinion of experts that a cartoon will be able to attract children attention and a diagram should be the picture chart more than showing only text. The gestalt principle, mostly exhibitions used the similarity rule that meaning is a similar colour, shape, or size for grouping images. It is consistent with Amy E. Arntson (2007: 80-84) states that “When people see things that are similar, they naturally group them. Grouping by similarity occurs when they see a similar shape, size, colour, spatial location (proximity), angle, or value. All things are in some respects and different in others. In a group of similar shapes and angles, they will notice a dissimilar shape or angle.” Also, Rudolf Arnheim (2004: 79) cites that “The same sensible attitude prevails in perception. Comparisons, connections, and separations will not be made between unrelated things, but only when the setup as a whole suggests a sufficient basis. The similarity is a prerequisite for the noticing of differences.” Besides, the core of the image transformation of three countries is the cropping especially a photo. The difference between the British and Thai exhibitions used the image exaggeration. In the Japanese case, they did not use the same technique. 3. Text The result of using text, all exhibitions used the sans-serif typeface with the English language. In the case that English is not the national language, they will use the bilingual both the national language and English. In the case of Thailand, exhibitions mainly used Thai language and the serif typeface with headlines and body texts. The experts agreed that friendly fonts to Thai children should be serif typefaces. Conventionally correct Thai character writing is required have a head, and then children are familiar with the character's head when they learned in the school. Besides, the exhibition for children is popularity to use handwriting fonts for the title and section or zone that will make for young sense and casual.

Figure 5. The example of the correct Thai character’s writing.

Types of character, all exhibitions used a regular and bold character, while some of them also used an extra bold character to highlight the distinct texts on the title label and section or group label. Moreover, the British and Japanese exhibitions mainly used one or two typefaces In the case of the Thai exhibitions, and several typefaces are usage. The issue typeface structure, exhibitions mostly arranged horizontally, but the Japanese exhibitions arranged their quote text vertically. 4. Layout Labels, panels, and signs; all exhibitions have installed the title label and mainly have had the introductory or orientation label and caption text. In the case that the exhibition separated the section or zone, the section or group label will be used. The difference is several Thai 110

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exhibitions have installed prohibitive signs and some temporary prohibitive signs made by curators, while the other countries are quite less to appear. Experts are the further opinion that Thai children behaviors especially young children who visited with their parents. Some hands-on objects in the exhibition were damaged quickly as the result of their parents did not provide them with cognitive before to play objects. So, it was the cause that museum stuck prohibitive signs at various points. It became to the echoes of some parents that the museum blocked their children's learning. The observation of text levels referred to the principle of Jacqueline Tang (cited in Barry Lord and Maria Piacente, 2014: 317) explains that “In general, there are four levels of text a graphic designer considers in a hierarchy. The characteristics of each are project-specific, but here is how they used: Level 1 is used for first levels exhibition content such as titles, headlines, quotations, and introductory text to the whole exhibition. Level 2 is secondary to Level 1 and is used for general overviews on introduction panels to specific themes or sections of the exhibition and primary introduction or information panels on a tertiary level. Level 3 is used for most general exhibit content as well as primary text on labels and multimedia or interactive devices where necessary, and Level 4 is used for the lowest level of exhibition content – label and caption text. It is detailed and explanatory and pertains to specific artefacts, works of art, or specimens, and to images reproduced in the exhibition.” The study found that exhibitions mainly used four levels of text hierarchically, and the exhibition for children used two levels of text. In spite of the Thai exhibitions used four levels of text, but each level used many typefaces and font sizes. However, the exhibition that designed primarily for children still used two or three levels of text and did not be several fonts. The experts' opinion is that the text for children should limit to two to three levels and should have it on title and section or group label only because children do not read any message. About the graphic layouts, Alex W. White (2011: 81) states that the asymmetrical or informal, balance attracts attention and is dynamic. Thus, all exhibitions usually used the asymmetry composition similarly because this method makes them look casual. Also, the scale relationships between text and images on a label and a panel found that the proportional of images rather than text, but it depends on the amount of content. 5. Colour The colour of the graphic elements namely a text, image, background, and pattern; the study found that the text in the exhibition was mainly in light or dark colour but images were in vivid colour. Backgrounds were in light, dark, and vivid colour and they also were in contrast to the text. Each exhibition used the different colour of patterns but rather less to appear. According to the experts' opinion, a visual image is suitable for children should have with vivid colour. The exhibition needs the light text colour in dark or vivid background or reversal. 6. Lighting All closed exhibition spaces installed lightings including the spotlight, wall-wash lighting, contour spotlight, and ambient lighting that to build an atmosphere and illuminated an object, label, and panel, some of them installed the coloured lighting. In contrast, open exhibition space is used a natural lighting.


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7. Material All exhibitions used the graphics on ink-jet printed to mount on panels and labels are made of the plastic, acrylic, plywood, and fibreboard. Experts stated that due to the cost of ink-jet printed is the lowest other materials and can be easily adjusted, suitable especially for the temporary exhibition. In the Thai case, permanent exhibitions mainly used the ink-jet printed mounted on plywoods or fibreboards but several damaged. The original idea exhibition is supported to be temporary because budget limited and new coming exhibition is not possible. And another one, the material qualities have a new coming because of the budget was the problems. The other one of the problem, material deteriorated. So exhibitions were necessary to extend the exhibit indefinitely became to be the permanent exhibition finally. It has defected because of the long term use. 8. Interactive All exhibitions are a hands-on type; visitors could explore experience by touching and used the interactive media namely touch-screen computer, VDO, and electro-mechanical to interact with them. It is consistent with the experts' opinion the exhibitions are designed for children mainly to encourage children the new experiment. And also they used the device function as the instruction media replacing the static text on panels because children need not read the message but those media will cause to gain knowledge and fun at the same time. 9. Model Touchable model is the most popular be usage in exhibitions, and the naturalistic model comes as the second. The current experts' opinion is that a visitor can touch on explores the model closely, the old fashion of "please don't touch" is outdated. This method is effective for children that can attract the attention of children as well because they like to touch objects. The significant, safety precaution for visitors must be considered whether the objects on display, experimental player, interactive media, interior design, and decoration, etc. These must be safe and do not any harm to visitors. 10. Sensory perception The perceptions of visitors to the exhibition, the visual, hearing, and touching senses were usage, some case a visitor could use the smell sense to perceive but the taste sense did not be usage. Also, the experts' opinion is that the exhibition would avoid the exposure of children to taste because to the concern health problem possible impression. 11. Mood and tone Referring to the Colour Image Scale theory of Shigenobu Kobayashi (1990: 2, 12) that “The classification of colours based on images is the key to understanding the way in which colour combinations are perceived, a common feeling runs through the images that people hold of colours. By research linking adjectives associated with these images and colour, he has developed the Key Word Image Scale. The keywords in the warm-soft area of the scale have an intimate feeling, and convey a casual image, while those in the warm-hard section have a dynamic character. The keywords in the cool-soft section have a clear feeling and suggest a good sense of colour, while those in the cool-hard section conveys an image of reliability and formality.” Thus, this theory can be applied to classify overall mood and tone of the exhibition. The result found that each exhibition had been the different mood and tone depending on its content. The British exhibitions mainly have been warm-soft mood and tone to make an enjoyable casual 112

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image. The Japanese exhibitions used several mood and tone such as warm-soft to make an enjoyable casual image, cool-soft to make a youthful cool-casual image, and cool-soft to make an artistic-tasteful chic image. While the Thai exhibitions mainly have been warm-hard to make a vigorous dynamic image, and warm-soft to make an enjoyable casual image comes as the second. In the case of the exhibitions were designed for children only found that the core of mood and tone have been warm-soft to make an enjoyable casual image corresponding all countries and according to the experts' opinion as well.

Figure 6. Analyse overall mood and tone of the exhibitions.

DISCUSSION The researcher analysed more than some of the issues below: The role of graphics for the exhibition in the case of the United Kingdom, graphics are served as the information to communicate the content of the object to display such as a history, a scientific principle, etc. On the other hand, in the case of Japan, graphics are served as the narrative and the exhibition would have a story theme. Graphics would be use as a media to visualise the story and to build the atmosphere which surrounded visitors. Nonetheless, in the case of Thailand, graphics are also served as the information, but they could not communicate well enough because of a lot of contents on the panel.


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Figure 7. A role of graphics for the exhibition.

The experts' opinion is that contents of the exhibition would be defined by the scholar which to be a lot of data normally that is consistent with the Thai education culture. Kritsada Reungareerath (cited to Arphawan Sopontammarak, 2015) agreed that the Thai education system forced many academic contents to children. Moreover, Thai children have lacked the freedom to learn because the education system has emphasized memorization rather than critical thinking and creativity. Preecha Methawasspark (cited to ASTV Manager Online, 2014) agreed that teaching of the Thai education system nowadays, the courses focused on contents and theories rather than to apply knowledge to everyday life. Thus, the Thai exhibition presented has been full of academic contents likely due to the primary education of Thailand highlighted with the knowledge memorization. The result of the study found the difference between British and Japanese children that are freedom to learn more than Thai children. The British education system is designed to support children learning freely such as a course has the homeroom class offered to them that need to learn anything. Meanwhile, the Japanese education system has focused on the creative learning such as a folding art is called "Origami" to be a subject in the course that children required learning, it has pushed them can be analysed brilliantly, intelligent and creative. So, both the British and Japanese exhibitions are designed to encourage children learning independently, and they have the learning media stimulate a child's creativity. The issue of the art and design culture, the United Kingdom is a country with the concept of modern art. The exhibition designer focuses on design regard to the corporate identity. Notice the use of typefaces in the exhibition is consistent with the organization's logo. The mention of Japan, a country with a highly nationalistic and also highly progress in science and 114

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technology. Various designs have reflected the Japanese style. They are proficient in creating that conscious about saving space. Thus, the exhibition is organized mainly in a small-size and medium-size space used the creativity to present the content to quickly understanding in a short time and could maintain their Japanese style as well which is evident from the Japanese is the primary language in the presentation of the exhibition. The contrast, Thailand has given the cultural influence of Western countries and international cultural leaders of Asia such as Japan and Korea. The graphic design of the exhibition usually uses a cute cartoon character and internationalization could appeal to children better. Simultaneously, showing the national identity could be done because the Thai language is the national language which Thai people use essentially, so the exhibition is also required to present the contents in Thai. In term of the exhibition for Thai children should design such as a title label and section or group label with a few texts in large-size typeface and may show description with a cartoon character and picture diagram on the advice of experts. The study found that the science museum exhibitions mainly have been focusing on the school-age target. However, their purposes allow children to experience by playing, while adults such as teacher and parent still need to read messages on the label and panel for suggesting children to learn and know how to play. Children are not interested in the detail of contents on the label and panel. They are only interested in playing everything which can be touch. The design concept of the exhibition for children is touching and safety. The exhibition should be installed with the object, mechanic, and interactive media that focusing on the visitor’s experience and also be considered the safety. Graphics for the exhibition served as the information and narrative. Especially, the graphic design should make visitors perceive the sense of touch and safety feel such as use the bright and vivid colour visual to stimulate imagination and creativity, the rounded typeface to make the safety feel, etc. At the same time, graphics should be able to create a learning atmosphere with mood and tone to illustrate comfortable, informal, and colourful images to motivate imagination and creativity to children.

CONCLUSION The study result indicated that the graphic design of the exhibition in all countries with the consistent in several items such as illustration styles, visual symbols, gestalt, graphic layouts, character types, and graphic colours. Among various parameters discussed, the mood and tone vary depending on the exhibit presented, and the role of the graphic is different because of the socio-cultural context of each country. The good exhibition design that includes: The content is appropriate for visitor’s learning ability. Learning materials such as real model, simulated model, and interactive media for the visitor can learn from exposure experiments. Beautiful graphics and engaging content to help viewers get to know and understand quickly. The text is a concise thematic material with the national language by the character and placement of the correct language. Construction and decoration exhibition tones create an atmosphere to the material presented. The objects positioning and devising paths viewers learn the content in its entirety and meet the objective of the presentation. Inclusive lighting lit with a message on the panel and backlight to create an atmosphere to the place. 115

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The graphic design of an exhibition for children, the designer, needs to know what the different artistic style between children and adults, studies the physical and intellectual development of children, learning behaviour, and their satisfaction. The designer must act to transform these data into easily visual communication to make children understanding and motivating them to learn. The conclusion could be drawn that the study result is serving as guide or sources inspiration of further artistic creation and design that attracting children further stage of development. Finally, if further studies on the theme of children's favourite, it will benefit to create a prototype of the graphic design for an exhibition that the most efficient.

REFERENCES Arnheim, Rudolf. (2004). Art and Visual Perception: A Psychology of the Creative Eye. Second Edition, Fiftieth Anniversary Printing edition (November 8, 2004). USA: University of California Press. ASTV Manager Online. (23 April 2014). Survey results indicate that children study hard in the world, but the truth is not use, have the special classes, need to reform. http://www.manager.co.th/QOL/ViewNews.aspx?NewsID=9570000045187 downloaded 21 November 2015. Bureau of Academic Affairs and Educational Standards. The Ministry of Education Thailand. (2008). The Basic Education Core Curriculum A.D. 2008. http://www.curriculum51.net/viewpage.php?t_id=95 downloaded 19 May 2015. E. Arnston, Amy. (2007). Graphic Design Basics. Fifth edition. USA: Thomson Wadsworth. Hein, George E. (1998). Learning in the museum. New York: Routledge. Hughes, Philip. (2010). Exhibition Design. United Kingdom: Laurence King. Kobayashi, Shigenobu. (1990). Color Image Scale. Tokyo: Kodansha International. Locker, Pam. (2011). Basics Interior Design 2: Exhibition Design. Switzerland: AVA. McKenna-Cress, Polly and Kamien, Janet A. (2013). Creating Exhibition: Collaboration in the Planning, Development, and Design of Innovative Experiences. New Jersey: Wiley & Sons. MGR Online. (17 February 2016). 20 Best Education Systems in the World: Year 2015/16. http://www.manager.co.th/Campus/ViewNews.aspx?NewsID=9590000017503 downloaded 20 March 2016. Mooney, Carol Garhart. (2013). Theories of Childhood: an introduction to Dewey, Montessori, Erickson, Piaget, and Vygotsky. Second edition. USA: Redleaf Press. Society for Experiential Graphic Design (SEGD 2006). Eat and Be Eaten. https://segd.org/content/eat-and-be-eaten downloaded 20 March 2015. Sopontammarak, Arphawan. (7 September 2015). Support to solve problems the new learning of Thai children. http://www.thaihealth.or.th/ downloaded 21 November 2015.


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Asst. Prof. Dr. Veerawat Sirivesmas. Department of Jewelry Design, Faculty of Decorative Arts, Silpakorn University. Bangkok, Thailand. [email protected] Assoc. Prof. Alias Yussof. Department of Contemporary Metal Design, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Shah Alam. Malaysia. [email protected]

Towards a new perspective of constructive development, the investigation is focusing on Malaysia-Thailand contemporary art & craft jewelry. From the tradition of national craft heritage, almost lost in conservation, the jewelry, silverware and metalwork. The Jewelry is representative of national artifact of high crafting. It passes through now a day where number of contemporary art objects and design pieces already introduced to society. From this perspective, the different between lifestyle and culture can shape up concept and identity of contemporary jewelry. Where the traditional elements can still remain in somewhere of the object! Many academicians, designer makers are working and try to modernize these national prides which obtained the traditional implicit knowledge and local wisdoms. The art and design education also concerns this matter by raising many cultural topics involved into curriculum. It becomes a subject that students can reflect their role of preservation or expression on their cultural contents. It begins in 2008 by the Department of Fine Metal, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Malaysia, invited a staff (author) of Department of Jewelry Design, Silpakorn Unversity Thailand, as external assessor for final year students assessment. The participatory research occasionally began from that point. Observation, interview both of students and staff also applied according to the process of assessment. Absolutely, the differentiation between the students’ outcome product of jewelry in Malaysia and Thailand are obviously divergence. However, the traditional ornament of each country and culture also be noticed that have been frequently applied in students’ work. The constructive criticism always the core discussed during the students’ assessment and exit meeting with department members. Many improvements can be noticed not only students’ works but also the academic relationship through collaboration activities create among two institutions. Key words: Ornamental, Metalwork, Jewelry,

Introduction Thailand and Malaysia, the metalwork and jewelry perspectives It may have different craft organizations among two countries In Thailand, many craftsmen and craft products are supported by many government organizations eg: Bangsai Royal Folk Arts and Crafts Center. The Support Art and Craft International of Thailand (Public Organization), (SACICT) and many government divisions that support and improve the arts and crafts and some aspects it across toward design such as Thailand Creative Design Center (TCDC). There are also others organizations in Thailand such as, the ministry of Commerce, the ministry of Industry and the ministry of Culture for examples.


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In Malaysia there are also many private and government support organizations such as: Institut kraf Negara, National Crafts Institute. Malaysian Handicraft Development (MHDC), Yayasan Nur Zahirah (The Royal Terenganu Songket) The Tuanku Nur Zahirah Foundation (YTNZ), Malaysia Craft Center. Perbadanan Kemajuan Kraftangan, Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Craft Complex. Yayasan Diraja Sultan Mizan, Sultan Mizan Royal Foundation(YDZM).These government organizations also have connection among local craftsmen and institutions as networking in crafts. However, the UiTM itself also found its own business unit calls ‘Segaris Art Center’ where art works and design objects of alumni and post-grade students can be promoted and commercialized to the public. National Craft Heritage to Modern appreciation. Thus, the objectives of these organizations function are to support and promote the crafts heritage into modern market. The understanding of local people about craft product may have various approaches. Some may see as the tradition products that might not be suitable for nowadays lifestyle. The evidence of national crafts heritage has seen as collective artifacts. Some may see as a very high value of craftsmanship quality that is very distinct from industrial product. Some may see as national or even individual identity in global market. It is the hard work to highlight the arts and crafts for local people to perceive as national appreciation. That is the reason why many state and government organizations are emphasized on their cultural heritage. It is the national property.

Figure 1. The nielloware with gold inlayed surface technique. Nakorn Si Thammaraj. Museum of Sociology and Anthopology, Thammasat University. Bangkok Thailand.

Metalwork and Jewelry, also categorized as one kind of tradition craft heritage. It can be referred to many craft objects that found in archeological sites in many territories in the country. The evidences also showed as artifacts in national museum of each country. Even now a day, some of tradition metal work and jewelry craft objects are still be found in many 118

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households. Some keep them as collective family objects. Many still occasionally uses as tradition and cultural functions for example, a set of silver tray groom, embossed silver bowl for merit or homage, a set of betel box or condiments. Some of tradition silverware or brassware have also found in common in the southern of Thailand and Northern part of Malaysia. Certainly, it can refer to some of cultural context relevance in some territory along boarder of Thailand and Malaysia that can be influenced. The transferring of Crafts from local wisdoms to academic institution The scenario of arts and crafts in Thailand and Malaysia, in another perspective, there are not only arts and crafts training just in the local area by local wisdoms as the time before. Many of them are now supported by state, government organizations. However, many other countries also have this kind of organized their arts and crafts by the government in similar ways. These are the reasons of conservation and prolong the circle life of craft products in to the national and tourist market. There is another national strategy of conserving and applying the crafts into the young generation appreciation and one of the most effective tools is to register into the education system. The early stage may be training in vocational schools as apprenticeship for craft career. Some have been repositioned into the level of university. Now a day, many art and design universities around the world provide arts and crafts disciplines in their regularly programs and curriculums. Department of Contemporary Metal Design, Faculty of Art and Design, UiTM, Shah Alam, Malaysia. Originally named of the department could refer to the Fine Metal department. It was established in 1967 and it is one among few pioneer of art departments when Institute Teknologi MARA was found on that time. Now a day, the Metalwork and jewelry become a discipline that not many number of students applied. However, it becomes one of crafts discipline that other institutions in Malaysia want to open the program. Department of Jewelry Design, Faculty of Decorative Arts, Silpakorn University. Bangkok, Thailand has been established in 1995 according to the high demanded of jewelry industry in Thailand. Along the twenty years of department. The number of students in take is slightly grown up. Thanks to the various inputs of team teaching, the working system that creates good academic networking from traditions to industrialize. The strong objective of institution that aims to study the history of Thais arts and crafts, and the study of present day design theories. The factor of the art and craft appreciations in young generation certainly it influences by studying that functions to connect the traditional wisdom and heritage to contemporary contextualization. A step of Collaboration In the field of Metal work and jewelry, these two institutions might not have coincidently working together until the UITM invited Dr. Veerawat Sirivesmas, (One of researcher and co-author of this article) to be external examiner. That should refer into 2006. As the regular assignment is to assess the final year students’ projects, It has been continuing this assignment until now 2016. Therefore, the notice of Malaysian Metal work and jewelry under the expression of students of UiTM has been capture year by year. It is not only one way observation. The collaboration is gradually growing up of both sides. Many collaboration activities has been created and exchanged by both institutions on the first decade of collaboration such as exchanging exhibition, academic visiting, exchanging lecture and workshop.


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Above the views of being external examiner becomes internal data collector In the view of external examiner, according to the assignment, there are specific criterias that external has to investigate though out the assessment processes, such as students learning opportunities where do the project briefs provided enough opportunities to students to convey their learning process. Attainment of academic standard where the student’ processes and outcome are contained a certain level of quality. Along the process of assessment brings the researchers to involve with interview with student individually. However, not just only the duty of assessment framework the view of researchers also seen the environmental and circumstance of pedagogic approach in art and design practice based process also showed as evidences. The important is the opportunity to share opinion and experience with staff and lecturers of the department and faculty in order to improve the academic circumstance. This could be affected in both sides of institutions. The different experiences you gained is the different angles to share. This approach of over viewing is constructed the data collection and analysis process of the research.

Materials & Methods According to the circumstance of assessment environment, and during year by year that the authors participated and being a role part of the process. Observation and investigation on all of learning evidences are become the fundamental research method. It is good opportunities to look at the final product in very close up, in every piece and details. The outcome of assessment delivered to the department as a report form and grading. During the assessment process, It can be noticed the independent variable and controlled variable factors. Therefore, the primary content is the assessment report of the students’ performance as mentioned. Secondary content is somehow formulated during the ‘tetari session’ It is a casual tea and coffee time moment after assignment work among assessor and hosts (Team teaching involved). The atmosphere is allowed to talk and discuss about the subject beyond the assessment. Therefore the moment of ‘flow’ happened (Mihaly Csikszenmihalyi 2002). It is not just the moment of happiness ‘flow’ but it is also the moment of ‘creativity’ flows to and the pre-discussion was happened from there constructively before formally addressed on the meeting room on the day after. New perspective of constructive development in teaching and learning process in Metalwork and Jewelry It might not be claimed that it was a new formular of planning the learning environment and preparing the teaching strategy. However, the ‘tetari session’ has somehow formulated the new idea that assessor has experiencing in his teaching and learning circumstance before and sees the new contextualization with the new environments and factors. Therefore, the new opportunities and new solutions in order to improve the students’ performance and outcome that should be tried to share. As the perspective of External Assessor, there is certain academic assessment criteria to follow. It seems to be widely and broadly scope that allowed assessor to investigate in various aspects of student works. For example, the attainment of academic standard, this criteria the assessor firstly focused on the student learning activities during the semester project. Most of the information came from interview to students. It should be proportional correspondent 120

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between learning activities and scope of project lead-time according to the other related evidences such as report, sketch book etc. Then it can summarized that how students spent (or controlled to spent) time on their project. It is about the time-based with project management. It focused on the process and quality of the process that students spent rather than the others.

External Assessor Academic Assessment Criterias Outside in

Outside in Attainment of


Academic Standard Opportunities

Interview students Objects evidences Comments and Reccommendation

Outside in

Figure 2: A model showed the role of external assessor from the point of view of author (Veerwat Sirivesmas)

The learning opportunities, it can be highlight in to the subject matter that students selected or choose to study. Then investigated into how students open their opportunities to explore their possible of ideas. This process is in the stage of concept and contextualize of their work based on getting the project briefing. The choices of materials applied into the fabricating process are also countable.

In the perspective of curriculum It is inevitable that when the evidences of output showed. The questions of input were raised. What was the brief of the final project(s). What is the objective of the project. How were teachers, lecturers created project. What kind of references beyond. Certainly, there were also questions to understand the course syllabus and the program curriculum. The academic objective of curriculum has ambitious and positive aims. To discuss about the improvement of 121

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curriculum may be too large scope. That take years to improve and implement that. However, understanding the curriculum and students circumstances is very important. The experimental work that can be done among the assessor and team teaching becomes the brief of the project. Beyond the brief Final year students have to deal with three projects and they have to be completed in 15 weeks time or one semester. The three difference brief might be slightly varies during years. However, mostly the briefs can be categorized ad one specific project such as ‘microscopic elements that encourage students to explore into differences dimension of form, which becomes subject matter of students work. Second project is dealing with cultural approach. References to ASEAN cultures and countries are main focus to students. The final project is dealing with professional award that inspired into the students project. The highlight is focused on the cultural inspiration whereas students explored and experimented a lot on their works. Each project could divide into 4-6 weeks of lead-time. Almost of them were overlapping to each other project. It’s inevitable that some of project was well treated than another. Depended on students’ interested too, this matter will be discussed later about the number of the projects and how it can be arranged. According to the project brief, students have to define their own subject matter under the brief. The subject matter somehow might not be different from the others because of the theme of the project for example, microscopic elements, many students end up with few subject matters and some of them used the same subject matter (chromosome form, DNA spiral form, multi dots form). On the other hands, the ASEAN culture project, teacher tried to arrange students when selected countries (there are 10 countries in ASEAN community). Therefore, not many students use the same subject matter. That is the cause of repetition of subject matter. Design Direction Once the students got their subject matter and started to do some context and visual research. The early stage of key visual collected might not differ. The question was started again on design development, where it can convey student to may be different design direction or even the similar way of direction. This matter of how to guide students to explore their design direction might be focused on the teacher or instructor. Many design process of student went distortion during design development process. Somehow the drawing or sketch design could not be lead in design development. The experimental of three dimension prototyping should be the good solution.


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External Assessor

Academic Circumstance Inside out

Teaching& Learning

inside out


Project Planning Corse outline

External Assessor As Internal Researcher

Project Briefing

Lecturer Performance Individual&Team

Creative stimulation Creative Stimulator

Planning Professional Simulation

Figure 3: The model explained the how external assessor becomes internal researcher the ‘inside out’ arrows indicated the interchanging data and constructive discussion are played role. (Veerawat Sirivesmas)

The figure 3 described the angle when the external assessor becomes the internal observer or researcher. Based on the assessment criteria which looked like to be the framework to evaluate students, on the other hands, it returned and reflected back to investigate the academic circumstances, teaching team strategy and also project curriculum. The outer and greater perspective of this model can help to look through every single element in teaching and learning process not only students and teacher but also the academic circumstance and its contextualization.


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Experimental prototyping, another approach of design development Beyond the brief, curriculum planning, and design direction many topics have been raised during the assessment and discussion. As it has been mentioned that the sketching process is not only way of design development, to encourage students to do more experimental work it needed to discuss with the team. Pro-Con, Weakness and strengthen approach of each design process has been discussed. The three dimensional experiment can help student to explore their out-line sketch drawing into actual form. It was the first time that students can meet their object in realization. The appropriate dimension of the product should be considered. Students also knew how to plan and manage their fabrication process based on time management. The further materials experiment and technique could be help student to define more right things. How students can manage if their fabrication process would be engaged with forming, raising, forging, piecing, chasing, or etching, patinationg. The mock up model making is an important process that supported students to clarify their works. It is a crafting process that could enhance into pre-industrial fabrication.

Figure 4: The evidences of experimental mock up model, pre-prototyping from students of UiTM Shah Alam, Malaysia.


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Figure 5: The close up of surface treatment by hammering to create form and texture on metal. The green color effected by oxidizing chemical to patinate the metal surface. (Work of student, UiTM Shah Alam. Malaysia) source by author

Results The evidences of the result, firstly, it can be noticed as the art work objects. Secondly, the result of the improvement of course out-line and teaching method. As the artworks’ evidence. The figure 6 showed the outstanding of student work. One came from the microscopic elements where students can describe the subject matter (a selective of microscopic creature) and interpreted it into metalwork made from copper sheet. The student worked on the surface and texture creation. The outcome contained standard quality of craftsmanship and the form that simply connect audience to understand the subject matter.


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Figure 6: The image showed the completed work that student used the subject matter of microscopic element. It showed the multi-layer surfaces with various dimension of texture. ( Final year students UiTM, Shah Alam, Malaysia.) source by author

The figure 6 showed the two notorious artworks of students. These two artworks were inspired by the ASEAN culture. This subject matter can lead students to explore more history of the culture that he or she interested in. The study of ornaments and patterned also showed on the research and sketch books. The evidence showed how students applied their craftsmanship qualities into their fabricating process. The objects contained multi metal work techniques such as piercing, etching, forming, and patina. Students also applied appropriated usage function that suitable to the form and ornament creation. The lighting unit is very good example of understanding the direction of the light. The metal sheet bened and composed over-layering created nice and meaning shape. The indirect lighting effect is nicely shading to notice the texture and surface, the ornament that student created. On the other hand, another metal work ‘container’ inspired by Thai ornament. Student studied the pattern and ornaments in various form. The function that student created were also unique that enhance the important of the form. The patina technique color came on the right feeling. The collaboration among team teaching to work on the brief that inspired students to work on their process along the semester was very important. On the other hand, the effort of students that contributed on their project was also admired. Being encouraged and being 126

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inspired to students by team teaching is beyond expectation. Finally, the effort of students that dedicated to their final project can obviously show on the final work as evidences.

Figure 7: Another images of the final project done by students. The objects showed clearly evidence of cultural ornaments that become main eye focused of the object. It can lead the audience to understand the context of the project involving with cultural matters.

The adjustment of course outline and teaching process There was no document of syllabus to show the evidence how team teaching improved their course out-line. One of the comments was the time management of each project. Teacher should strategically help their students to arrange their studio time by indicating different deadline of each project. That would avoid the overlap traffic of project in the workplace. The results was quite satisfied.


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Uncontrolled factors Certainly, many research project, there should have some of uncontrolled factors happened. In this case the Dependent factor that has been discussed was about the brief planning and the team teaching strategy. However, Students learning behavior was become major factor of excuse. Due to the UiTM allows to have two time in take students per year. One might be recruited the standard quality of students. Another semester the program could collect the intake students that might not have passion on their study. The problem could be solve strategically by teaching method. This might be further study.

Discussion & Conclusion As the topic addressed above ‘Malaysia-Thailand, beyond the new ornamentalism in contemporary Jewelry’, the result of investigation by interviewed and observation scoped can be depicted by its outcomes. The strategic planning of lecturers and instructors were aimed on the important of its cultural heritage in their national crafts, in particular metalwork and jewelry. Therefore one of the Projects was driven in that direction. It opened opportunities to students to approach and explore creativity in cultural scope. Many of final projects came out with inspiration from the various traditional patterns and ornaments. The ornamentalism was named after the outcome appeared and it gradually clear year by year that many students were highlighted on the visualized of their cultural representations. The cultural ornaments become the majority surfaces of metalwork outcomes. The resulted was evaluated in the scope of academic framework. The improvement of learning outcome, many of student works can show their enthusiastic during fabrication thought out the quality of product. It is very good initiative point to create the good design brief under the scope of academic circumstance to encourage the seeking of cultural Identity through art, craft and design objects. A stimulation of Creativity Another important factor is the discussion among lecturers and external examiner, the open mind during the discussion to see the weakness and strong points. Some aspects should be improved; some should be emphasized for examples, the content of the project brief, and the lead-time of each project. Even the detail of teaching process of design development and the important of mock up prototyping should be showed as students’ experimental process. The revision of lesson planning or even teaching method has been collaborated. It is the important of strategic planning of course syllabus and the significant of teaching methods. The senses of Malaysian contemporary metal design seen by students’ outcomes are relatively connected with cultural identity. This process is a kind of course outline adjustment (might be easier than curriculum improvement, author) It works among team teaching and certainly above the brief before comes to students. This is a strategic planning for stimulation and inspiration of creativity. That is the process whereas students could be implemented along the program. The process of learning and outcome are evidences. Therefore, this research is about the perspective of Thai researcher in collaboration with Malaysian team teaching (Contemporary Metal Design, UiTM Malaysia). On the other hands, another perspective from Malaysian team to view Thai contemporary jewelry and metal design should be reviewed in near future. It is not a comparative study. It is about collaboration and the creation of constructive critique among two institutions. In order to review and see each other to improve not just teaching and learning method and outcome, but also to strengthen the 128

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academic collaboration. Moreover, further collaboration program and activities for those two universities and our academic networking should be expanded. The project among the department of contemporary metal design UiTM Shah Alam Malaysia and Department of Jewelry Silpakorn University, Thailand, should be referred as evidence to develop more academic activities of future project.

Acknowledgements Department of Contemporary Metal Design, Faculty of Art and Design. Universiti Teknologi MARA. UiTM Shah Alam. Malaysia Associate Prof. Alias Yussof: Former Head Department, Deputy Dean Dr. Haniff Khairi : Head Department of Contemporary Metal Design. Department of Jewelry Design, Faculty of Decorative Arts, Silapkorn University. Thailand. Ms. Tataroschong Srikulakorn : Head Department of Jewelry Design.

References Bangkok Fashion City. (2005). Stone on Jewelry. Bangkok Fashion now & tomorrow. Volume. Three. Department of Industrial Promotion, Ministry of Industry. Thailand. E. De Bono (1990) ‘Lateral Thinking Creativity Step by sStep. Harper Perennial. E. De Bono (1999) ‘Six thinking hats’ Little Brown and Company. M.Csikszentmihalyi (2002) ‘Flow’ The Psychology of Optimal Experience. Harper Perennial Modern Classics. California. O, Untrach. (1998) Jewelry Concept and Technology. The Crowood Press Ltd. London, United Kingdom. A, Young. (2008). The Jeweler’s Techniques Bible. Asia: Published by Page One Publishing Pte Ltd.


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Visual methods in social research on Lanna mural painting: A case study of Wat Phumin, Nan province


Corresponding author: Tawipas Pichaichanarong Graduate Student Faculty of Decorative Arts Silpakorn University Bangkok, Thailand email : [email protected]


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Abstract According to most of tourists who have visited Thai temples and have seen Thai mural paintings with untrained eyes, they might not understand a story on walls at first sight. It may be because Thai mural paintings look confusing, crowded with colorful figures that appears similar in detail and character, leaving no place to focus one’s attention (David K. Wyatt, 2004). Thai mural painting is a disparate of the visual arts because of conventions that are entirely its own. This research is designed to study the capability of Thai and Foreign tourists in order to apprehend Lanna mural painting through visual methods in social research. For Methodology, questionnaires were used by collecting the data from the total of 411 Thai and foreign tourists who have been visited Wat Phumin, Nan province. At the same time, qualitative method was used by collecting the data form tourists who have been visited Wat Phumin, Nan province. The data then were analyzed using mean, descriptive statistics, and qualitative data. This study concludes that the comprehension of Lanna mural painting at first sight from Thai and foreign tourists at Wat Phumin, Nan province are not positive. In addition, the results reported that our respondents have verified that there is no direction in order to understand stories on Lanna mural painting from the beginning. Furthermore, the results reported that our respondents have established visual methods in social research in order to discover more effective solutions to facilitate Thai and foreign tourists to obtain the information of the storytelling in Lanna mural painting at first sight as possible. Key words: Visual Methods, Social research, Lanna mural painting, Nan province


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Introduction In his ‘Study of Thai Traditional Architecture’, Wattana Boonjub (2009) describes that Mural paintings recreate the walls consists of ordination and visual images with some texts which designed for spiritual instruction. He points out that Mural painting are used in order to teach Thai people dates back before the 20th century. At that time the majority of Thai population were illiterate, only Buddhist monks were educated in the temple, which to study the ancient scriptural language ‘Pali’. As a result, murals were used to represent the teachings of Buddha because they were easy to understand and remember. As times went by for many centuries, Thailand’s heritages become the tourist’s attraction for tourists all around the world. More research supports Thailand’s tourism, Mingsarn Kaosa-ard (2002) found that the composition of tourism consists of three characteristics; there are 1. The product is composed of natural resources which are public goods: beaches, waterfalls, mountain, and the general environment. 2. Safety and infrastructure are also important elements of the product. 3. A nation's people and their culture, and visitors' access to both are important components of any tourism product or package. One of Thailand’s cultural heritages is mural painting. The problems emerged from tourists’ experiences. Another study (Hacker, 2008) explained about experience for the first time to look at Thai mural painting, the author was fascinated by exuberant painting on the wall, and felt impossible to decide where to start to look.

Literature review Lanna mural painting at Wat Phumin, Nan Province In this study, the researcher determines to select Lanna mural painting at Wat Phumin, Nan province as a case study to be the scope of study. According to Lanna mural paintings, Nan province has unique characteristics that can reflect Lanna arts and cultures more precisely. Much of the content inside these works is from Wat Phumin in Nan Province. Nan mural paintings consider as Lanna Art, which represents the northern part of Thailand, known as ‘the Kingdom of Lanna.’ As the matter of fact, this study will focus on the government’s region that represents ‘the Kingdom of Lanna,’ consisting of 8 provinces (Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Lampang, Lamphun, Phayao, Phrae, Mae Hong Son and Nan). Nan province, located in the most eastern part of Northern Thailand and at the border with Laos, is a sparsely populated part of the country. Only about 500,000 people live in the valley along the Nan river and in the mountain ranges on both sides of the river. This geography is reflected in the ethnic make-up (Amalia Rossi, 2012), they are made up of various different ethnic or language groups such as the Mon-Khmer speaking minorities Lua, Htin, Khamu, Mlabri, and the Hmong and Mien groups (Davis, 1984; Delcore, 2008; Rossi, 2012).


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In addition, Nawit Ongsavangchai (2013) points out that Nan has been ranked Thailand’s top five most livable cities for many years. It is well known among tourists as a living old town and becomes a famous destination for Thai tourists who love living heritage. The rich culture of Nan city and abundant nature of Nan province have attracted many tourists to make a visit. The numbers of them have increased every year; nonetheless most of them pay a visit to only some famous places. Especially, in the city such as, Muang district, the city centre where many famous temples and noble family’s houses are located. For this reason, Wat Phumin, Nan province will suitable to be a focus place in this study. Visual methods The definition of ‘visual methods’ (Hine, 2005) or ‘digital methods’ (Rogers, 2009) explains these methods include the adjustment and transformation of conventional research techniques such as participant observation, interview, focus groups and surveys, as well as innovative proposals. The use of visual methods to resolve interactions and build understandings within social science research. For example, this research will focus on visual materials such as Lanna mural painting and the processes associated with the audiences. As a result, this research aims to enhance visual methods and build spread across the social science research in effective ways.

Methodology Questionnaires were used by collecting the data from the total of 411 Thai and foreign tourists who have been visited Wat Phumin, Nan province. At the same time, qualitative method was used by collecting the data from tourists who have been visited Wat Phumin, Nan province. The data then were analyzed using mean, descriptive statistics, and qualitative data. In addition, qualitative data were arising from questionnaire and in-depth interview.

Tool of Measurement The participant’s responses were measured by scales adapted from Barbara Sommer (2011). The five-point differential scale asked respondents to rate whether storytelling on Lanna mural painting from tourists’ standpoint that there were a lot of information to obtain at first sight while they were at Wat Phumin, Nan Province. In addition the question was asked a tourist to rate whether is there a starting point in Lanna mural painting at Wat Phumin, Nan province.

Procedures To test the hypothesis, information was gathered by a questionnaire with the approval of the tourists. To ensure instrument reliability and to prevent respondent sensitization, respondents were instructed to answer the questionnaire with conditions of storytelling of Lanna mural paintings at Wat Phumin, Nan province, storytelling of Lanna mural paintings in general, and storytelling of Thai mural paintings in general. 133

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Results For the questionnaire, there're 411 representative samples by random sampling. There are 161 male (39.2%) and 250 female (60.8%) which is accidentally equal. For the status issue, there are 12 persons (2.9%) for young tourists, 388 persons (94.4%) for Thai tourists, 11 persons (2.7%) for foreign tourists. For the education level, there're 22 persons (5.4%) have primary school education, 48 persons (11.7%) have secondary school education, 15 persons (3.6%) have vacation school education, 249 persons (3.6%) have bachelor degree education, 70 persons (17%) have master degree education, and 7 persons (1.7%) have Ph.D. degree education.

Test of Hypothesis To test the hypotheses were used range of means from the measured scale. The intervals of measured; there are four intervals, which are 1- 1.8 refers to very little, 1.8 – 2.6 refers to little, 2.6 - 3.4 refers to somewhat, 3.4- 4.2 refers to very, and 4.2 – 5 refers to very much. This study tests the comprehension from Thai tourists and foreign tourists; H-1 predicted storytelling on Lanna mural paintings contain a lot of information, which was overwhelming for tourists to obtain at first sight. To test H-1, Q 4.1, Q5.1 and Q 6.1 refers to storytelling of mural paintings in different setting; Table 1 Questions for storytelling of mural paintings in different setting


Q 4.1 predicted storytelling on Lanna mural paintings at Wat Phumin, Nan province contain 3.65 a lot of information, which was overwhelming for tourists to obtain at first sight. Q 5.1 predicted storytelling on Lanna mural 3.26 paintings in general contain a lot of information, which was overwhelming for tourists to obtain at first sight. Q 6.1 predicted storytelling on Thai mural 3.16 paintings in general contain a lot of information, which was overwhelming for tourists to obtain at first sight Finally, the result of Mean scores (3.65) from Q 4.1 determined that most tourists agree that storytelling on Lanna mural paintings at Wat Phumin, Nan province contain a lot of information, which was overwhelming for tourists to obtain at first sight places in the measured scale 3.4 -4.2 which refers to very agree. 134

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H-2 predicted most of tourists do not know there is a starting point for looking at Lanna mural paintings at Wat Phumin, Nan province. To test H-2, Q 4.2, Q5.2 and Q 6.2 refers to mural paintings in different setting;

Table 2 Questions for refers to mural paintings in different setting


Q 4.2 predicted most of tourists do not know 4.08 there is a starting point for looking at Lanna mural paintings at Wat Phumin, Nan province.

Q 5.2 predicted most of tourists do not know 3.64 there is a starting point for looking at Lanna mural paintings in general.

Q 6.2 predicted most of tourists do not know 3.46 there is a starting point for looking at Thai mural paintings in general. Finally, the result of Mean scores (4.08) from Q 4.2 determined that most of tourists do not know there is a starting point for looking at Lanna mural paintings at Wat Phumin, Nan province places in the measured scale 3.4- 4.2 which refers to very agree.

Reliability Tavakol and Dennick (2011), both professors, have pointed out that reliability is concerned with the ability of an instrument to measure typically. In fact, the reliability of an instrument is cooperative with validity. In general, there is a widely use ‘Cronbach's alpha’ to measure of reliability. To test the reliability of this questionnaire, this research use Cronbach's alpha to find the reliability of Q 4 (4.1 and 4.2), Q 5 (5.1 and 5.2), and Q 6 (6.1 and 6.2). Table 3 Questions

Cronbach’s Alpha

Number of items

Q 4 (4.1 and 4.2)



Q 5 (5.1 and 5.2)



Q 6 (6.1 and 6.2)


2 135

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Kanlaya Vanichbuncha (2002) explains for most widely use Cronbach's alpha to validate the reliability of items, they have accepted the value of Cronbach's alpha at 0.7. However, if the value of Cronbach's alpha is less than 0.7 but exceed 0.6. It also considers the value of Cronbach's alpha > 0.6 is trustworthy (Peterson, 1994; Chen et al., 2007). In sum, the evaluations of the questionnaire were acceptable from the results in Table 3. In addition, the findings from in-depth interview from Thai and foreign tourists, we can finish that there is a problem to obtain arts and information from Lanna mural paintings at Wat Phumin, Nan province at first sight and we also can confirm that most tourists do not know where to start to look at Lanna mural painting inside Wat Phumin, Nan province.

Qualitative methods: an example from some tourists at Wat Phumin, Nan province. Research Question What are the personal experiences from tourists who have been seen Lanna mural paintings at Wat Phumin, Nan province? Are they any problems to obtain information from Lanna mural painting at Wat Phumin, Nan province?

Theories integrated The framework used was the process-context approach to demographic behavior (Willekens, 1990; De Bruijn, 1999). Leo J.G. and Van Wissen (1999) added the processcontext approach in demographic research has got momentum in recent years. This development is emulated not only in theoretical developments but also in an alteration in the methodological at the center of the field. Fieldwork approach Focus group discussions were used to identify the broad range of opinions on ‘storytelling of Lanna mural painting’ among tourists who have been visit Wat Phumin, Nan province (Figure 1). Focus group discussions were conducted with both women and men, who were older and younger with average ages between 23-40 years old, and from urban and rural areas. In order to learn about personal experiences about looking at Lanna mural painting, the researcher then conducted in-depth interviews with individuals who were selected from the focus group discussions. The fieldwork lasted for one day. When developing the study, the researcher was uncertain whether it would be possible to collect information on subjective issues from tourists. In fact, the researcher founded that some of tourists came to Wat Phumin 136

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only to see a renowned painting 'Poo Marn Yar Marn' ('Whispering of Love') (figure 2), it was famous internationally. Indeed, most of tourists do not know the storytelling from the painting on the wall entriely. When the researcher told the tourists the right ways to look at storytelling on Lanna mural painting. All tourists felt appreciating more about the storytelling on Lanna mural painting. There are three categories for storytelling on Lanna mural paintings at Wat Phumin, Nan province; First: ‘Story of the Buddha’, Second: ‘Previous Life Stories of the Buddha’, and Third ‘The ordinary life of local people’. According the amount of storytelling on Lanna mural painting are in great numbers. The researcher asked individual tourists to place in order of importance, which storytelling from the wall they would to see in moving images; First: ‘The ordinary life of local people’, Second: ‘Previous Life Stories of the Buddha’, and Third: ‘Story of the Buddha’. However, some tourists said they don't have time to watch the moving images. It should be short and interesting instead of making longer and have too much information. The conclusion from in-depth interview from tourists, we can conclude that the tourists’ personal experiences came to be important role in order to develop proper solutions to facilitate tourists to obtain information from Lanna mural paintings at Wat Phumin, Nan province for this study.

Figure1 Wat Phumin, Nan province


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Figure 2 'Poo Marn Yar Marn' ('Whispering of Love') Quantitative vs. Qualitative In this research, the researcher used both Quantitative and Qualitative to test hypotheses. Due to the nature of their differences, Christian Rohrer (2014) suggested that quantitative methods has a better explanation about the events, it is dealing with how many and how much types of questions. Whereas qualitative methods are more suitable for answering questions about why or how to fix a problem,. The following figure (Figure 3) illustrates how two methods affect the types of questions that can be asked.

Figure 3


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Discussion The results support the mentioned hypotheses. This study concludes that the comprehension of Lanna mural painting at first sight from Thai and foreign tourists at Wat Phumin, Nan province are not positive. Furthermore, the results report that our respondents have verified that there is no direction in order to understand stories on Lanna mural painting from the beginning. In addition, the results report that our respondents have established visual methods in social research in order to discover more effective solutions to facilitate Thai and foreign tourists to obtain the information of the storytelling in Lanna mural painting at first sight as possible. As a result, this study can use ‘personal experiences’ from tourists in order to design a preliminary item or new knowledge in order to solve the problem of this study effectively and usefully.


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References Boonjub, W. (2009). The study of Thai traditional architecture as a resource for contemporary building design in Thailand. Bangkok: Graduate School, Silpakorn University. Chen, C. & Tsai, D. (2007). How destination image and evaluative factors affect behavioral intentions?. Tourism Management, 28, 1115-1122. Davis, R. (1984). Muang metaphysics. A study on Northern Thai myth and ritual. Bangkok, Thailand: Pandora De Bruijn, B.J. (1999) Foundations of Demographic Theory. Choice, process, context. Amsterdam: Thela Publishers. Delcore, H. (2003). Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and Development in Nan Province, Northern Thailand. American Ethnologist, 30(1), 61-84. doi:10.1525/ae.2003.30.1.61 Hine, C. (2005). Virtual Methods: Issues in Social Research on the Internet. Oxford: Berg. Hacker, T. (2009). Of muscular gods and tattooed men:Transformations in Thai Mural Painting. Singapore: Department of Southeast Asian studies, National University of Singapore. Kaosa-ard, M. (2016). Development and Management of Tourism Products: The Thai Experience. Chiang Mai: Social Research Institute, Chiang Mai University. Ongsavangchai, N. (2013). The Study of Architectural and Cultural Resources in Nan Municipality Area for Encouraging Community Based Tourism. International Critical Tourism Studies Conference V. Bosnia and Herzegovina, 358-373 Peterson, R. (1994). A Meta-Analysis of Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha. Journal Of Consumer Research, 21(2), 381-391. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2489828 Rohrer, C. (2014). When to Use Which User-Experience Research Methods. Nngroup.com. Retrieved 8 August 2016, from https://www.nngroup.com/articles/which-ux-research- methods/ Rogers, R. (2009). The End of the Virtual: Digital Methods. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. Rossi, A. (2012). Turning Red Rural Landscapes Yellow? Suffi ciency Economy and Royal Projects in the Hills of Nan Province, Northern Thailand. Austrian Journal of SouthEast Asian Studies, 5(2), 275-291.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.4232/10.ASEAS-5.2-6 Sommer, B. (2016). Scaling: Semantic differential. Psc.dss.ucdavis.edu. Retrieved 4 August 2016, from http://psc.dss.ucdavis.edu/sommerb/sommerdemo/scaling/semdiff.htm 140

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Tavakol, M. & Dennick, R. (2011). Making sense of Cranach’s alpha. International Journal Of Medical Education, 2, 53-55. Vanichbuncha, K. (2002). The statistical analysis: Statistics. For administration and research (6th ed.). Bangkok: Chulalongkorn University Press. Willekens,F.J. (1990) Beweging in de Demografie [Movement in demography].Inaugural lecture, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (in Dutch). Wissen, L. & Dykstra, P. (1999). Population issues. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. Wyatt, D. (2004). Reading Thai murals. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm Books


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TELEVISION DRAMA AND AUDIENCE BEHAVIOR by: Hasan, Renta Vulkanita email: [email protected] Abstract Phenomenon of television drama has its own charm when correlated with some of audience behavior who have a tendency same behavior patterns. This was evident at a position that shows the impression of a television drama with the presentation of certain behavior a person through fiction packaging. While at the opposite positions appear audience who represents some of the behaviors on television dramas they watch. Discourse that developed during this explains that there is a shift in lifestyle patterns audience, which tends to duplicate everything like they are watching on the television drama. This discourse formulated that the relationship between the television audience is considered as power relations. This discourse of power relations in trying to show the symptoms of self-actualization audience that is grounded in the character of a television drama. That is the position of popularity and quality of selfactualization are determined entirely by television. However, in reality the researchers discovered recently, the relationship between television and the audience is not entirely in the form of power relations. The tendency of a television drama that presented the story of everyday life, as well as the tendency of viewers who presented a drama in their lives phenomena are causative relationship. Audience behavioral approach in this study is considered relevant enough to the conceptualization of alternative perspectives. Alternative perspective to the position relationship between television and the audience as the two texts are the causes and relational. Through this study, the results obtained in the form of the view that the relationship between television and the audience has a term called "causality". Causality is a term that is defined as a counter to the requirements of "power relations" are often echoed far by some researchers who say that the television is to have control over the relationship with the audience. Keywords: Television, Drama, Behavior, Audience, Lifestyle


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A. INTRODUCTION This study is an initial review of the possible emergence of an alternative position in view of the relationship between television with the audience. Since the researchers observed the events spectators who adopts a television drama in lifestyle and behavior patterns that they can be, there is an interesting phenomenon that appears in these symptoms. This phenomenon shows the tendency lifestyle similarities between the "watch" and "viewed". The similarity can be seen as an example of the behavior patterns of dress and how to communicate the style of the clothes. Clothes or "dress" is one element that is always involved in any television drama production. In addition to so-called artistic elements, clothing, inside of involvement with the television drama and the audience, also referred to as prototype and representation lifestyle.1 In view of the prototype, the researchers noticed that the audience tend to notice patterns of fashion that the average information about the product they receive through television, especially in the midst of them watched television drama. They observed what was worn by their favorite artists, further justification subjectively invoked to obtain the standard notion of fashion. While the television drama show itself includes matters related to the process of engaging the audience to observe what happens in the whole plot, including artistic elements, such as clothing worn.2 In view of the representations, a television drama presented today may be said to have accommodate the needs of the audience will be the popularity of the individual through a standard analogy lifestyle and behavior patterns. 3 The existence of television drama is not just creating a prototype, but also "take" some real-life audience to show where the audience position in the socio-cultural environment. Representation has created the researchers assumption that what is presented in the show turned into a television drama consumer choice, which means that the audience does not have to watch, and if they are forced to watch, they can choose impression that they enjoy. When viewers turn to watch the action as a consumer, then there is institutional and policy coherence textual construction, which affects the process of viewing, and the response during the watch itself (Burton, 2011). Through these two viewpoints, the researchers noticed that the prototype and representations that arise from the relationship television drama and viewing behavior are the two positions that are causative. That is, the prototype is the result of the creation of meaning (making-meaning) created by the audience, through observation lifestyle audience to representation on the television drama drawn from behavioral patterns audience itself.

B. DISCUSSION 1. Causative Relationship and Active Negotiation. Before discussing the causative relationship between the audience and the television drama, the researchers first talked about how the audience is positioned as a result of the construction of the television industry. It is helpful to see the difference in the relation of both, 1 Lifestyle is the hallmark of a modern world, or commonly also called modernity. This means anyone who lives in modern society will use the idea of the lifestyle to describe his own actions and others (Chaney, 2006). 2 Barrie Gunter (1988) identified two most important factors of the involvement of the audience in determining how they interpret television content, namely: (1) how the real-life experiences than the depiction in television and (2) how the audience has the 'ability to' identify and connect different plot elements together to form a coherent story (Gunter, 1988: 37). 3 John Tulloch (1990) says that this is the custom of the television industry that have commercial purposes, namely television there (standing) not to deliver television programming itself to the audience, but rather send audiences to advertisers (Tulloch, 1990: 193).


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where the relationship is going active negotiations were placed on three major sites: the strength of competition, trends, and interests (Glynn & Cupples, 2015: 277). According to these relationships, spectators scattered in various parts of the country and the world can be regarded as construction of the television industry (Burton, 2011). This occurs as a result of acts presence in front of the screen, which is then used by industry to find a way to get their interest by placing them seems to be the subjects are located within the television screen. This is what ultimately makes a trend that creates attachment viewers with television dramas becoming something called lifestyle. Lifestyle, in this case can also be regarded as an active negotiation that has an interest to describe the television audience by their habit of filling his spare time, which is about how their habits spare time, how they spend their income, ownership of consumer that they value, the amount of income they are discharged for consumption, what they enjoy, and how they spend their time. This description, which also involves the categorization of culture in the form of an imaginary grouping of the community in an effort to achieve a correlation between the programs they watch where they spend money. During the negotiation process, there is an active mental process undertaken by the audience when watching. These processes include decodes the television, read the text, up to involve the understanding of the code that is diverse in diverse mediums. Uses and gratification theory is often used to understand this type of activity is internalized. Use the television audience in order to satisfy an inner need to connect with the social self and selfimage. These needs can be summarized as follows: (a) The need for information; (b) The need for identity; (c) The need for social interaction; and (d) The need for diversion of attention. Television has been considered to have a huge impact on the culture and the people who live in it (Danesi, 2011). Television broadcast programs that affirm the lifestyle trend that has been printed in the past, especially when these impressions form television drama featuring the ideal figures are adopting a variety of characters and lifestyles as the picture of perfection. Meanwhile, in relation causative researchers believe that the nature of pleasure for the television audience depends on what is diverted by the audience itself. Pleasure is not something that can be controlled by the manufacturers or can be limited in the form and context of the program. It can be said that the pleasure arises as a result of unmet needs, perhaps as a diversion from the activities that have caused tensions. Based on the cultural analysis, even when someone initially viewed the program as a commodity for consumption, the view that the audience seized control of the manufacturer to create meaning and enjoyment of their own means that the pleasure of being part of the cultural economy. 2. Clothing: Causative Relationhip Between Drama Television and Audience Behavior. Clothes can be interpreted as a sign that represent things like personality, social status, and the overall character of the wearer. Similarly such as clothing, which is usually presented in television drama. In television drama, clothing is one part of the required artistic as it relates as supporting characters. While in reality audience, clothing is a sign system interrelated with other sign systems in the community such as attitudes, social status, and political views. Through the construction of fashion in television drama, consciously or not, people assume that the clothes they watch every day to build a subjective argument about how they should dress. Must actually exist and may even be agreed upon in the reality of audience. Reality has built a mindset about what the ideal fashion in general, the clothing worn and recognized by the public. For example, a crook, usually synonymous with casual clothing and accessories excess, with a shape that tends unnatural pattern. For example: jeans torn at the knees and use asessoris as chain necklace and stud earrings are striking. Another example of the style of dress in a bourgeois inclined synonymous with luxury attribute to indicate social status. 144

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Indicator that can include the quantity and quality of the material that is worn, such as certain branded watches, clothing materials specific immateriality, jewelry with certain models of more than 1, and other supporting material.

Figure 1. Pieces picture of television drama “Tukang Bubur Naik Haji ". Two types of clothing to support characters (source: http://www.seputar-indonesia.com/publics) Still in audience life, clothes outstanding as reality finally have a relationship with the television drama. This is evidenced by the existence of outlets that sell clothes exactly the same as that worn by characters in a television drama. For example, one of the famous boutiques in its promotional poster featuring models of television drama figures dressed in fashion design. This is an increasingly shows that the relationship between television drama and the audience be causative.

Fig.2. Muslim fashion products that sponsor the clothes on one of the television drama. (Source: http://www.search.google/zoya) The analysis showed that the causative relationship between audiences and television drama lies in the identity of each show that: (1) The television drama created a specific prototype for the audience to be adopted in their lifestyle, for example: how to dress; (2) Spectator is a reality that existed before the television drama itself, so that when the television drama exists, then its existence can not be separated from his attempt to represent reality itself. The reality of everyday life sometimes is a reflection of the pattern of behavior found in television drama. Although it was once, a television drama that is a reflection on the life of the community. At the societal level, this transformation resulted in what was then called as of today's society, which in the language of Baudrillard, is a bunch of people in relatively large quantities ready to absorb all the signs are propagated by the mass media (Budiman, 2006). At the end of the 20th century, the historical shift happening in the configuration of social organization. Statism and capitalism redefined through the development of information technology. This makes the definition of a new social landscape as a network society 145

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(network society). (Castells in Hartley: 2010). Networking is an interconnected system and exchange data selectively and with a purpose. The network is a centralized authority and hierarchy dissolve institutionalized. Models of social organization or capitalist industrial society in the early to late 20th century has a special character that contains the individual strengths of a fragmented and isolated without the traditional ties of kinship or locality (Hartley, 2010). Such individuals are entirely under: (a) The ideology and totalitarian propaganda; (B) The influence of the mass media (in this period was the press, cinema, and radio). Theory of mass society has been active in a broad range in media studies in which this theory has a tendency to produce an apocalyptic vision of what to do television and cinema to the masses. So every time the speculation on what effect the media have on society, it would appear perception of the link between the behavior of the audience with one of the television drama figure figures. For example: someone reliability standards demonstrated by ownership of luxury cars, luxury homes, work with strategic position and high level of education abroad, lifestyle depicted in the construction of the characters in television drama. Similarly, figures reflection school students who frequent exposure in television drama, describe the pattern sigfnifikan, among others, on the pattern of dressing.

Fig.3. Patterns dressed in school uniforms in television drama "Cinta Cenat Cenut" (source: http://edukasi.kompasiana.com/2012/05/02/pencitraan-remaja-dan-realitas-pendidikanindonesia-454321.html) C. CONCLUSION Television and the audience is no longer tied up in relationships that encourage the interest of either party. Relationships that originally made the one hand the object of another party, now it has a reciprocal relationship (causative). This study at least be an initial review of the offer alternative positions, namely the causative relationship between television and the audience. However, further research be carried out to reveal the relationships causative work provides a new understanding to the relationship between the television drama as text and viewing behavior as a disposition that would create a sense of connection with the text.


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BIBLIOGRAPHY Budiman, Hikmat. 2006. Lubang Hitam Kebudayaan. Yogyakarta: Kanisius Burton, Braeme. 2011. Membincangkan Televisi: Sebuah Kajian Pengantar Televisi. Yogyakarta: Jalasutra. Cassirer, Ernst. 1987. Manusia dan Kebudayaan: Sebuah Esei Tentang Manusia. Jakarta: PT. Gramedia Chaney, David. 2006. Lifestyle: Sebuah Pengantar Komprehensif. Yogyakarta: Jalasutra. Danesi, Marcel. 2011. Pesan, Tanda, dan Makna. Yogyakarta: Jalasutra. Davis, Howard. 2010. Bahasa, Citra, Media. Yogyakarta: Jalasutra. Gunter, B. (1988) ‘The Perceptive Audience’, pp. 22–50 in J.A. Anderson (ed.) Communication Yearbook 11. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Glynn, Kevin and Julie Cupples. Negotiating and Queering US Hegemony in TV Drama: Popular Geopolitics and Cultural Studies. Gender, Place and Culture, 2015. Vol. 22, No. 2, 271–287 Hartley, John. 2010. Communication, Cultural, & Media Studies: Konsep Kunci. Yogyakarta: Jalasutra. Kim, Do Kyun, et al. Television Drama, Narrative Engagement and Audience Buying Behavior: The Effects of Winter Sonata in Japan. the International Communication Gazette, 1748-0485; Vol. 71(7): 595–611. Tulloch, John. 1990. Television Drama: Agency, Audience, and Myth. London&New York: Routledge.


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: Research in creating artworks – Comparison 3 case studies of fine art creative process Author : Octalyna Puspa Wardany Affiliation : Graduate School of Indonesia Institute of the Arts Yogyakarta Contact : [email protected] Topic : Creating arts using research Title

Abstract In fine arts, there are experiment and exploration in creating artworks as the process of actualization certain idea. This process implementing observation, interpretation, training, analysis the sources which become the object of the artworks. Those activities are usually implemented in research. This study examines the research in creating artworks, the research types, and as an effort to find out a certain formulation of the research in creating artworks by comparison of 3 case studies of fine art exhibitions; (1) the creative process of water colour painting exhibition Climen by Surya Wirawan in 2012 which the process held for 4 years (20082012), (2) the painting exhibition Melupa by Ugo Untoro in 2013 which the process held for 13 years (2000-2013), (3) the art project Tentang Hutan by gerimisUngu Production 2014 which the process held for 4 years (2011-2014). Each of those 3 creative process has different type of research, methods, and period, artworks as the output, experience of the artist whom get involved, and certain location in Indonesia. Through 3 case studies describe that the research in creating artworks can be scientific with fully consideration, or semi-scientific in consideration, or unscientific between consideration and inconsideration. And, the certain research implemented in creating artworks is related to the artist (individual and cultural), purpose of the artworks and exhibition, and content of the artworks which appointed. Keywords: artworks, art research, creating artworks.


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: Research in creating artworks – Comparison 3 case studies of fine art creative process Author : Octalyna Puspa Wardany Affiliation : Graduate School of Indonesia Institute of the Arts Yogyakarta Title

Background In fine arts, creating artworks always begin by certain idea which then actualized by various activities and involving other people to become the artworks. In that actualization, there are exploration and experiment in processing the idea, exercise the materials of artworks, execution process, and finally displaying the artworks in exhibition. These things involves the whole intellectuality of artists’ mind and feeling. Also, the artists’ social environment and culture give the influence and have the mutual contribution for the artists and their artworks. Then, is there the research in creating artworks? If there is, what kind and type of research? Is there any exact formulation of the research in creating artworks? Through comparing 3 case studies, this study try to find out those questions in order to understand the research, creating artworks, and its’ relation so it is possible to open up the other possibilities in advance the knowledge. The data of this research are obtained by implementing the ethnography method. While analysis is implemented the artistic research theory and supported with practice-led research theory. Case 1: Surya Wirawan’s Solo Exhibition In December 2012, Surya Wirawan, one painter of Indonesia, held a solo exhibition in Yogyakarta which showed comic paintings using water colour on paper. There were 5 strip comics consist of 5-7 pictures, 7 single paintings on paper seized 18cm x 15cm, and 2 comics based from Kiswondo’s short stories which are one consist of 20 pictures and the other 30 pictures. Climen, the title of the exhibition, is from abbreviation of Javanese Cilik-cilik yo Men or Little Things are No Matter in English. The relation of the title can be showed directly from the size which not even get 50cm x 50cm for each painting and the media which used paper and water colour. Considering the condition in that year which was still in fine arts booming so the trading of the artworks is very high; in price and quantity; there was a common agreed that only the big paintings and good media of painting (such as canvas, oil and acrylic paint) which can be sold. So, the Climen exhibition was such the speech from Surya Wirawan to criticize the market condition which then directing the artists in creating artworks for selling purposed. Topi Boleh Miring, Kendil Tetap Tegak Watercolor on paper, 18cm x 15cm, 2011 Source: catalogue of Climen, pp. 39

Figure 1: Surya Wirawan


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Figure 2: Surya Wirawan Katanya Hidup Sepi Tanpa Musik Watercolor on paper, 18cm x 15cm, 2011 Source: catalogue of Climen, pp. 31

Beside the physical artworks, the contents of all Surya Wirawan’s paintings are told about the life of the ordinary people. There are the cassette seller that is not famous anymore in recent digital era, the retail petroleum seller, the seller of lighter gas refill as the content of the single paintings. While in his 4 strip comics, he told about arts activities in booming condition that the artists’ main orientation were not communicate and share their ideas by the artworks in exhibition, but selling the artworks. And, in his two comics based on Kiswondo’s short stories that ever published in the newspaper, the stories are about the struggle of the family of labour and farmer to solve their live problems related with their fund limitedness. All the artworks which tell about the little things actually happened in our daily lives and slipped away from our concerns.

Figure 3: Surya Wirawan, Maniak Watercolor on paper, @28cm x 20cm (2 pieces), 2011 Source: catalogue of Climen, pp. 34-35

He needed 4 years to prepare all artworks for this solo exhibition. The idea for his 7 single paintings and 5 strip comics came from his daily live that experienced by himself and other people in his social environment. He took the activity that interesting, arranged the object and the speech of each picture, made the sketch on paper and then copy it to transparant paper (see figure 4). Afterward, the sketch on transparant paper is traced to the painting paper, and finally coloured the pictures. For the strip comics, the story was breakdown to some main ideas (see 150

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figure 6). Then, composed the main ideas and the pictures including the conversations to the columns of sketch. Especially for 2 comics based on Kiswondo’s short stories, he made several meetings with the author to discuss the content of the story, the transcription of each story to the comics, the plot story arrangement in the comic which do not exactly the same as Kiswondo’s until the comics were realized as the artworks.

Sketch on paper

Sketch on transparant paper

Figure 4: Surya Wirawan, Sketch of Kowe Telungatus Aku Pitungatus Pencil on paper Source: Surya Wirawan archives

Figure 5: Surya Wirawan, Kowe Telungatus Aku Pitungatus Watercolor on paper, 18cm x 15cm, 2012 Source: catalogue of Climen, pp. 32


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Figure 6: Surya Wirawan, The Design Short Story Breakdown of Kalender Pencil on paper Source: Surya Wirawan archives

He was exploring special technique in colouring his artworks. He was using two steps painting for each colour. Firstly, he brushed the water colour in certain area. Then, he brushed the water in that area by different paintbrush. He had been explored this technique since 1994 using acrylic and canvas media at that time. He felt that getting successful in implementing this technique by water colour in this exhibition. Though, in his solo exhibition in 2008, he had presented this technique using the same media, but he did not satisfied yet. In Climen, the colour in his artworks are looked very soft and transparent so many people did not believe that those artworks are using water colour. An artist of fine art even presumed that Surya Wirawan was using pencil colour then brushed with water in colouring his artworks.

The Sketch Pencil on paper Source: Surya Wirawan’s archives

The painting Water colour on paper, 17cm x 10cm Source: catalogue of Climen, pp. 50


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Figure 7: Surya Wirawan, Ketika Pohon Kopi Tak Berbuah Lagi

To draw the painting objects as real as it looked, he was doing observation of the real objects. For drawing the coffee leaves of the comic Ketika Pohon Kopi Tak Lagi Berbuah (When Coffee Trees Have No Bear Fruit Anymore) which is not common for him, he observed the coffee tree and its leaves in his neighbour. So, there were the study process in drawing the objects by sketching which was documented neatly.

Figure 8: Surya Wirawan, Banyak Jalan Menuju Rumah Sakit Watercolor on paper, 18cm x 15cm, 2012 Source: catalogue of Climen, pp. 28

His paintings which tell about the live of lower class people and daily common activities showed his alignments that is for little people. It is parallel with his way of life that is very modest and ordinary. However, he kept criticizing the habit of common people that danger other people and themselves in driving (see figure 8). Overall, his artworks and choice of his way of life are showed his ideology about social live of common people. His ideology in this exhibition did not appear explicitly as his previous artworks; painting and printmaking in his beginning period as the painter. The implicitly appearance of his ideology that can be detected by content, materials, and objects of his artworks penetrated through his long journey in creating artworks since 1991. Case 2: Ugo Untoro’s Solo Exhibition The solo exhibition by Ugo Untoro in 2013 which showed literature painting; poems and fiction short story or unfinished short stories; was needing 13 years intensive process which were shown by Ugo’s artworks documentation. He started by painting any words and sentences in 2000. In the beginning of his experiment (2000 – 2001 and 2004), he combined the literature text, numbers, figures, and object on canvas. After vacuum for 2 years (2002 – 2003), he was 153

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doing the experiment by sketches. He studied the placement of the text, the composition, and the shaped that was arranged by the text, the colour, the image area through sketches. This study happened for 2 years (2005-2006). Afterward, he started the experiment using canvas. In 2007, he explored technique, text size and length, and background colour of the canvas. In 2008, he explored painting short text which are gave certain information. In 2009, he explored focus of interest by painting tiny texts on big canvas. In 2010, he already painted the scribbled text on the canvas freely and combining the different materials as the media (paper and canvas). Since 2011, he created artworks for his solo exhibition titled Melupa which presented all his experimentation and exploration in materials, technique, and aesthetic elements.

Figure 9: Ugo Untoro, Object#1, ballpoint on book, life-size book, 2013 Source: catalogue of Melupa, pg. 4

Figure 10: Ugo Untoro, Departure, wax on fabric, 105cm x 250cm, 2013 Source: catalogue of Melupa, pg. 30-31


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Figure 11: Ugo Untoro, Departure (detail), wax on fabric, 105cm x 250cm, 2013 Source: catalogue of Melupa, pg. 30-31

Figure 12: Ugo Untoro, Regasa, marker on canvas, 250cm x 180cm, 2013 Source: catalogue of Melupa, pg. 21.

Poems and fiction as the format of the texts in his paintings are influenced by the books he read since he was a child which literature has a big portion of his interest beside the book of fine arts and comic. Comic then became one of his narrative styles in his text paintings. While the content of his paintings tell about social relationship of the human being in build up the live. His text paintings mention about power, chance, potentiality, the harmony with nature, beliefs, economic benefits, dreams, love to explain his concerns. All the content materials are cached from his personal experiences, the live in his neighbourhood, and combining with his imagination and fantasy which get from his adventure in various fictions. Thus, there is the literature study in creating his artworks. Though he doesn’t intend the specific literature study to create certain artwork (painting and exhibition) and reading become as his habit, he has the consideration to involve what he has gotten from the literature to create his artworks.


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The study in this exhibition is also implemented in creating his literature paintings. In 2007, he ever watched the text painting exhibition in Art Bassel 2007 of Venice. As mentioned previously, in 2007 he started to do the exploration in painting the text intensively. The Art Bassel text exhibition then influenced he to be freer and courage in realised his idea. It gave him the spirit to execute his idea about literature paintings. So, the reference of other similar type artworks became very important in creating artworks as a sign that his idea is make sense and find out the different type of text paintings which had not existed yet that is literature. Case 3: Art Project of Collective artists The art project which titled Tentang Hutan (About Forest) involved a researcher in anthropology field and 8 artists of fine arts. The artistic work stages in this art project are composed clearly. It started with a research about The Impact of Social Movement on The Socioeconomic Security of the Peasants in Ngadisono Village, Wonosobo of Central Java in 2011-2012 by Dwi Any Marsiyanti. The research result explains about the benefit that community surrounding industrial forest is gotten by the implementation of joint forest management between the company and community. Based on this result, the emerging artists were recruited by considering their field of works in fine arts and their competency. Then, the team consists of 8 artists recruited, researcher and curator discussed about the research results and the implementation of this art project. Thereafter, the absorb phase started. The artists and curator lived in the location for a month. While they were staying, they search tangible and intangible information and data by beginning with the meeting with representatives of community, interview related parts, informal conversation with the community who came to the basecamp, got involved in the community activities, go to the industrial and community forests, go to the historical sites and public spaces in the village. During searching the information, the team held the regular meeting to share and discuss their findings and opinions. All information and data in the absorb phase then shared to the public in a discussion. In this discussion, the team also got many inputs that is very useful as the sharpening in the artworks and the art project itself. Then, the artists were creating artworks for 4 months. During creating artworks, it was possible to get back to the location if necessary and also meet the researcher to get more information. In this phase, the intensive discussion between the artists and curator is important so artists’ needs can be detected and facilitated rapidly. After the artworks done, all were presented to the community in the art project location. Though the local community are common with traditional arts, they were able to enjoy the contemporary artworks. This presentation became the forum for artists and local community to have the conversation about the artworks, the certain location in their village which showed in the artworks. Instalation of Dwi Joko Harianto Source: gerimisUngu archives

Figure 13: Bukit Bentang (Bentang Hill)


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Figure 14: Jalan Panjang (The Long Way) Instalation of Allatief Source: gerimisUngu archives

Figure 15: Berdiri di Atas Kedaulatan Pangan Sendiri (Stand on Its Food Sovereignty) Printmaking artwork of Fitri DK Source: gerimisUngu archives

Finally, all the artworks were presented in the exhibition. There are 17 artworks in various media; painting, photo of performance art, video art, installations, printmaking artworks, photography, videography, music performance, Japanese calligraphy, printmaking; and research result display during a week. Those artworks have different content in expressing about forest, such as: the bound between the community and the forest (figure 13), the long struggle by the community in getting the authorization to have the joint management in the land of industrial forest (figure 14), the landscape of village which most area is forest (figure 15), the daily work of the farmers related to forest (figure 16), the contradictive of citizen forest and industrial forest related to natural destroy (figure 18), the spirit that arising when stay in the forest (figure 17). This exhibition was ended with the public discussion to share about the research, the art project, the real story which involved also a representative of local community as the resource person. To close the whole art project, there was an evaluation meeting to review all the phases, method, artworks, and management.


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Figure 16: Penderes (Bentang Hill) Screen printing of Isrol Medialegal Source: gerimisUngu archives

Figure 17: Rear Shin Ku Instalation of Hiroshi Mehata Source: gerimisUngu archives

Figure 18: Melanomata Photo Performance Art of Ferial Afiff Source: gerimisUngu archives

This art project enable the interaction between the artists and community in certain issue which not event learned by the artists previously. The artworks present the real live and problem of certain community by explore the artists’ knowledge, evidences, and aesthetic understanding. The scientific research which held using ethnography method gives the valid data that helps the artist to catch the problems and enable them to concentrate doing their research for creating artworks. The art project as one model of artistic research then makes creating artworks based on the real issue and problems in community is occurred effectively which in this case is 8 months. However, this art project hasn’t completed yet. The implementation of the phases should be improved which will be experimented in the next art project. Research in Creating Arts Are those 3 cases of creating artworks able to be mentioned as research? To classify those creating arts processes as research, it should be identified the research elements which exist in those 3 cases. Refer to Graeme Sullivan (1988: 46): “Research is a reified entity within university life and the common perception is to maintain codified practices that determine not only what is endorsed as legitimate inquiry but also the conditions under which research is conducted and sanctioned”. Research then cannot only considered by the implementation of method, tool, and theory to analyse the data in order to get the certain results as the answer of the research questions and 158

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reach the research goals so it is beneficial. Research is involving the life as the resource data or resource idea which has particular problems as the trigger for the researcher. Life is then the daily existence that is experienced by the researchers directly and indirectly. In creating arts, the element of life exist. As describe in the 3 cases above, the artists do creating process by catch and explore their life including habits, activities, and involvement. Though, the art process was done by collective artists in relatively short period, there are the phase when they not only catch the life data through written research results and other written information. They were still necessary to get involved in the real life of the resources. Then, Sullivan complete definition of research by the need of common perception as codified practices. This second element become the guide to examine whether research implements in creating artwork or not. As Mika Hannula, Julian Suoranta, and Tere Vadén (2005: 20) mention, “research of scientific has two means; scientific argumentation and artistic criteria”. However, as mentioned next, (2005: 17) “science is not one well-defined entity, but rather that there are many sciences and that the sciences can sometimes have different and possibly even incommensurable goals”. In this point, there is the possibility to define that creating artworks have research process and those 3 authors postulate the term of artistic research (2005: 19) which is still in continuous search and convincing definition. As the consequent (2005: 21), “artistic research has a loosely connected set of goals or purposes, through which its relevance becomes evident”. Thus, to consider whether research is exist in creating art or not, it could be examined by reviewing its relevance. The 3 authors then explain about the relevance of artistic research –which is by its nature is relative, uncertain and changing, but at the same time experimental, an intellectual pleasure creating new knowledge– are (1) specifies the localization and specific locality of the work, taking it forward, increasing its profundity, and (2) contents and its production, participation in the process of forming meanings as the central points –rather than form or formalities (see 2005: 152-153). The specifies localization refer to the localization of certain understanding, while specific locality of the work means the certain place as the resource idea, or the place to execute idea to be artworks, or the place to presenting the artworks and sometime not even related to certain point of place. It is about the localization of certain understanding. For example, the localization specifies of Surya Wirawan’s artworks is the domain of common people (lower class people) and the specific locality of the work is in Indonesia. While the specifies localization of Ugo Untoro’s artworks is universal as its specific locality of the work, but the language of the text make Ugo Untoro’s artworks are relevant for Indonesia. In the art project, though its specific locality of the work is at the village level (Ngadisono), its’ specifies localization could be in effect global where forest as its concern. Each 3 cases have different motion plot of specifies localization and specific locality which presented by the objects, the content, the media, and symbols used of their each artworks. The second element of the relevance of artistic research relies on paradigm of the researcher and the research design. As mentioned, it is possible to analysis the form or formalities to understand the meaning of artworks. But, if the researcher would like to make the artistic research, the analysis uses those 3 things mentioned. The researcher does not always other person/s who study the creating artworks process. It can be the artist/s who creating the artworks when presenting not merely the output, also those 3 things in the second element. Conclusion 159

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The process creating artworks from composing idea until presenting the artworks is actually the research works. It can be classified as the artistic research. By study the 3 case of creating artworks, the format of artistic research is diverse. So, the chance to bring forward different format is very wide-open which is able to develop and enrich the knowledge of artistic research then benefit the advancement of art. Sources: Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1999). Implications of a Systems Perspective for the Study of Creativity. In R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), Handbook of Creativity (pp. 313-335). United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. Hannula, M., Suoranta, J. & Vadén, T. (2005). Artistic Research-Theories, Methods and Practice. Helsinki: Academy of Fine Arts. Marsiyanti, D. A. (2012). Social Movement di Ngadisono (Paper). _______. (2012). Dampak Gerakan Sosial pada Keamanan Sosial-Ekonomi bagi Petani Penggarap di Indonesia (Research Result) Sachari, A. (2005). Pengantar Metodologi Penelitian Budaya Rupa (pp. 147-153). Bandung: Erlangga. Saukko, P. (2003). Doing Research in Cultural Studies. Gateshead: Athenaeum Press. Sullivan, G. (2009). Making Space: The Purpose and Place of Practice-led Research. In H. Smith & R. T. Dean (Eds.), Practice-led Research, Research-led Practice in the Creative Arts (pp. 41-51, 62). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Svašek, M. (2007). Anthropology, Art and Cultural Production (pp. 154-155 & 187-190). London: Pluto Press. Wardany, O. P. (2016). Proses Kreatif Penciptaan Seni Lukis, Studi Kasus Pameran Pameran Tunggal Ugo Untoro “Melupa” (Master Thesis). Retrieved from ISI Yogyakarta. Gerimisungu (2014). Art Project: Tentang Hutan (Exhibition Catalogue). Yogyakarta: Gerimisungu Production. Untoro, Ugo (2013). Melupa (Exhibition Catalogue). Yogyakarta: Ark Galerie. Wirawan, S. (2012). Climen (Exhibition Catalogue). Yogyakarta: Jogja Contemporary. Surya Wirawan (personal interview, August 6, 2016).


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MUSICAL PARODY OF ACAPELLA MATARAMAN : A CREATIVITY COMPROMISE FOR THE PERFORMING ARTS MARKET IN YOGYAKARTA Firmansah1 Abstract This study aims to identify and understand the creative process of artists in the performing arts market. Performing arts into the arena of struggle by the artists to present the results of their c reativity. However, the concept of creativity is often the response has been less precise that the forms have high levels of creativity. Basically an assumption appears if the artist is able to sur vive in the market is the result of creativity in the performing arts is a form of alternative or co mpromise. This phenomenon occurred in the group Acapella Mataraman. Its presence in the p erforming arts a few decades is interesting to study. The creative process does not just happen, but the basic possibilities that the ability to see into the main capital in consumer tastes to cre ate a repertoire. This case study is based on the concept of Jennifer Lindsay to explain logicall y about the creativity of the arts kitch. Then, the concept of Umar Kayam about the existence of performing arts groups. This study also uses several supporting concepts to complement the two main concepts. The primary data are gained from the interview process with Pardiman Djoyone goro (main figure of Acapella Mataraman), Then it is completed with the secondary data through a foc us group discussion to explore deeper about creativity process on Acapella Mataraman. The results s

how that the repertoire pickax jenggleng and overhang Nuswantara of Acapella Mataraman is a form of compromise. Musical sounds and rhythms of modern music elaborated and presente d through acapella techniques. Supplemented by the concept of parody that has appeal and val ue to the consumer tastes of the performing arts. This form is an effective medium for the deli very of criticism and moral content on each of the repertoire. Keyword: Creativity Compromise, Performing Arts Market, Pangkur Jenggleng, Emperan Nuswantara and Acapella Mataraman. Main Issue Yogyakarta is one area in Indonesia which is known as a city of culture. In this city also there are plenty of activities for the performing arts do have a lot of individual creative and performing arts groups. Some groups such as: KUA Etnika, Hip Hop foundati, Puppet Hip Hop, and Acapella Mataraman. Each of these groups have in common is creativity by elaborating traditional and modern elements in the form of a musical. But attention is Acapella Mataraman because it has characteristics as a differentiator from other groups in the performing arts market arena. The repertoire through genres of musical parody of Acapella Mataraman is the result of creativity Pardiman Djoyonegoro as a major figure. He was known as a skilled artist imitating the sound of musical instruments through acapella techniques and elaborated with local cultural elements are then presented with a humorous style. For decades, the genre was maintained and became unique to this group. The use of such genres as the value of the watch allows the consumer to use his services frequently performing arts to entertain in a variety of events. Most of the play at the position at the end of the show so that viewers are willing to wait long to see his performance.


Mercu Buana University


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Starting from the uniqueness of it, the writer interested to study musical parody group Acapella Mataraman. The existence of the group comes from the creativity Pardiman Djoyonegoro as the main figure to see opportunities in the performing arts market. The assumption appears that the possibility of creativity is one form of compromise or alternative. Indirectly, this allows the group's repertoire is kitsch art that is only concerned with economic factors - or kitsch or art popular in Mataraman Acapella has a different meaning and not just economic factors. Creativity Compromise Creativity compromise is a form of strategy for the artists or performing arts groups to persist in the performing arts market. According to Kayam (in Lindsay, 1991) for the existence of kitch or commercial art, a way of presenting must actively changing according to the times in which he exists. This is useful in order that the work of art to be popular and attracted the attention of the audience for making money in order to stay alive. Than, In the opinion of Khayyam (1997) the context of Indonesia is currently in popular culture where the situation was still very fluid, bound with traditional culture, the tendency of people to consume foreign cultures was through commercialism dictation . Basically, the popular music composition of course, the simplicity was the main thing for the purpose of easily understood or enjoyed by consumers. The simplicity was found in the musical compositions with periodization or phrasering, the harmony structure was built relatively easy, rhythm repeated, short in duration and without more expansive processing (Mack, 2012). Likewise the song forms uses general forms that is A-B (binary) - the two parts or ternary form (A-B-A ') wherein A is theme and beggining period, B is the contrast period, and A' is a recapitulation. This can be described as a musical proximity (listener habitus) of the general public. When referring to both opinion, in order to get the exchange against the spectacle rate, the repertoire of Acapella Mataraman has the simplicity in form to make it popular. In order tosee the simplicity of form, The Pangkur Jenggleng reperotar had been chosen because according to Pardiman Djoyonegoro it is a representation of Acapella Mataraman. In addition, a new third-generation repertoire which was often played together with Jenggleng Pangkur that is Emperan Nuswantara had also been analyzed. In Emperan Nuswantara repertoire, melody or rhythm can be seen as follows:

(Figure 1. Melody and rhythm of EmperanNuswantara repertoire)

Soprano as vocal and sometimes imitating the sound of the guitar, alto also imitate the sound of the guitar, tenor imitating the sound of ketipung but still use the tone and bass sounds to imitate the sound of a bass guitar. The intro rhythm on soprano and made repeatedly by the placement of tone E statically. In Alto the rhythm is repeatedly sounded acted with the tone CC1. Likewise also the bass acts as a companion with a simple rhythm pattern by placing on the tone C area. The tone was sounded repeatedly. Then in the tenor voice, the rhythm pattern was somewhat enlarged with a tone composition of C1, E1, F as decomposed. The use of that rhythm gives the feel of dangdut music in this rereptoar. At bar 10 in the tenors was found a first interpellation to mark the same phrase. However, the rhythm and melody on soprano voice then 162

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developed with a previous rhythm pattern. Second interpellation on the soprano voice in bar 22 and 26 interpellations are as follows:


1st interpellation (Figure 2. Ist interpellation of EmperanNuswantara repertoire)

2nd interpellation (Figure 3. 2nd interpellation of EmperanNuswantara repertoire)

Interpellation on both of bar 26 above was used as a cue for the entry of lyrics with a simple rhythm and melody pattern: 1 2 1 2

Frase I

Frase II

(Figure 4. Phrase 1 and 2 in the rhythm and melody pattern of Emperan Nuswantara) The rhythm of the song was made in a simple symmetrical form. This can be seen in the first phrase where there are two different motifs. In the second phrase there are also different patterns of motif but the motif is the same as the first phrase. But in the second phrase, the melody occupies different locations as in the picture above. Overall, when listening to EmperanNuswantara it creates the impression of dangdut music. Then, in the Pangkur Jenggleng tune at the opening comes a Manyura phatet. Furthermore, there is a significant change that is using rap music. The rhythm pattern is fairly simple, played continuously and repeatedly. However, it is sometimes interspersed with the sound of beat box different from before. For example, sometimes imitating the sound of a drum set and then varied by imitation sound of a DJ (disc jokey). The rhythmic pattern used in beat box was as follows:

Basic rhythm pattern Variations in rhythm pattern (Figure 5. Basic rhythm pattern of beatbox and repertoire variations of PangkurJenggleng)

Wherewith the melody, rhythm patterns of the melody was created with the expansion of the rhythm in bar 4, 5 and 7, which are marked by a red line. It seemed that this was to to avoid the impression of monotony in the song. But the variation is not enough transformed drasticly 163

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and developed quite simple. Melody of the song was also only played in tone E, F # and G. It can be seen in the image below:


5 Phrase I (Figure 6. Rhythm pattern of melody, phrase I of PangkurJenggleng)




Phrase II (Figure 6. Rhythm pattern of melody, phrase II of PangkurJenggleng) Analysis results of the second form of Acapella Mataraman repertoire has the simplicity in form that made it to be is said as the kitsch art or pop music. There is a standardized pattern as it follows the popular music namely rap and dangdut. This is also confirmed by the opinion of Mack (1995) that popular music is more simple, has a standardization and more want to satisfy the audience for commercial purposes. Although both of the repertoire belongs to popular music types, but there is a difference in the EmperaninNuswantara. It has the Indonesian impression in lyrics and musical forms. What is meant here about the Indonesian in the form of music was the sound of dangdut music that was presented in the tenor's rhythm pattern:

(Figure 8. strong accent/

syncope on tenor rhythm)

According to Frederick (Ibrahim, 1997) and Wientraub (2010) dangdut music is a popular music of Indonesia. Being a political media to construct public taste in music. Indeed EmperanNuswantara was not a dangdut piece but a musical parody genre known as hybrid art. So it is possible that impressions of other genres of music in the repertoire occurs. However, on both opinions and the dangdut impression that was presented Pardiman Djoyonegoro in the Emperan Nuswantara, was found fundamental matters. That is, the characteristics of Indonesian pop music was that the strong accent was on the light part or syncope (marked with a red line). This basic rhythmic pattern was occured on the opening and on the way the sounds are parsed into three lines,the alto, tenor and bass. 164

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According Khayyam (1997) in the era of globalization, popular music runs parallel to the orientation of Indonesian contemporary cultural and urban masses especially the young generation and liberal economic system with an orientation toward mass consumerism. It can be found under Acapella Mataraman that was the standardization of repertoire forms. On the concept of Attali (1985), especially in music performance it was regarded as a representation. It was intended to use the value of spectacle involving the exchange and harmony. Surrounded by concerned parties for political and economic purposes. In the exchange, was the entrenched capitalist economic system with the loss of the musicians. While in the harmony is the construction of the dominant party, such as what kind of music deserves to gain spectacle value. According to the concept of Kayam and Attali, it is known that in Emperan Nuswantara repertoire lies a characteristics of Indonesian pop music in terms of accent. There was an economic and political objectives that were not awared, the use of the rhythm by Pardiman Djoyonegoro indicates that this repertoire is devoted to commercial and political purposes that was easily enjoyed by viewers /listeners besides that there were loads of criticism and ideology of Nuswantara. But there is a difference to the concept of Attali that emphasizes harmony in the intra musical and then linked it to politics and economy. The intra musical emphasis of Emperan Nuswantara that presents the characteristics of Indonesian pop music was on its accents. These characteristics was the representation of the political and economic phenomena in the field of music in Indonesia. In accordance with the opinion of Khayyam and Piliang (2003) on parody, it can be said that the reason of Pardiman Djoyonegoro remaining to stay on the genre of musical parody besides the commodity medium, as well as an effective medium to transfer content works of social criticism or 'ideology of Nuswantara'. For example two earlier repertoire the Pangkur Jenggleng and Emperan Nuswantara. In Pangkur Jenggleng lyrics can be seen how interpret the Wedhatama writings by adopting the lyrics of Ladrang Wilujeng. Lyrics of Ladrang Wilujeng adopted in Pangkur Jenggleng: Para besang samara bangun Sepat domba kali oya Aja dolan lan wong priya Gerahmena ra prasaja Aja dolan lan wanito The original lyrics were then composed by singing through a rap technique. Sample of lyrics: Ji ro lu pat para besang para bangun sepat domba kali oyo, Aja dolan aja dolan lan wong priya lan wong priya, Para besang para bangun sepat domba kali oya, Dolan..dolan dolan..dolan dolano karo wanito, Gung remeh gung remeh gung remeh..nora nora, Ji ro lu pat sebab yen dolan priya karo priya terus arep padha ngapa Para besang smara bangun sepat domba kali oya, Aja dolan lan wanita gung remeh nora prasaja Para besang para besang para bangun para bangun, Para besan para bangun sempat domba kali oya, Dolan dolan dolan dolan dolano karo wanito, 165

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Wan tu tri fo sebab yen dolan wanita wanita ora ana tantangane, Coba yen dolan priya lan wanito mesthi bakal nemu mulya, Ahh..ahh..ahh..ha..ah..ah..ah Yen beja dadi wong sukses In addition there are the lyrics adopted from Indonesia pop songs: Cinta ini kadang-kadang tak pakai logika (Song lyrics of Agnes Monica / Agnes Mo) In Serat Wedhatama it is found about the teachings of the Javanese ancestors regarding the philosophy of life on tolerance, following the religion wisely, to be fully human and having a noble character. It was written by KGPAA Mangkunegara IV for the people to have a peace of heart and soul and understanding the meaning of life according to Javanese view. The lyrics in this repertoire were taken from Ladrang Wilujeng having a moral message for the younger generation on promiscuity. Wilujeng was interpreted as a prosperity and good fortune that rests on the younger generation. This repertoire as a representation to Acapella Mataraman. This can be seen through the reasons in following the era when presenting the repertoire. This means that the characteristics of pop music was intended for the young people in either music and the lyrics. In addition to the economic side, there is a moral message because he thinks that in popular culture the large media industry presents entertainment without moral message content and gave birth to promiscuity. Teens also tend to prefer popular music (west) to gamelan music. From here then made a musical interpretation in a musical parody genre with a solid beat pattern (rap) and a humorous poetry. To deliver the moral message for teens through philosophy of Javanese culture using popular music. While the lyrics of the new repertoire is Emperan Nuswantara: Luhur budayaku itu indonesiaku Negeri kaya raya sungguh indah alamnya (sering diplesetkan menjadi: negeri kaya raya, dirampok raya-raya) Gunung lautan tempat ngarai hutannya Beragam suku agama budayanya Reff: Ramah tamah penduduknya Indah molek tariannya Nuswantara negeri cantik dunia Adi luhung karya seninya Dari candi hingga batiknya Nuswantara negeri hebat dunia Sukunya berbeda satu nusa satu bangsa Agama berbeda satu nusa satu bangsa Walaupun berbeda satu nusa satu bangsa The lyrics of this song is a representation of Pardiman desire i that is to return to the state of Indonesia which was safe and secure. Same with Pangkur Jenggleng repertoire, the Emperan Nuswantara was also originated from 'Nuswantara ideology' as a message for the current 166

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generation to appreciate what have been passed down by generations ago. Critics towards the exploitation of natural resources was also implicit in the plesetan: ‘negeri kaya raya, dirampok raya-raya gunung lautan dirampok raya-raya dari budaya sampai dengan bedaya’ According to him the country's resource had been drained by outsiders and even by the people of Indonesia itself.ii This analysis found an understanding that the economy has a role in the form of repertoire presentation of Acapella Mataraman. The form in which significantly change the aspect of performance supporters such as the number of players, the artistic properties and costumes. While in the music, it carries popular music, editing the repertoire appropriate to the allocation of time given by the consumer and use the Indoneisan characteristics in pop music. Acapella Mataraman Existence in The Performing Arts Market In accordance with the concept of Khayyam (1991), for the existence of commercial art or kitsch such as Acapella Mataraman must posses the use of the value of the show with a change in the form of presentation. Two previous repertoire became a representation of the use of the value of a show for the exchange of economic currents, had a harmony between the intramusical and extramusical that is following the public taste. These two repertoires were presented with the musicalparody genre combined between music, dance and theater in nuance of humor. Creative services in the performing arts cannot be done individually. So in the interaction between the economy and production, there are some aspects to be taken into consideration that was adjusted by the amount of players, artistic property, stage location distance, demand on new work requests and the segmentation. The interaction between these two factors were also that promote changes in the form of presentation. Changes in the form of presentation currently was significantly on the number of players, costumes and use of choreography. Regarding the music, it was still presented using parody musical genre with pieces of repertoire used according to the allocated time of performance given by the consumer. Business services in the show was run with an applied strategy such as segmentation expansion and creations of trinkets. It is also based on a consideration of the marginal cost and marginal benefit. The marginal costs was normally issued when consumers was of the middle down economiy. The fee was to cover the salary of players as a result of the cost of production was sometimes not enough to be allocated to the items of production. But the profits was obtained through that strategy, because through the expansion of segmentation it will also be a promotional event that increased popularity to enable a marginal profit. This also applies to the provision of trinkets to balance between the cost and marginal profits. Besides the economic side, the implementation of segmentation strategy was also based on an institution or institutional arround Pardiman Djoyonegoro. Where the values, norms, habits, culture, were all reflected in the economic activities done. The other side of implemeting segmentation was intended so every people can enjoy the work. Either as appreciators or just lovers. In general, the purpose behind such enjoyment is the delivery of criticism content and moral message to the community. Each repertoire was a result of creativity with inspirations in every aspect of life which is 'ideology Nuswantara' until the socio-political events. The intrinsic motivation to cultivate it 167

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into a piece of music was derived from his experience in the music world both in academic and non-academic. Then from that creativity is able to generate economic income for the necessities of life. Through this analysis can be obtained an understanding that parody and kitsch became one in the body of Acapella Mataraman, which lasted until today. Musical parody genre became the characteristic in the performing arts market. Through this characteristic it was considered to be an effective way to obtain the value of the show and the exchange of money. Moreover, followed by expectations that the criticism in the content of the repertoire can be delivered through the entertainment of the genre. This is the reason for Pardiman Djoyonegoro to remain in its genre. Changes in the form of presentation is not the only major factor that makes it able to survive in the market. But creativity makes this group has an existence for decades in the performing arts market. Musical Ideas Parodi has developed into a study in postmodernism to declare lowness of an art. Featherstone (in Smiers 2009) argues that this is one form of celebration of lowness of a culture. Obviously this leads to a problem of hybridity by the way through searching in history. Questioning the depth of a culture since ancient times whereas cultural diffusion has occurred and allows no more original culture. Similarly, when speaking of music, Smiers (2009; 185) gave some examples to underline that since the first it has occured a cultural crossbreeding. Along with the development of the era, when the music comes with some of the genre which marks the crossingbreeding sustainability. Musical parody became one of the many in the world. Today this becomes a kind of entertainment for public consumption. Music and consumption become an interesting discussion event for the critics like Adorno and Horkheimer (Budiarto, 2001), and Benjamin (in Strinati, 2009). Commercial music in their view is a lost of aura and autonomy. When referring to this view it can be said that a parody musical genre has lost its aura and its autonomy. There is an element of commercialism and represents shallowness in culture. However, this view is probably misleading to be accepted outright. There is another side to be built from the parody. According to Smiers (2009), hybridity should be known as a special purpose. There is an intention to bring it from experience in experiencing from their environment. Similarly disclosed by Piliang (2003) the effects of humor and absurd in a parody displayed in a manner by distorting or by making plesetan from the original, being ironicaly, critical, even by creating politically loaded and ideologically. Dialogue occurred in the parody will rise to a form of serious criticism, polemic, satire, debate, humor or jokes from the form already exist. Works of art, whatever the form been expressed will lead people into their human existence. Playing an important role in the contribution of development of personal and collective identity. From some of this opinion, observing the repertoire of Pardiman Djoyonegoro with its musical parody genre occured other elements outside the economy. In intramusical, using diatonic tones in popular music elaborated with the local culture elements. Of course there is an intention of its own why it is presented in the results of the creativity. He stated that many elements of 'ideology Nuswantara' that characterizes his work. One of his works the PangkurJenggleng have an inspirational source from SeratWedhatama. It contains life guidelines for the community of Java in honouring the values of humanity and the local 168

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culture. Created since the KGPAA MANGKUNEGARA IV and according to Pardiman is still relevant to be a way of life for the present generation. Criticism of the human condition today forgot its essence as a Nuswantara generation. Adopting foreign cultures without filtration to shape the behavior of harming people. Such as radical beliefs, freeculture and tolerant attitude that has been lost. When looking at the history, Indonesia since 1970 is indeed an urban society. Has been flooded with the commodity and culture based on the consumer culture of global capitalism (Foulcher, in Abraham, 1997). This is the underlying moral message in the content of Pangkur Jenggleng repertoire. Not just as an excuse, as every show always presented this repertoire. This is the reason other than the economy, there is a content of criticism and moral messages through the show of Acapella Mataraman. Of the two earlier repertoire, although it was a popular music but not necessarily be stated to lose the aura of such expert opinion earlier. If it was stated as it means the Indonesian society then was a society that had lost the aura in the art. Especially when talking about EmperanNuswantara this means about Indonesian matter. Caused by the characteristics of Indonesian pop music lies in the rhythm pattern of Emperan Nuswantara. This can be clarified with the opinion of Lindsay (1991) on the popular arts. Whereas, traditional art that was said to be valuable also has been changed according to the existing demands - arts today comes from the arts of the past. So to say all kinds of music in Indonesia is fairly popular. But it is clear that the elaboration of foreign culture and local culture in the parody musical genre, not only serve as a mass consumer entertainment but presents a moral message content. Pardiman used musical parody genre in entrepreneurial activity creating creative services. His creativity in cultivating imitation of the sound of a musical instrument was also becoming a major force in implementing its musical ideas. This is to make his works still enjoyed for entrepreneurs should be smart in public taste. Entering the popular culture track to earn money exchange. This was caused by popular music which was more accessible to the public and provide a role in critics in the assessment. Commodities, moral message media, criticism and creativity within Pardiman produced musical ideas. It then becomes a repertoire that is demanded by the public audience. This is not a matter of losing the aura since until now Acapella Mataraman still exist through musical parody. This means that musical parody still has an aura both in criticism content and in commodities. Musical ideas created by Pardiman was proof that he had existence in the performing arts market. 1.

The impression of dangdut music which was present in EmperanNuswantara implies that there was a political and economic content inside if seen in terms of intramusical. The political and economical purpose of dangdut music in extramusical has also been described by Frederic (Ibrahim, 1997) and Weintraub (2010).


Results of discussion between the author and (PD) on 'Nuswantara ideology'. The Glory and greatness of ancestors and their heritage. Foreign cultures entered and damaged the local culture. From this discussion, the author obtained data about what is represented on the works of AM. It is said that the curved like waves feature is a sign that the ancestors lived under the sea that is the Royal Queen of the South Coast. The temple is also said to be a magnificent park of the palace under the sea. According to him generations should find out about it because the 'install culture' (translated by author: a collective memory) that exist in each human mind. Because foreign cultures would be damaging if the generation was not aware about his true identity.

3. Ibid


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REFERENCES Attali, Jaques (1985), NOISE: The Political Economi Of Music, Minniepolis: The University of Minnesota Press. Budiarto, C Teguh (2001), Musik Modern dan Ideologi Pasar, Yogyakarta: Tarawang Press. Denzin, Norman K & Lincoln Yvonna S (2009), Handbook Of Qualitative Reaserch, Yogyakarta: PustakaPelajar. Hartono, Agustinus (2007), Skizoanalisis Deleuze&Guattari; Sebuah Pengantar Genealogi Hasrat, Yogyakarta: Jalasutra. Ibrahim, Idi Subandy (1997), Lifestyle Ecstasy: Kebudayaan Dalam Masyarakat Komoditas Indonesia, Yogyakarta: Jalasutra. Lindsay, Jennifer (1991), Klasik, Kitsch, Kontemporer: Sebuah Studi tentang Seni Pertunjukan Jawa, Yogyakarta: GadjahMada University Press. Mark, Dieter (1995), Apresiasi Musik :Musik Populer, Yogyakarta: Yayasan Pustaka Nusatama. ____________(2012), Ilmu Melodi, second printed, Yogyakarta: PusatMusikLiturgi. Piliang, Yasraf Amir. 2003. Hipersemiotika Tafsir Cultural Studies Atas Matinya Makna. Bandung: Jalasutra. Smiers, Joost (2009), Art Underpressure: Memperjuangkan Keanekaragaman Budaya di Era Globalisasi, Yogyakarta: Insist Press. Strinati, Dominic (2009), POPULER CULTURE: Pengantar Menuju Teori Budaya Populer, Yogyakarta: Ar-Ruzz Media Group.

Weintraub, Andrew N (2010), Dangdut Stories: A Social and Musical History Of Indonesia’s Most Popular music, USA: Oxford University Press.


Poster Presentation

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The development of increasingly sophisticated technology to produce many modern games (online games) is proportional to changes in the nature and character of the kids today. Noble values that exist in traditional children's games (dolanan anak) are not contained in it. The negative impacts of the modern game is the physical environment, psychological and cultural patriarchy is a form of power that comes from sophisticated equipment, produce waste that can destroy all aspects of life. Dolanan Anak are types of traditional children's games in Indonesia as a form of culture that should be preserved for the survival of the great value of education for the next generation. Braille painting is one of the visual art medium for learning children, especially those with special needs (diffable), but this work can also be enjoyed by all people. The medium used is cowhide carved and color. The basic principle of this work is the creation of a child's world that is filled with joy, innocence, excitement packed in play activities. This work as a form of education to children with sensitivity to sensory owned by touching, feeling, speech, movement, and even combine elements of science in it as counting activities. In addition, children are required to interact with and respond to a group of playmates, natural conditions, verbal strength training, even rough motoric and fine motoric. Niken Larasati, the creator using figures that are dominated by girls and bring tradition symbols such as batik. Contextual studies using educational theory Humanistic by Abraham H. Maslow, and to find textual studies using the theory of Nature Ecofeminism by Susan Griffin. This type of research is qualitative aims to understand the phenomenon or text that occurs on the object study such behavior, perception, motivation and other actions holistic, descriptive on the specific context of natural and utilize natural methods. The method used was a case study on Niken Larasati’s Braille painting. Keynote: Dolanan Anak, Humanistic, Nature Ecofeminism, education

INTRODUCTION Ecofeminism is a term that emerged in 1974 triggered by a feminist from France named Françoise d' Eaubonne in his book entitled “Le feminism ou la mort” explaining his views against the oppression of women and nature. Thought d' Eaubonne unilaterally assert that freedom can’t just affecting the freedom of others. Ecofeminism assumption leads to the oppression of women and nature relationship in more depth. The theory and practice by feminists included in the realm of an ecological perspective as well as all forms of solving existing problems in ecological issue. Form of concrete action aimed feminists oppose and resist all forms of patriarchal power based on ethical environment. Forms of resistance started from criticizing the technological progress that is considered the strength of patriarchy by feminists. Advances in technology rated oppress the balance of nature and man. Any form of work or life activities have been pursued with advanced tools forget about the activity or the work of human hands (handmade) safer and environmentally friendly. 171

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One of the activities of human life that has experienced a shift from traditional to modern is a game (Java: dolanan anak) who still use the objects around to be used as a tool or media play. This activity requires direct interaction between children with playmates nature. While at present, children are more inclined to like forms of computer-based games, resulting in a change of physical and mental conditions of children such as the rise of individualism higher nature because they feel have and do not want to share with other children. Dolanan anak are types of traditional children's games played in communal or together made up a lot of activity. The types include dhakon, gobag sodhor, yeye, benthik, engkling, pasaran, and others. Dolanan anak usually played by children of school age and contains the teachings of the noble values are hereditary such as tolerance, mutual respect, in line, listening to the game other friend, patient, honest to health. Many human activities that contain elements of play or dolanan such as walking, running, jumping, squatting, crouching, stepped linked across time and space simultaneously. Dolanan child as a duplicate form of daily activities undertaken by humans, imitated by children, teach them to be able to act or behave as they should. Human activity is shown dolanan anak is being taught by generations and contains learning the identity of a society through values, thus becoming one of the cultural asset that deserves to be preserved. "Psychologically, traditional games can evoke creativity and closer to children in the natural surroundings and the Lord." It is enshrined in the type and activity dolanan anak taught noble values, the children were directed to utilize all the things that exist in the vicinity, prepare the ground before play, creative thinking, cultivate and empower all things around him. Currently, the popularity dolanan anak are increasingly disappearing due to the proliferation of modern children's games such as video games and online games. The modern game, more seized children's self to dissolve into his own world and reduce their interaction with their surroundings. This concern itself for Niken because of lack of children character education based noble values. Technology becomes one of the factors that affect children today are more like the modern game. Sophistication and convenience provided to make them interested in trying even have a game equipment. Children increasingly recognize dolanan anak and is caused by several reasons such as "inclusion of children's games from abroad, the increasing popularity of the spectacle on television, the spread of electronic games, the narrowing area children's playground and a reduced number of children." So that the children are more have a tendency to like modern toys have selfish tendencies, have a stronger flavor, don’t want to share with other friends. Moreover, to obtain the modern game kids can access easily through the Internet and be required to spend more in order to be able to play when it is part of profligacy. Problems of the dematerialisation dolanan anak have long been circulating, many concerns arise later discussed in the seminar or the mass media. This phenomenon continues resonating this day because it becomes a serious problem for the mental development of children in Indonesia, therefore it has to be handled properly and thoroughly yet. Niken Larasati, an artist moved to create works of art as a form of concern for the dolanan anak. Niken Larasati his paintings often upload photos on social media (facebook) and received responses from by Seiichi Okawa, a former Tempo magazine journalist for 25 years in Indonesia and now he is the Chairman of the “Graha Budaya Indonesia” in Japan. Their friendships made she has been to the residence and took her to a solo exhibition in the “Graha Budaya Indonesia” at Shinjuku-Ku, Tokyo, Japan in 2012 for 3 months. Before doing solo exhibition in Japan, Niken has been ever filed a solo exhibition proposal at Jogja National Museum (JNM), but it rejected on the grounds of his work was not present at the time. This solo exhibition also introduced her to some important people in Japan as one of the great teachers, Prof. Nobuko Sasaki, a senior lecturer at Daito Bunka University, Saitama, Japan, and 172

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she has chance doing workshops of 111 Javanese vocabulary sufficiently well appreciated by the public in Japan. Dolanan anak painting which exhibited in Japan has intended to demonstrate and introduce the culture of Indonesia. Niken describe it with children figures especially on girls, this is the main attraction for the author to be studied. She said, "woman is the womb of the world and the beginning of a life because of their birth, education and compassion come." Those statements need to be explored further as it relates to the concept in the work. Additionally, Niken’s desires and goals that his work is able to provide awareness to the parents (father, mother, sister, teacher, etc.) about the importance of teaching and preserving dolanan anak. She describes the dolanan anak not only on canvas but also on skin that cater for children with special needs (diffable). This work is named Braille painting. Niken have similarity concept with Nature Ecofeminism which involving rationale women in relation to the nature like flora, fauna, soil/ earth, and society. In this case, women have an important position in favor of life without them the concept of patriarchal domination. Niken thought still need to be studied more in depth again whether the artist behavior in accordance with the ideals held or actually affected by the euphoria artists who pursue esthetic needs than social needs or be a part (instrument) by parties who have an interest and powers on behalf concern for the culture. METHODS The studies of Niken Larasati’s Braille painting is classified by the qualitative research, so process of reading, understanding and practice is needed. Qualitative research aims to understand the phenomenon or text that occurs on the object study such behavior, perception, motivation and other actions holistic, descriptive on the specific context of natural and utilize natural methods. Participants interview chosen by the author, among others, (1) Niken Larasati, the main object of study; (2) Tri Agus Tri Susanto Siswowiharjo, author catalogs solo exhibitions Niken in Japan in 2012 at the same time works as a lecturer and secretary of the Department of Communication Studies at STPMD "APMD" Yogyakarta as well as the author of books humor, one entitled "Merapi Never deny monarchy"; (3) Seiichi Okawa, the former Tempo journalist for 25 years in Indonesia and is now the Chairman of the Graha Budaya Indonesia in Japan. The method used in this research is a case study in leather. Data related to the analysis and study of Nature Ecofeminism and dolanan anak obtained from a number of journals, books, studies, papers, articles and exhibition catalogs. The author takes a couple of sections that are relevant to the study of dolanan anak on a painting by Niken Larasati namely (1) The research process should be a good awareness of the "research subject" and "object of research". The characteristics of this method is the study of the reality that oppresses; (2) collective awareness on women's issues through the formulation methodology to be followed by the study of women as individuals and the position of women in the social history; (3) Women should be able to overcome individualism, careerism competition that comes amid educated men, so it is necessary to collected the experience. Data collection will be done with a literature review, interviews and direct observation. Primary data research is Braille painting inlaid on the leather. Secondary data comes from interviews with key informants, it conducted in-depth, unstructured tight, not formally done because it is done repeatedly to designated participants. Technical interviews are not always able to meet directly with participant interviews as tailored to the situation in the field include done via e-mail. Observation will be conducted by the author with a direct view to do the reading Braille painting more depth in terms of visuals, concepts or themes raised. Concept of Nature Ecofeminism rationale supported by symbolic Suzanne K. Langer to dissect the process 173

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that is in the symbolic depiction of dolanan anak. Contextual analysis uses the concept of Humanistic Abraham Maslow to find a correlation between Niken’s idealism to the influence of social and cultural life in the surrounding areas in art, especially for dolanan anak. Data processing techniques performed by analyzing in detail the data collected through the results of a literature review, interviews and direct observation also indirectly to the works and artists. The data were analyzed qualitatively performed continuously to test some of the symptoms include space, time, behavior, artifacts and then divide it into sections in the context of data abstraction and field notes. The author also perform data reduction which serves to reinforce, clarify, create focus, taking things that are important or stakes and discard the things that do not matter, so that the data set and derive conclusions. RESULTS

Picture 1. Niken Larasati, Sepanjang Jalan, Oxhide, 2014 (intact picture)


Picture 2. Detail photo

Textual Analysis Ontological relations discussed how the actual form of the object and the relationship between these objects with the intelligence of a human, for example, through the activity of thinking, feeling and sensing. Niken Larasati ability dolanan anak has photographing with children figures that is represented in more symbols on the painting as a form power response to the phenomenon exists. The object of perception such as painting it represented by the figure of the girls as a form of meaning norm with Braille painting. Nature Feminism concept describes women and nature have the same position, nature as the representation of women and vice versa, so that all forms of destruction of nature is tantamount to the destruction of women. Braille painting provides an understanding of the role and function of women becomes an important part in the preservation of culture. Cultural activities are always in contact with nature and the characteristics of women who are naturally a figure of producing offspring or generation, compassionate and patient in a key form of activity refers to human behavior that should be owned as to preserve the environment (nature). Niken thought the concept is shown 174

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to describe dolanan anak either through media canvas and leather use female figures as well as the subject of preservation of cultural objects. Culture and nature have a close relationship due to the practice of human cultures interact directly with nature and involve women in it. Therefore, the author connects the philosophy of life and power of the Java community as a Javanese woman as analyzing textual approach to Braille painting. Ontological relations based on the concept of thought and concept Nature Ecofeminism which the concept implies one should always do if the flavor and the right mental attitude, so that the social life of the community will be able to achieve the principles of harmony, respect and tolerance. Dolanan anak as replica of human life in the future will be done by the children when they grow up through the traditional game. Nature Ecofeminism concept, that the philosophy of life and the power of Javanese women include women as a major figure of the preservation of cultural and natural. So that women today are no longer just put in an inferior position and not get negative stereotypes as weak. Braille painting has a symbolic power that comes from the arrangement of symbols that never existed before and is used to form a new symbol. Apart from the question of the nature of gender, authors conducted further analysis of visual Braille painting. Based on the above, by performing textual analysis of the results found that: 1. Niken Larasati representing dolanan anak with Braille painting which carved on the oxhide as a form of ontological relationship of women with nature and a logical expression that is symbolic traditional children's activity game that captured the artist as heritage properties of gender (feminine and masculine) and forms of nature conservation through cultural activities. The position of women and nature have an equality, then women are no longer in an inferior position under the power of patriarchy. It is a group of women who can provide orientation and education that is more intense, especially culture well done by applying the properties of the masculine and feminine gender. 2. Women occupy an important position in the cultural preservation through planting norms and noble values, as well as the nature that need to be explored and preserved while considering human attitude environmentally friendly that combine the properties of the feminine and masculine, in order to obtain a balance in utilizing and conserving natural. 3. Niken has carrying a case of cultural shift through the phenomenon of disappearance dolanan anak by including many symbols that describe positions it and herself as an artist in representing the phenomenon according to the creativity, experience and knowledge. 4. In other words, the artwork has a logical expression; containing composition of sensitivity to things, emotions, thought patterns so that this knowledge can be considered as a form of expression. 2)

Contextual Analysis An artwork of art should be able to provide an explanation, understanding, and a sense of appreciation from the audience. The idea represented by the artist becomes more meaningful and varied perceptions. If the audience has a different physical and mental, of course the artists should be able to adjust the conditions in the environment. One is the use of media and materials from nature that can stimulate sensory powers. Niken Larasati is made the artwork that presents the activity of the senses. Children with the special needs are required to optimize the strength of stimulation of their senses, such as touch. The Braille painting created to answer the question from the blind people who asked her how does the painting looks like and she contemplated for 16 years. It is the development of canvas painting titled dolanan anak have been made previously. Niken responds to the position of children with special needs are limited in appreciating the art, despite that this work can still be enjoyed by all people and education-based Her basic concept is the children world filled with joy, innocence, love, compassion, honesty, unity, and solidarity as well as taught by 175

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dolanan anak (the types of traditional children's games in Indonesia). It can be enjoyed by optimizing the stimulation of the senses possessed, especially in a touch. The process from the interaction of children with special needs can also be done by playing, for other audiences this work presents the feel of a memorial to an event, so that directs the audience to reflection back on what has happened. Based on the above, Niken Larasati as a painter, the activities undertaken by her is an effort to represent ideas and presenting an alternative medium of learning through the arts for all people, especially children with special needs. It is inversely proportional to the Humanistic concept proffered by Abraham Maslow, that it was based on the framework of human needs, which then called theory of needs Maslow's invitation. Maslow proposed a theory which is based on the hierarchy of needs, where the fundamental requirement is the need for the biological, the need for security, the need for compassion, recognition and self-actualization needs. Abraham Maslow's theory, about human motivation can be applied to almost every aspect of personal and social life. Maslow also said that people were motivated by a number of basic needs that are common to the whole species, have not changed, and is derived from genetic resources or instinctive. And this concept is fundamental and unique to the theory of Maslow. The needs of human life that have been categorized by Maslow covering the needs of the physiological or biological, that is sense of security, compassion, an award, and selfactualization. The fourth requirement posed by Maslow, Braille paintings which made by Niken Larasati is a tangible object that can be played and used directly by children. Basically, human beings can’t be separated from other humans. Therefore, people need interaction to the surrounding environment. At this level, the concept of a Niken Larasati thinking about women is the womb of the world presumably has a correlation with the concept of Maslow's thinking that carries human needs. The following is a contextual analysis that has been done by the authors: 1. Needs of Sense Security: Sense of security is to do with the observations of the behavior of adults. Dolanan anak is a replica of everyday human activities and real conducted by them. All adult behavior described and taught in it, such as the activity of the lead, responsibility, courtesy , patience, and ngemong (Java: treat, care, holding, sympathize, meal feeding, educating). Some of these behaviors is designed so that children can see and imitate their movements as a role model. In addition, children imagine when they grow up all behavior and actions are governed by ethics or rules. 2. Needs of Compassion: the love involves a relationship healthy and full of affection between two people, the unity of love includes giving love and receiving love. What is taught by dolanan anak is a form of love of neighbor. Braille painting as a medium of art appreciation to children with special needs so that they get a place or an opportunity to enjoy art. This relates to the power of their images is limited or cut off by their sensory functions. 3. Needs an Award: everyone has two categories namely the need for self-respect and respect of others. Self-esteem include the need for confidence, competence, mastery, achievement sufficiency, lack of dependence and freedom. While the need to be appreciated by others is prestige, recognition, acceptance, attention, status, reputation and awards. Niken captured the meaning of self-esteem of children with special needs. She saw that they have limitations, but not a thing to be pitied. Instead, they want to equality in treatment, though with a slightly different way to the others. Manifestation of concern shown by the media appreciation of art through paintings Braille is not only used by them but also the others. Braille in the work of this, the children were given the freedom to appreciate or represent figures that have been made by Niken. The Braille paintings embodies a new symbol that dolanan anak are the girls and women. Process of delivering a message to others by using the means as a second media after use symbols as the first media. The purpose of the media 176

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is painting dolanan anak while the emblem for the first media in the form of figures daughters, batik motifs, lines on the background of paintings, colors and shapes of different hair on each figure daughters. 4. Needs of Self-Actualization: everyone has to evolve to its fullest potential. Therefore, the exposure of the psychological need to grow and develop by Maslow said with selfactualization. Where actualization on Maslow's hierarchy of needs is the highest level, not because how every people can develop themselves with all the capabilities they have to be able to be fully human. From the hierarchy of its needs can be seen that the priority for fulfillment is largely determined by the level of existing needs. This means that individuals who have met the basic physiological needs are automatically would strive to meet the needs at a higher level and so on. The human who have been met will be followed by a higher fulfillment. Artistic human needs must be met for dealing with the issue of taste. How to cultivate a sense of taste and teach to children, in particular they with special needs. They can actualize their appreciation and empirical experience of art according to their sensory each abilities. The main goal of humanistic philosophy is to humanize people built through education, experience, law, culture, and art. Niken Larasati utilizes art media as steps to humanize those who have limitations and provide opportunities for selfactualization. Actually, the painting Braille can also be made by them by using media other than the skin. Niken’s position as an artist who captured the lack phenomenon of sensitivity toward people with special needs. The human exposure based on the concept of Maslow's needs can be correlated with the basic concepts of Nature Ecofeminism referring to the treatment of women and nature are comparable to reduce or even eliminate the inferiority stereotypes masculine traits of the feminine gender. At least Niken did not seek to work can be enjoyed by all people, and the rest pay special attention to them. She arrangement as a woman, wife, mother and artist which not many women painters in the world can do.

REFERENCES Fakih, Mansour. 2010. Analisis Gender dan Transformasi Sosial (Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar). Griffin, Susan.1978. Woman and Nature (USA: Harper & Row). Huizinga, Johan. 1949. Homo Ludens Study of the Play (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd) Langer, Suzanne. K (Terj. FX. Widaryanto). 2006. Problematika Seni (Bandung: Sunan Ambu Press). Maslow, Abraham. 1993. The Farther Reaches of Human Nature (United States of America: Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data). Moleong, Lexy. 2010. Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif (Edisi Revisi). (Bandung: PT. Remaja Rosdakarya). Tri Agus Susanto Siswowiharjo, Writer, Lecture and Secretary of the Study Programme of Communication at STPMD “APMD” Yogyakarta, “Personal Interview”, 22ndof June 2015 at 11:26 a.m. Seiichi Okawa, the Chairman of “Graha Budaya Indonesia” in Japan and the former TEMPO Magazine Journalist for 25 years, “Personal Interview”, via email ([email protected]) 9th of July 2015 at 10.32 a.m. https://psikologiuhuy.wordpress.com/2010/04/08/teori-kepribadian-abraham-harold-maslow/ (accessed 5th of August at 03.18 a.m.)


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Visual Aesthetics “Djarum Black Motodify” Branding in Urban Lifestyle a Case Study (Visual Methodology Approach) Andreas Slamet Widodo Faculty of Art and Design, Sebelas Maret University Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A Kentingan Surakarta, Indonesia [email protected]

Abstract This development of image brand (branding) conducted by Djarum corporate, its Djarum Black was held with the visual communication approach who made urban lifestyle. This was embodied in the form of advertising and the activity of the urban lifestyle, one of them are “Djarum Black Motodify” event. Based on these phenomena, then the researcher focused on visual aesthetic branding Djarum Black (media and event) which conceived Djarum Black urban lifestyle are aimed for consumers. This research using visual methodology approach to give a description and explain the structure of matter visual code or associated mark with the symbol of contemporary culture. A critical approach use visual methodology, which means that visual to be considered placed in the community, and how visual it will have an impact on a culture. This is the incident happened in the daily, because it often many matters relating to the media visual found that we shall not see a phenomenon that occurs well. When a strategy of promotion through the visual and event have overcome reality and duplicate themselves quickly and sporadic, then aesthetics has captured the world and eliminate reality. A consequence, various “life” reduced into symbols codification and abstraction of the promotion strategy. Keywords: visual aesthetics, branding, lifestyle, visual methodology


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Introduction A company is inseparable from promotion activity in the attempt of improving its product to consumer, promotion is a part of marketing strategy to improve selling value in order to maintain the company’s life stability. It is also related to creating the image built by company, for both the product’s image and the company’s. It is the image building in the attempt of creating brand that is called branding. Branding becomes an efficacious activity in the strategy of winning product completion in consumer market; it is conducted to make the image of product brand acceptable and penetrable to the consumers’ mind. Brand image building (branding) the Djarum cigarette company conducted is to use marketing model with horizontal approach with its Djarum Black product. This approach was done to the consumer public in order to have hands-on experience with the brand, so that the consumer public will always remember the Djarum Black product. The experience with this brand is manifested by company in the form of event activities conducted in such big cities as Jakarta, Bandung, Yogyakarta, Solo, Surabaya, and so forth. A strong brand is born from consumer’s perception on the product with functional superiority (functional brand), generating association and image the consumer wants (image brand) and generating certain experience when the consumer interacting with it (experiential brand). Fundamentally, a brand should have one out of those three fundamental characteristics (Tybout and Carpenter, 2000: 157-160). In this case, Djarum Black product meets image brand and experiential brand criteria as it builds image and experience of urban community’s lifestyle. In other words, branding is the communication strategy attempt in a product’s brand imaging in order to apparently understand more and follow urban lifestyle trend in the context of mass culture. In its communication strategy, Djarum Company uses an approach by means of event organization. In organizing an event, a variety of visual forms are designed for branding the Djarum Black product. The implementation of such design constitute a series of promoting activities (from advertising to brand activation) intended to exert complex effect on some automotive (car and motorcycle) communities and consumer communities existing in urban areas in order to participate in that event as the goal of marketing communication. In the presence of such the approach, the company attempted to invite the automotive community to support Djarum Black’s brand promotion program, by carrying on urban lifestyle concept so that the consumers become accustomed to Djarum Black product. Lifestyle, according to Piliang (2003) is how consumer human beings actualize themselves through life semiotics. Life semiotics is some sign and code manifested into time, money, and object. Urban means something that is city in nature either directly or indirectly, related to urbanization (the migration of population from village to city) (Setijowati (Ed), 2010: 101). Urban is essentially related to traditional and modernity issues. Urban community is identical with lifestyle industrialization and consumption, thereby cultivating the existence of “urban modern society”. In such the event activity, “Black Community” (Both BCC and BMC) brings about urban lifestyle corresponding to the product concept of Djarum Black brand. These visual media, event, and community creates ‘new’ image of Djarum Black product, so that the imaging attempt taken will result in “Black Community” (black car and motorcycle community) subculture intended to affect the Djarum Black-smoking consumer toward a “typical” Djarum Black urban lifestyle.

Phenomenon of Djarum Black Visual Aesthetics Issues The larger number of Djarum Black communities presupposes that the effect of Djarum Black brand is very strong in constructing a community loyal to that brand. It is inseparable from the role of promotion strategy in visual form (visual media and event) integrated into previously 179

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established community. Such the attempt serves as a media for the company to embed brand ideology related to Djarum Black-typical urban life style. For more detail, the phenomenon of Djarum Black promotion strategy will be explained in Figure 1 below:

Figure 1. A Phenomenon of Djarum Black Promotion Strategy

Notes: 1. Djarum Company produces cigarettes through Djarum Black product division 2. Djarum Black Division designs visual strategy in the form of media and event of Djarum Black“Auto Black Through” and “Motodify”. 3. Two-way interaction between visual media and Djarum Black“Auto Black Through” and “Motodify” event (as spectacle) and between Djarum Black community group and Djarum Black Consumers (as spectators), and interaction with Black Jarum community. 4. Djarum Company embeds brand ideology related to “typical” Djarum Black urban lifestyle, through visual media and Djarum Black event, and Djarum Black Community established previously. 5. Some of Djarum Black consumers having expectation on “typical” Djarum Black urban lifestyle will join Djarum Black community as the members. Considering the phenomenon, this research focused on the research on Djarum Black branding visual (visual media, event, and community) in bringing about on “typical” Djarum Black urban lifestyle intended to audience and consumer using Gillian Rose’s Visual Methodology.

Method A. Research Paradigm Constructivism paradigm, according to Patton, is created based on ontological relativity in which it is explained that the reality is created dependent on how people view it, and no view is governed by empirical data (Patton, 2002: 92). This research paradigm considers how the social phenomenon develops in some of social context. Constructivism refers to the creation of individual meaning of relative knowledge on social context. The subject matter in this research is Djarum Black branding visual esthetics in the form of promotion through visual 180

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media and event as well as social phenomenon in the presence of some Djarum Black car and motor communities, in which the author attempt to understand informant, that is, creative division designs Djarum Black“Auto Black Through” and“Motodify” event in constructing Djarum Black promotion program through advertising media and event. This constructivism paradigm attempts to explain how a company, through its promotion strategy, constructs the reality like what the audience and consumer trust, believe, and understand as a “typical” Djarum Black urban lifestyle. B. Qualitative Research Method The main objective of qualitative method use was to capture the process of finding the meaning. What the qualitative researcher searches for in his research activity is how to conduct a research and how to interpret the result of research, all of which is dependent on theoretical study and approach used (Bogdan & Taylor, 1993: 44-45). Considering descriptive nature of research, the data collected constituted words, and figures rather than numbers. As such, this research report contains citations of data to give a description on the report presentation. The data was obtained from interview script, field note, photograph, videotape, personal document, note or memo, and other official document. It is in line with the objective to be achieved in this research, to emphasize more on the attempt of revealing visual meaning in imaging process in the visual esthetics of Djarum Black branding becoming the phenomenon within society, and expected to become a descriptive explanation. C. Method of Collecting Data The primary data for this research was obtained from visual document of Djarum Black advertisement. In-depth interview with the community was conducted during the event combined with field observation. As Lincoln and Guba (1985) suggested, interview can construct concerning people, event, organization, feeling, motivation, demand, care, and etc. Field observation was used because it could capture the social natural condition where behavior occurred, could capture the event affecting the social relation of participants and could identify regularity and repeated phenomenon in social life by comparing and considering the difference of data obtained from a study (Black dan Champion, 1992: 286). Such the combined method was used to obtain complete information, to minimize the incorrect information from informant. Data collection was ended when the data obtained had been saturated (Sugiyono, 2007: 23). D. Method of Analyzing Data Analysis process requires a disciplined study, creative insight and precise attention to evaluation objective. Analysis and interpretation conceptually are two separate processes. Analysis is the process showing how the data is organized, organizing what existing in a pattern, category and basic descriptive unit. Interpretation involves the attempt of including meaning and significance into analysis, giving descriptive pattern of explanation, and finding the relationship and the interrelationship between descriptive dimensions (Patton, 2002: 250).. This research began when the author had been sufficiently impressed with the presence of Djarum Black branding activity that could construct consumer into large-scale Djarum Black community, by means of branding activity supported with media publication. Having conducted observation on Djarum Black branding activity constituting (printed and electronic) advertisement media, event, and community, the author finally selected informants from one of Djarum Black communities. 181

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This study employed case study strategy, so that all of data were obtained from the field/research site; the technique appropriate to this research was an interactive model of analysis (Miles & Huberman, 2009). In this model, there are three components of analysis: data reduction, data display and conclusion drawing or verification. The activity was conducted in interactive form, even it had been conducted during data collection process. Then, the author moved between the three components of analysis: data reduction, data display and conclusion drawing/verification after data collection in this analysis process. E. Analytical Framework of Djarum Black Visual Brand Aesthetics Considering research paradigm and data analysis technique above, in analyzing visual data, visual methodology was used. Visual data constituted visual media of Djarum Black event and audience existing in the event and audience affiliated with Djarum Black community. This methodology shows some criteria of critical approach to analyzing visual material. From some reading sources, there is a differentiation of terms vision and visuality. Vision is what can be seen psychologically by human eyes. Meanwhile visuality refers top how vision is constructed in various ways, how we see, how we can, are allowed to or are enabled to see, and how we see that the visible or the invisible one exists. Another phrase having similar connotation to visuality is scopic regime. Both of them refer to what is seen and how it is seen as something constructed culturally (Rose, 2001: 6). This visual methodology interprets visual broadly including three components: the site(s) of the production of an image, the site of the image itself, and the site of the audience (ibid, 16). Visual analysis was conducted using the site of image itself in Gilian Rose’s visual methodology, while composition modality analysis using analysis theories as an aid, that is Gunther Kress and Theo Van Leeuwen’s Visual Grammar theory. This theory analyzes visual text on a media. Kress and van Leeuwen (2006) did not explicitly order the analysis step by step using their theory, but their theory will elaborate the important points to be considered during visual text analysis using Visual Grammar in detail. In understanding and revealing the meaning of message contained in visual material in the visual branding of Djarum Black product, such product promotion used visual symbols with certain interpretation (meaning segmented for receiver/audience as communicant). In this contemporary visual work, in order to increase understanding when a text is released from the enacted code, post-structural semiotic theory is used. Sign becomes a myth produced and consumed by audience in visual message form in Djarum Black visual branding. As cited by Rose (2001: 91), myth is the form of ideology. Barthes (in Storey, 1993: 88) himself defines ideology as “…a body of ideas and practices which defend and actively promote the values and interests of the dominant groups in the society”. The meaning of an ideology makes the public audiences participating in Djarum Black event forget that everthing must have been constructed. This meaning deconstruction is conducted with signification process that will make something apparently implicit formerly (ideology) explicit. Considering the methods in this research, those methods were elaborated into one methodology to analyze visually, in revealing the meaning of Djarum Black visual brand esthetic phenomenon in bringing about “typical” Djarum Black urban lifestyle. This analytical theoretical framework is the description of visual analysis process the author conducts in obtaining visual meaning, as illustrated in Figure 2 below.


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Figure 2. Analytical Framework of Djarum Black Visual Brand Aesthetics

F. The Application of Visual Methodology Analysis (Gillian Rose’s Visual Methodology) Considering the three sites in visual methodology, the author used two sites in interpreting visual: the site of the image itself and the site of the audience (see Figure 3). The reason of why the author chose those two sites is that the site of the image itself is applied in analyzing visual media and Djarum Black promotion event to find the meaning of esthetics existing in the media, while the site of the image itself is applied in analyzing Djarum Black community and audience in Djarum Black “Auto Black Through” and “Motodify” promotion event. The result of both analyses will be connected to its modality relation to reveal the meaning of Djarum Black visual brand in bringing about “typical” Djarum Black urban lifestyle.

Figure 3. Visual Methodology (Gillian Rose, 2001: 30) selected in The site of the image itself and the site of the audience


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In this application of visual methodology, the author selected one of Djarum Black automotive event, that was, Djarum Black “Motodify”. The media to be analyzed as visual material was billboard; this billboard was taken during the event organized in Solo on September 22-23, 2012. The data constituting picture on billboard was analyzed with theories using image base research: 1) Data collected was then analyzed using theoretical framework of visual methodology, visual meanings aspect through still image, by prioritizing the way of explaining its visual using the site of image itself, in which the author would analyze the visual based on image analysis unit, typo character, layout, color and text message considered as important thereby creating and representing the brand of Djarum Black. 2) The author would analyze visual data using visual grammar analysis approach. This visual grammar theory consists of three structures: Narrative, Representation, and Composition. In conducting analysis, one of those three structures was selected, that was, composition. This structure was used to help analyze Composition Interpretation in composition modality in visual methodology. In the composition structure of visual grammar, there are four components of its analysis instrument. They are: Spatial distribution, Salience, Framing, Color (Kress and Leeuwen, 2006: 210), these four components are intended to obtain the meaning of composition. Result In this visual analysis, the method was applied to the billboard media of Djarum Black “Motodify” Solo (See Figure 4). Such the media contains visual elements including visual identity of product, event logo, tagline, and illustration. Visual identity is different from logo; visual identity has a meaning more than logo does.

Figure 4. Billboard of Djarum Black “Motodify” Solo

It can be stated that logo and identity of Djarum Black is an integral, interrelated and interdependent unit, and this visual identity is expected to provide perception to be delivered to consumer or audience. The perception constructed is that Djarum Black is a product produced by Djarum Company that organizes a large event of automotive modification. Billboard is one of mass media featuring visual identity of Djarum Black, thereby confirming that such the event 184

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is not an ordinary event but the exclusive one for motor modifier, in which the name of company become guarantee because PT. Djarum is a large company as the organizer. In visual typography element, every letter in the text has its own personality. Selecting appropriate typography means selecting the letter character representing the image to be conveyed. Its selection can be initiated with selecting serif or san serif font. Serif font is often used to describe something related to tradition because its form character uses hook, while san serif font is often used to describe something related to modernity because it tends to be upright, solid and without hook. The logo of “Black Motodify” event along with tagline “Show off Your Dreams!” exerts an effect on audience through letter character with sans serif type in its futuristic-style visualization and delivers message persuasively. The character of letter in “Black Motodify” text is visualized using visual effect – through image processing software – glossy like stainless steel befallen with light, thereby giving technological impression adjusted with the theme of event about motor modification. Meanwhile the red-color letter in tagline “Show off Your Dreams!” gives different emphasis compared with other letter color. This tagline has persuasive message to attract the audience in order to be challenged in participating in the modification event. The position of tagline under the logo of “Black Motodify” event becomes one unit persuasively inviting the audience to show off their creativity and to make their dream come true to modify motor in this event. In this billboard, there is body copy providing information about artist and some events to be held – Duchess of Love Feat. The Angels, Motor Dyno Battle, Mini Moto Race, 2D Motor Design Competition and Many More. The choice of same letter with that in tagline is made to feature the same characteristics using white color in order to be contrast with its background. In the presence of information through this body copy, audiences are offered to attend the event as participants or as the spectators only. The illustration featured in the billboard of billboard Djarum Black “Black Motodify” as if shows a piece of paper with collaged motor picture (see Figure 5). The visual paper with motor picture is as if collaged with a piece of paper with other series-motor picture on cover head lamp, racing muffler, body cover, and alloy wheel. The image built in the visual message means that the idea modifying motor is same like playing collage game, that is, to replace the elements of motor corresponding to the modifier’s want. Meanwhile, on the background there is illustration of motor spare part catalogue, the visual of which features alloy wheel picture. The visualization featured entirely as if represents a designer’s work table in designing his/her motor modification. This ostentation is called symptom by Jean Baudrillard. When the community can no longer distinguish the symptoms characterizing the actual sickness from those not so and the real from the counterfeit, these symptoms can be produced and no longer acceptable as original fact; therefore all of sicknesses become simulation. The symptom arising is ostensible sickness. “An individual ill ostensibly can go to bed easily and convinces that he is sick. An individual stimulating a sickness produces some symptoms inside of him” (Baudrillard, 1983).


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Figure 5. Illustration in billboard of Djarum Black “Motodify”

The representation of a designer’s working table in designing motor modification on the billboard media of “Black Motodify” as the form of image signification. The image represented is the drawing of motor racing modification collage. This image characterizes a certain value, the development of creativity among urban youths. The meaning of image is explored by realizing that the image is produced in dynamic power and ideology (Sturken & Cartwrigth, 2001). Under tagline “Show Off Your Dreams!” there is a caption informing the location and time of “Black Motodify” event organization, with the text, Solo, 22-23 September ’12 Diamond Convention Center”. The letter chosen has good legibility, because it uses familiar sans serif font that is readable to the audiences. Letter size and yellow color provide different color appearance compared with other, so that the audience can catch the text visualization from about 50-meters distance. In legibility rule of outdoor design, particularly billboard, advertisement text should be readable in at least 50-m distance because when seeing the advertisement, audiences are in motion (riding actively on the street) and their reading duration is very short. The text featured will facilitate the audience to find out the location where the event is organized quickly. Sequence (order of reading attention) on the billboard layout uses inversed C sequence (Oxfam). The sequence starts with logo Djarum Black, logo of “Black Motodify” event, tagline “Show off Your Dreams!” (One unity)  information of “Duchess of Love Feat. The Angels, Motor Dyno Battle, Mini Moto Race, 2D Motor Design Competition and Many More” events  illustration of motor collage and its background location and time of event “Solo, 22-23 September ’12 Diamond Convention Center” (See Figure 6). The Sequence of reading is adjusted with a local community’s habit, in Indonesia, reading starts from the left to the right or from the top to the bottom (Rustan, 2009).


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Figure 6. Sequence of Djarum Black “Motodify” layout billboard

Below information on location and time of event organization there is a baseline providing information with the sequence from the left to the right, containing Registration (participant registration) that can be accessed in www.blackxperience.com, with Hotline service on Phone Number 0813 9090 7000 and in social media Facebook djarumblack and Twitter @blackxperience. Under the illustration, there are logos of sponsors such has KYT helmet, OTO Trend magazine, and SWALLOW tire, and red triangle logo with 18+-number indicating that this cigarette is normatively prohibited to be smoked by those less than 18 years old. All of information related to the participation in the event is featured on the billboard, thereby offering the audience to access the event through those media. On the bottom there is disclaimer obligatorily included as the government’s appeal, recalling that this promotion product is cigarette, “merokok dapat menyebabkan kanker, serangan jantung, impotensi dan gangguan kehamilan dan janin (smoking cigarette may cause cancer, heart attack, impotency, and pregnancy and fetal disorder)”. Visual color in the billboard gives meaning or perception in its visual. Overall, the color of billboard is dominated with black. Black color is basic color used in the billboard, while the color of respective letters serves as contrast only to make the text readable. In logo Djarum Black the color of identity is gold on text Djarum, white on BLACK word and red on triangle symbol (see Figure 7). Thus, it becomes the meaning of company identity and its product, Djarum Black. Connotatively, black red symbolizes power, technology and elegance, so that it can be said that the concept of color can build the image of Djarum Company’s power. As a large company with power, Djarum has power to control and to distribute its media. Foucault stated that in the present era enlivened with science and technology development, power is no longer a subjugating institution, structure or strength. Power is not owned, does not own, but it is a complex relation dispersed and present everywhere (Foucault, 1977).


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Figure 7. Logo of Djarum Black

The aesthetics of Djarum Black’s visual brand in the advertisement media of Djarum Black“Motodify” featuring the signification of motor modification image persuade the audiences effectively, thereby contributing considerably to the involvement of audience, particularly the modifier in this event. Every event is always full of audiences, including participants of modification contest or model photography, Djarum Black communities and visitors who watch the event or Djarum Black merchandise hunter. In Djarum Black“Motodify” event packaged glamorously in such a way that the event becomes an abstract space constructed for the audiences to satisfy the passion of automotive lovers, particularly the modified motor lovers. Abstract space is the space that has encountered politicization and bureaucratization, so it produces and encourages social homogeneity (See Figures 8, 9, 10, 11). Henri Lefebvre (1991: 26-27) stated that “Abstract Space is a social product. It is not merely a neutral space filled in arbitrarily, but the dynamic one constructed by those having control and domination or power”. This space becomes a media dominated by a large company’s power, Djarum’s. Thus promotion media in Djarum Black brand shifts from merely reflecting reality to being a mask and reality diversion all at once. When Djarum Black brand changes into a new reality in the form of urban lifestyle, at that time everything changes into esthetic reality. “Art has today totally penetrated reality… the aestheticization of the world is complete”. (Baudrillard in Leach, 1999: 5-6).

Figure 8. Motorcycles participating in modification contest in Djarum Black“Motodify”


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Figure 9. Model Photographing Contest in Djarum Black“Motodify”

Figure 10. Audiences in Djarum Black“Motodify” event


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Figure 11. Djarum Black Community in “Motodify” event

Media through abstract space greets the audience to make it the subject participating in urban lifestyle order later in the textual symbolic space. Abstract space carrying on the symbol of urban text can be called urban space. The terminology “urban space” itself is the production of intellectual practice through a verbal sign system, and articulated in science space. Urban space is present as the term representing lived space of contemporary human beings in urban areas (Lefebvre, 1991: 46). In this lived space, spatial practice occurs and continuously appropriating daily spatiality of urban human beings, in this case Djarum Black strategy targeting urban youths as the audience through a variety of its media channels published continuously. The audiences are creative urban youths and represent the “typical” Djarum Black lifestyle character. Audiences are invited to identify themselves as active, creative, free, fashionable, open, and modern youths, and all of these are consistent with the meaning system of urban lifestyle constructed by Djarum Black. The “perfect” product of urban lifestyle results in Djarum Black community and consumers leading to hedonism of those having automotive modifying hobby, and then such the lifestyle is attempted to be imitated anywhere regardless the context of local culture. It often occurs in promotion strategy practice, in which publications in the form of visual media and even has been so close not only to its community but also ordinary people. Conclusion Systematically and constructively, this Visual Methodology (Gillian Rose) will analyze visually using a variety of theoretical framework and relevant methodology, thereby providing some matters concerning how, why, and when we can use visual technology to support research, or even to be the main component of research. In relation to cultural context, Rose’s method emphasizes on five aspects: (1) Picture has special resistance and effect in using articulation, tended to be equipped with other (text) information; (2) Picture (figure) can create, solidify, weaken, and even destroy social relation and difference; (3) Picture (figure) has dynamic relationship with its spectators – how a picture is seen not only is dependent on the picture itself but also affects the audience’s point of view; (4) Picture is technically related to context and location with different practice and rule; (5) just like picture having resistance, audiences (spectators) have different responses. This fifth aspect, according to Gillian Rose, is usually neglected, and generally reception study or audiencing existing only studies the visual relevant to mass media, in which mass media becomes visual cultural product to the society. Using visual methodology with visual grammar can provide description and explain the structure of visual material in the form of code or sign related to the symbol of contemporary culture. All of ways elaborated in the method through this process are carried out in order to obtain the meaning expected by the author, that is, the meaning contained in visual branding of Djarum Black, constructing the ‘typical’ Djarum Black urban culture. In the discussion section in this article, it is actually what we experience daily, because many things are often related to visual media encountered so that we cannot see well a phenomenon occurring. When a promotion strategy through visual media and event has defeated the reality and has duplicated itself quickly and sporadically, the esthetics has taken over the world and removed reality. As a consequence, various ‘lives’ are reduced to codification of symbols and abstraction of the promotion strategy implementation. It is a challenge for us to attempt to go back and to see again what has happened, before go ahead.


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Baudrillard, Jean. (1983), Simulations, Semiotext(e), New York. Black, James A. and Dean J. Champion. (1992), Method and Issues in Social Research, terjemahan E. Koswara, dkk,PT. Eresco, Jakarta. Bogdan, R.C., dan Taylor, S.J. (1993), Dasar-dasar Penelitian Kualitatif, terjemahan oleh A. Khozin Afandi, Usaha Nasional, Surabaya. Foucault, Michel. (1977), Discipline and Punish, Penguin, London. Kress, Gunther & Theo van Leeuwen. (2006), Reading Images: The Grammar of Visual Design 2nd Edition, Routledge, London. Leach, Neil.(1999),TheAnaesthetics of Architecture,MIT Press, Massachusetts. Lefebvre, Henri.(1991),The Production of Space, translated by Donald Nicholson – Smith, Blackwell, Oxford. Lincoln, Yvonna S. and Egon Guba. (1985), Naturalistic Inquiry, Sage Publications Inc.,California. Miles, Matthew B. dan A. Michael Huberman. (2009), Analisis Data Kualitatif, terjemahan Tjetjep Rohendi Rohidi, Universitas Indonesia Press, Jakarta. Patton,Michael Quinn. (2002), Qualitative Research & Evaluation Methods, Sage Publications Inc., California. Piliang, Amir Yasraf. (2003), Hipersemiotik: Tafsir Cultural Studies atas Matinya Makna, Jalasutra,Yogyakarta. Rose, Gillian. (2001), Visual Methodologies: An Introduction to the Interpretation of Visual Methodologies, Sage Publications Ltd, London. Rustan, Surianto. (2009), Layout Dasar dan Penerapannya, Gramedia, Jakarta. Setijowati, Adi dkk (Ed). (2010). Sastra dan Budaya Urban dalam Kajian Lintas Media, Airlangga University Press, Surabaya. Storey, John. (1993), an Introductory Guide to Cultural Theory and Popular Culture, University of Georgia Press, Athens. Sturken, M. and Lisa Cartwright.(2001), Practices of Looking: an Introduction to Visual Culture, Oxford University Press, New York. Sugiyono. (2007),Memahami Penelitian Kualitatif, CV. Alfabeta, Bandung.


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Tybout, Alice M. and Gregory S. Carpenter. (2000), Creating and Managing Brands, in Kellog on Marketing, Ed. Dawn Iacobucci, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,New York.


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Discourse Addicted Character "Pokemon GO" On Top of Reality (Discourse Approach) Jazuli Abdin Munib Sebelas Maret University Indonesia

Abstract Augmented Reality is a gadgets technologies in the game world, this work by superimposing the virtual element. Characters that appear in the film Pokemon replaced with gameplay in real life. Pokemon characters must be collected, over the elements - elements of real life. we can actually see Pokemon in our environment through the camera phone, through the characters visualization to get a new character in the adventurous and navigation elements, That’s enough to make our curious to see what happens next, even though the gameplay essentially follows a well-established pattern. After a while, there won’t be any more surprises left, but until that happens our have a tough time fighting this addiction. This effect can cause a high degree of surprise and curiosity in users.This is a new phenomenon in society. Society is not only game play, but more of them embedded pokemon characters in space conscious that always appear in real life. Based on Reviews These phenomena, then the researcher focused on discourse addicted character "Pokemon Go" On Top of Reality. This research using discourse approach with semiotic theory to give a description and explain the structure of matter visual code or associated mark with the symbol of contemporary culture, Characters visualization inside this gameplay, reveals a lot of meaning, and Also semiotic perspectives in it. Overall, the gameplay of Pokemon Go a lot of type of sign, the system of sign, leveling of sign, inter-sign relation to the meaning and codes the which has brought with it. Keywords: discourse, addictedcharacter,reality, semiotic


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Discourse Addicted Character "Pokemon GO" On Top of Reality (Discourse Approach) Introduction The furor of game Pokemon Go epidemic among young people recorded can compete with Snapchat and Twitter social networks.Pokemon Go that utilize augmented reality technology allows gamers as if a virtual trainer and hunt Pokemon in the real world. Catching Pokemon. The Pokemon Company’s free-to-play mobile app, Pokemon GO, allows players to enter an augmented reality, catching three-dimensional pocket monsters overlaid on the real world using the phone’s camera. The question is: Why are Americans so downright addicted? As Forbes reports, researchers find that collecting Pokemon is akin to collecting stamps or coins, all of which fall under the umbrella of what one study calls “taxonomic collecting,” where things are named and put into groups. Taxonomic collectors aren’t purely fueled by a need for completion. Rather, it’s the desire to have a bigger and better collection than their peers—a desire that’s amplified when collectors are posting evidence of their loot to Twitter, Reddit, Facebook, and the like. Pokemon GO has formulated the perfect storm between the taxonomical collection system and social media compatibility, motivating players to catch ‘em all when they see their friends posting their spoils. By any means of calculation, Pokemon has been a spectacular success. Startingas a GameBoy game in a single market (Japan in 1996), it expanded into amedia-mix, global operation outstanding for both the longevity and expanse ofits popularity. In a children’s marketplace where even trends tend to peak at oneyear, Pokemon has exceeded seven years of operation and even today (2003) isgenerating new products and profits.1 Its global spread has been equallyimpressive. Moving from East Asia and Australia to the Americas (North, South,and Central), Western Europe, Israel, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, andSoutheast Asia, Pokemonhas sold successfully in markets literally across theworld. And its popularity, like that of Coca-Cola, has percolated into evenremote villages. Pokemontoys were seen by a friend in a marketplace in uplandPeru and, in a feature on the isolated Dani in Indonesia, The New York Timesreported that, despite their ‘stone age ways’, kids there wore Pokemonoutfits.(Calvin Sims, ‘Stone Age Ways’, The New York Times, March 11, 2001, section 1, p 8) By the late 1980s, however, Japan was beginning to break into global kid trends with a number of popular products. Starting with the Sony Walkman, transformer toys, and video games (software and hardware), these successes moved, in the 1990s, into television shows (Mighty Morphin Power rangers), cartoons (Sailor Moon), digital toys (the virtual pet, tamagotchi), and the multi-media hit. This Pokemon character in game is part of a public spaceand have meaning. A socialhistorical analysis of the syndrome of meanings possessedby "public" and "publicity" could uncover the essentialsociological characteristics of the various historical languagestrata. The first etymological reference to the public sphere isquite revealing. (Habermas, Jurgen, (1993). The Structural Transformation of The Public Sphere An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society, Translated by Thomas Burger, Cambridge Massachusetts : MIT Press) Pokemon Go Pokemon. It is still premature to call Japan, as some have done, the new ‘superpower’ in the global culture of children today. At the very least, however, the worldwide fury caused by Pokemon and other Japanese kid products signifies a shift in the entertainment styles and marketplace once monopolized by the US. (Anne Allison, (2003),1466-1888. Postcolonial Studies, Vol. 6, No. 3, doi: 10.1080/1368879032000162220) 194

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Japan’s business of cuteness is booming and well established around the world. The children’s entertainment business, in fact, is one of the few that has not only survived, but grown, in this post-Bubble period of recessionary economics in Japan. Observers have noted that, if Japan could sell Pokemon electricity, houses, and trains,6 its economy would recover overnight. But, to follow in the footsteps of Pokemon, this would require substantial sales overseas. For this reason, Okada concludes that cuteness may be Japan’s key to working foreign capital in the twenty-first century. (Anne Allison, (2003),1466-1888. Postcolonial Studies, Vol. 6, No. 3, doi: 10.1080/1368879032000162220) Players have organized huge Pokemon Go outings, including a Poké-walk in Australia that drew over 2,000 people for a day of catching and camaraderie. Trainers marched singlefile through the park like leaf-cutter ants, only pausing to hit up Pokéstops or pursue a Pikachu.The game Pokemon Go is a “craze,” a “sensation.” You use asmartphone in a virtual scavenger hunt for cartoon characters,but in real locations. It appeals to youngsters and adult. (Margaret McCartney, (BMJ 2016), Game on for Pokemon Go, 354:i4306 doi: 10.1136/bmj.i4306) In just one month after launch, the game developed by Niantic Inc. from San Francisco is true only officially launched in the United States, Australia, and New Zealand on the 4th of July.Pokemon Go reap big profits. The gain is estimated to have reached 200 million dollars, or Rp 2.6 trillion.The profit reaching Rp 2.6 trillion was achieved Pokemon Go also successfully pass the popular board game Candy Crush Saga.Some items include Pokeball, a ball to catch the monster, then Lure and Incense used to attract wild Pokemon arrival. Similar reports from Web research institute, recently released two days ie on July 8, Pokemon Go application has been downloaded by 5.16 percent of Android devices in the world of the US, defeated the number of downloads of applications dating Tinder.While aspects of daily application usage, Pokemon Go is used every day by more than 60 percent of Android devices in the US who have downloaded the app.This means that about three percent of all Android devices are gamers Pokemon Go.Viewed Similarweb percentage data, the numbers approaching three percent of the daily number of active Twitter users in the US are stagnating at around 3.5 percent.Other data were more astounding is in terms of time usage. Snapchat app to instant messaging WhatsApp conquered Pokemon Go. (Hani Nur Fajrina, (2016, August), [Web log post] CNN Indonesia Retrieved from , http://www.cnnindonesia.com) Virtually, location in the smartphone screen adjust the player location in real life. It is possible synchronization between the smartphone players with Pokemon Go application.There are some points which is described as a blue box Pokestop. Consider it a point that needs to be visited to get some useful items.Pokeball and Candy are two items that could be found at that point. Pokeball Pokemon serves to be a container that is about to be arrested. Meanwhile, Candy serves to increase the strength of Pokemon. Research Question 1. How addicted to Pokemon Go discourse was formed? 2. How does the character Pokemon Go was embedded in the subconscious player games? Theory and Method Addiction closely related to psychology, as in the following discourse psychology, analyse discourses as abstract phenomena, not as situated and ‘occasioned’ social practices, closest to the more abstract conception of discourse, then, is on how people’s understandings of the world and identities are created and changed in specific discourses and on thesocial consequences of these discursive constructions. Discursive psychology makes use of many of 195

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the same methods as otherqualitative methodologies. As with other qualitative methods, discursivepsychology rejects the positivist epistemology that underpins much opinion. The biggest difference between discursive psychology and many other qualitative perspectives is that discursive psychology has another view ofthe relations between language, meaning and people’s psychological. Acording to discursive psychology, meaning is embedded inlanguage and it is therefore necessary to investigate language in order toanalyse meanings. Other approaches such as phenomenological psychologysee the respondents’ language as a reflection of a deeper psychologicalreality. (Marianne Jorgensen and Louise Phillips, (2002) SAGE Publications Ltd, ISBN 0 7961 7111 4) Characters in Pokemon go be a sign that has meaning under space awareness player game, this addictive players, rolland Barthes semiotic tools will analyze the phenomenon of addiction to games.Roland Barthes (1990: 13) sifting through markers in narrative discourse fragment into a series of quick and streak describes as leksia-leksia (lexias).Leksia in the form of units of readings. Each lexias has several possible meanings, depending on the sensitivity (density) of connotations that vary according to the moments of the text.Textual signified (Lexias) in the text can be grouped in at least five basic code (five major codes) that hermeneutic code, the code semik, symbolic code, the code proairetic, and the cultural code (Barthes, 1990: 17-18). The codes relate to one another and connected with the world outside the text.Semiotic analysis method is a model of Roland Barthes systematic models in analyzing the meaning of the signs.Focus his attention on the significance of the two stages (two orders of signification).The significance of the first stage is the relationship between the signifier and signified. In a sign of the stage of external reality, Barthes called it a denotation, which is the real significance of a sign. While the significance of the second phase which describes the interactions that occur when the sign met with feelings or emotions and values of culture, referred to as connotation This interdisciplinary approach used in this study who took the character object on Pokemon games go where the approach looks at the phenomenon in which especially addiction pokemon Go.In this context, research Characters pokemon go using Jurgen Habbermas discourse theory, the theory of semiotics Roland Barthes and practical theory of Pierre Bourdieu, depicted in the following diagram: ………………………………


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Chart 1. Research method

Chart 2. Data analysis Result 197

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One of the routes through which the application of drug addiction to gameplay is supported in the popular imaginary is through the recent moral panics over the Internet-as a sibling digital activity and form-as being also inherently addictive. While internet use and electronic gaming use have similarities in that they both utilise digital and, in some cases, interactive forms of textual engagement, they are also markedly dissimilar in the popular understanding of these two new media forms. For example, Lister et al (2003), indicate a dichotomy between computer-mediated communication forms (CMC) and videogames that is supported by several of the following binaries: creative content versus mindless entertainment; adult users versus youth consumers, fluid identity versus hypermasculinity; sociality versus commodified space; tool versus toy. More importantly, where the internet is seen as immersive, games are seen as addictive, and where online communication produces interactivity, gaming culture works through reflex or "twitch" (Lister, 2003). Nevertheless, the rhetoric around internet addiction as it produces the concept of addiction to digital and virtual forms of communication and entertainment has sometimes been shifted to justify a claim that electronic games are likewise addictive. Addiction in terms of games and addressing the issue of popular imagination will thrive in a wide range of virtual media. The popular imagination of the character in the virtual game will be offered in popular culture is in fact nothing more than a virtual imagination space below consciousness. The existence of the popular imaginations were looking eyes in many ways it is counter-productive in building personal imagination is more real and hiperrealis. Working within and studying game theory, we grow used to the idea that the stereotype is false, that gaming addiction is not real or at least far more complex than given in much popular culture depiction, and we become used to the task of ignoring popular culture and alarmist representations in order to concentrate on the manifold task of analysing gaming culture in such a way that overturns older, less-rigorously argued and indeed somewhat boring attitudes. However, it does remain a fact that the stereotyping of gameplay as addictive continues, and it comes into play. (David Brian, Water, (2011), The Prosthetic Imagination: Meditations on Virtual Space and Experience in Single Player Computer Role Playing Games) The game is considered as a means to build imagination pleasure virtual space became more real and will replace the virtual object into an object that is more real and always comes up in every room of the activities of the game addicts. Lifestyle trends and styles to love Augmented reality games give the power of suggestion to bring virtual characters into reality. Pokemon GO statistics don’t lie: the hit mobile game is addictive. It’s estimated to make $1.6 million in revenue every day, more money in-game than the rest of the mobile gaming market in one day altogether. It’s played by all ages, not just childhood Pokemon fans: half of the players are 18-34 years old while just under 50 percent of players are 35 and older. It has more Android downloads than the most popular dating app, more daily users than Twitter, and more engagement than Facebook. Pokemon GO’s creators are counting on players sticking around as long as possible to build on its success. A series of behaviors will make its players feel more invested in the game. But how does it persuade players to take action (engage in a behavior)? The player must feel motivated to go outside and open the game in the first place. They must be aware of the benefits and accomplishments that lie in wait. The player must have the ability to travel their neighborhood while using a GPS-based technology to play the game. Without the ability to get around and without the right technology, playing the game is impossible. The game must provide a trigger to urge the player to the next step. That trigger might be a phone vibration signaling a nearby Pokemon, or a landmark in the distance such as a PokéStop or a Gym that will keep them walking. “The Behavior Model is embodied in the technology,” adds Quihuis. The lure of completing a collection you’ve been carefully curating 198

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is powerful. A key component of what has made Pokemon GO so popular is its ability to put Pokemon in the real world so it’s highly relevant to the player. This makes the fear of missing out even more insatiable: there could be a Pokemon appearing right around the corner. The around-the-clock accessibility of a constantly changing game in the “real world” can draw in the player easier than a static game. Pokemon Go players expect to feel those warm fuzzies when they capture a rare Pokemon or take over a gym. But when those feelings diminish, the player might get stuck in a loop playing the game, waiting for the next feel-good hit to come. The children who played just one hour of video games every day showed more positive signs such as a boost to creativity and social behavior. Pokemon GO has become a phenomenon thanks to careful design, nostalgia, and luck. The popularity of the Pokemon franchise has opened the door to players while the game’s design has kept them coming back for more—in droves.

Picture 1. Pokemon go feature : http://i0.wp.com/cdn.bgr.com


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Picture 1. Pokemon go reality features : https://i.guim.co.uk/img/media/

Picture 2. Pokemon go google mapping features http://www.gannett-cdn.com/ Pokemon Go Character 200

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Artwork was created for this strange creature despite not having a name. extremely odd appearance is somewhat similar to before original character. These are Pokémon and characters that were just a few of many different designs that Game Freak created. Only a few were added, and even those often went through redesigns before making it into the final product. Concept and the incentive to be more active in the real world, while criticizing frequent technical issues apparent at launch. Despite such reviews, it quickly became a global phenomenon and was one of the most used mobile apps, reportedly having been downloaded by more than 100 million people worldwide. It was credited with popularizing location-based and augmented reality gaming, as well as for promoting physical activity and helping local business grow. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pok%C3%A9mon_Go


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Players are obsessed with catching characters like Eevee, Blastoise, Gengar and Pikachu,


The popular imagination of the character in the virtual game will be offered in popular culture is in fact nothing more than a virtual imagination space below consciousness. The Pokemon Go character an addiction in terms of games and addressing the issue of popular imagination will thrive in a wide range of virtual media. Pokemon Go players expect to feel those warm fuzzies when they capture a rare Pokemon or take over a gym. But when those feelings diminish, the player might get stuck in a loop playing the game, waiting for the next feel-good hit to come with Pokemon GO has become a phenomenon to careful design, nostalgia, and luck. Pokemon go authentic realty have knowingly, maybe even unknowingly since they are so deeply rooted, appropriated these ritual scenarios and introduced them into the game narratives as participatory mythic structures. As Campbell points out, “Man is the animal that doesn’t know what to do with itself. The mind has many possibilities, but we can live no more than one life. What are we going to do with ourselves? A living myth presents contemporary 202

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models.” Establish the characteristics of this model, Campbell describes a universal pattern that underlies many mythological narratives. This is the universal pattern of seventeen archetypal events. Campbell believes that the mythological model can offer a set of rules or rituals for the individual to understand and interpret the world that contains him. This ensures the presentation of a model of morals and ethics through which to interpret and experience life. This is humanity’s attempt at upping the imaginative ante on Dawkin’s baboon, in effect creating a superstructure into which to fit those first imaginative insights.

Reference Campbell, Joseph. (1971), The Hero with a Thousand Faces. New York: Princeton University Press Calvin Sims, ‘Stone Age Ways’, The New York Times, March 11, 2001, section 1) Anne Allison, (2003),1466-1888. Postcolonial Studies, Vol. 6, No. 3, doi: 10.1080/1368879032000162220 Hani Nur Fajrina, (2016, August), [Web log post] CNN Indonesia Retrieved from , http://www.cnnindonesia.com Peacocke, Arthur. Theology for a Scientific Age: Being and Becoming - Natural, Divine, and Human. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 1993. Two Cobley, P., & Jansz, L. (2004). Introducing Semiotics. (2nd ed.). Singapore: Tien Wah Press Ltd. Barthes, R (1957). Mythologies: The World of Wrestling. Retrieved 1 September, 2009 from http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Barthes-MythologiesWrestling-1957.pdf


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PAPER TOYS AS A MEDIA OF INTRODUCING PANDAWA CHARACTER AS LOCAL WISDOM VALUE TO PRE-KINDERGARTEN- AND KINDERGARTENAGE CHILDREN IN SURAKARTA Ercilia Rini Octavia Surakarta Sebelas Maret University [email protected] Anugrah Irfan Ismail Surakarta Sebelas Maret University [email protected] Abstract The development of Pre-kindergarten and Kindergarten (4-6 years) age children occurs concomitantly with golden age period, in which brain cells develops actively reaching 100 billions that can control heart beat, respiration, reflex movement, auditory sense, and living instinct. In this age, the development occurs in the form of behavioral changing process from immature to mature one, from simple to complex. Such the change includes the change toward the higher level mastery in motor, cognitive, affective and interactive aspects, with both fellows and with objects in their life environment. For that reason, kindergarten age is considered as a sensitive period among children, in which physical-motor, intellectual, social and emotional functions should be stimulated. Recalling the urgency of kindergarten-age children’s development period, the implantation of “good social values” should be done to early age children in order to be able to develop their good character/personality. The implantation of good values, particularly for kindergarten-age children in Surakarta was conducted by adopting Pandawa character. Puppetry characters such as Pandawa (Yudhistira, Bima, Arjuna, Nakula, and Sadewa) were considered as capable of representing kindness values such as wisdom, honesty, obedience to religion tenets, strength and bravery, toughness, decorum, tenderness, trusteeship, and knowing how to repay other’s kindness. Media considered as supporting the development of physical-motor function to recognize the character of Pandawa was paper toys design. Paper Toys as visual aid to deliver message was visualized corresponding to the form preferred by kindergarten-age children. Through paper toys figure, the kindergarten-age children in Surakarta would know Pandawa as a form of “cultural local wisdom value in Surakarta” with an ability of assembling and then performing it. Using descriptive qualitative approach, this study was expected to develop the visualization of Pandawa paper toys design in order to make it the representative medium of delivering message to introduce and to implant kindness values to kindergarten-age children. Keywords: early age, local wisdom, Pandawa, paper toys. Introduction The development of early age children, particularly Pre-kindergarten and kindergarten (4-6 years) ones, occurs very rapidly; this development is the process of behavioral change from immature to mature one, from simple to complex. In pre-kindergarten and kindergarten age, there is a change in which children learn to master higher level of the following aspects: motor, cognitive, affective, and interactive both with fellows and with objects in their life environment. For that reason, according to Montessori (2013), during this developmental period the children are said in sensitive period, the one in which some certain function should be stimulated and directed in order to promote its development. They are also sensitive to environmental regularity, environmental exploration with tongue and hand, sensitive to walk, sensitive to small 204

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objects and details, and to social aspects of life. Recalling its urgency during childhood as a foundation that will build an individual’s character when they grow adult later and a foundation of nation’s character; therefore during pre-kindergarten and kindergarten (4-6 years) age children in addition to physical-motor stimulation, intellectual, social and emotional aspects should be improved as well with good values (local wisdom values) prevailing in the community where they live. Parents’/educators’ poor understanding on the development process among PreKindergarten and Kindergarten age children will exert adverse effect. Recalling that this development period is said as unique, as its development (growth and development) process occurs concomitantly with golden age period. It is so important that what is implanted today will affect significantly what and how they will be in the future. Regarding this, Dorothy Law Nolte (1972) stated: “If children are raised with insult, they would learn to insult. If children are raised with hostility, they would learn to fight. If they are raised with mockery, they would learn to be inferior. If they are raised with derision, they would learn to regret themselves. If they are raised with support, they would learn to be self-confident. If they are raised with praise, they would learn to appreciate. If they are raised with affection and friendship, they would learn to find love in life”. For that reason, an introduction of good values enacted within local and regional society where we live as the form of local cultural wisdom value implementation is very important. One of those good values is kindness including wisdom, honesty, obedience to religion tenets, strength and bravery, toughness, decorum, tenderness, trusteeship, and knowing how to repay other’s kindness. The introduction of those values is important to children, particularly PreKindergarten and Kindergarten-age children in Surakarta City of Central Java, in which the application of local wisdom values is still very strong in its society life. Thus, when they grow adult, the children can behave corresponding to the mores prevailing in Surakarta society’s life in the expectation of minimizing the social gap to occur later. Recently, social gap including collusion, corruption, nepotism and violence occurs due to, among others, an individual’s poor understanding on the importance of kindness implantation not introduced since he/she was so young (in Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten age). The introduction and implantation of local wisdom values about kindness such as wisdom, honesty, obedience to religion tenets, strength and bravery, toughness, decorum, tenderness, trusteeship, and knowing how to repay other’s kindness to Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten children can be done corresponding to their growth process, through a medium that can stimulate physical-motor, cognitive, social, and emotional abilities. The construction of local wisdom values for children can be carried out by adopting Pandawa character in Javanese puppetry replete with good value meaning in life. The introduction of Pandawa figure and character is conducted by designing and visualizing paper toys, corresponding to visual characters preferred by Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten children. This visualization of Pandawa Paper Toys can be developed and then performed by children with parents’ and teachers’ facilitation at school. Even it can be used by parents/teacher as a medium of storytelling about local wisdom values from figure/character represented by Pandawa Paper Toys including Yudhistira, Bima, Arjuna, Nakula, and Sadewa. The Development of Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten-Age Children Basically, education for Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten-Age Children is organized aiming to facilitate the children’s growth and development comprehensively or emphasizing on the development of entire aspects of children’s personality. Therefore, in their learning process, the children are given opportunity of developing their personality and potency maximally, by 205

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developing various developmental aspects including cognitive, language, social, emotional, physical, and motor certainly adjusted with the ability and character of Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten-Age Children. 1. Neuroscience of Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten-Age Children Howard Garner, a psychologist, argues that early (0-6 years) age is golden age when the children are always colored with successful learning concerning everything thereby an assumption results that to create a high-quality generation, education should begin at 0-6 year age. According to Garner, successful education is affected by the development of active brain cells in that age. When they were born, the children’s brain cells account for 100 billions, but those interconnected are only brain cells controlling heart beat, respiration, reflex movement, auditory sense, and living instinct. When children are 3 years old, brain cells create about 1,000 trillions connecting tissue/synapses (Suyadi, 2014: 30-31). Any stimulation the children receive will bring about new connection that can strengthen the preexisting brain cell junction. Thus, the children’s brain cells should be stimulated in order to be stronger and more permanent. Furthermore, Suyadi stated that there is a very significant difference between children’s brain cells stimulated and that not stimulated. The intended stimulation is learning stimulation for the children that can produce optimally functioning neurons so that it functions for the children’s sensory development. Such the sensory development can spur cognitive, socio-emotional, creativity, language developments and others. In line with neuroscience in Pre-Kindergarten- and Kindergartenage children, Hunt, Bloom and Piaget argued that when early age children are given learning stimulation for their brain, they will have the following abilities (Sudjud, 1978): a. Long-term effect, the children learning in early age will remember in long term until they are adult. b. The establishment of 70% of intellectual attitude c. Their social and academic development will be constructed. 2. Characteristics of Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten-age Children Maria Montessori (Elizabeth B. Hurlock, 1978: 13) argued that Pre-Kindergartenand Kindergarten (4-6 year) age is the sensitive period of children, the one when some certain function should be stimulated and directed in order to promote its development. This sensitive period includes sensitivity to environmental regularity, environmental exploration with tongue and hand, sensitive to walk, sensitive to small objects and details, and to social aspects of life. Meanwhile, Erik H. Erikson (Helms and Turner, 1964: 64) considered PreKindergarten and Kindergarten (4-6 year) period as sense of initiative phase, in which children should be supported to develop their initiative, such as asking question joyfully from what they see, hear, and feel. If children are not inhibited environmentally, they will be able to develop their initiative and creativity, and productive matters in the area they like. Froebel (Roopnaire, J.L and Johnson, J.E., 1993:56) argued that the 4-6 year age period is a noble and malleable phase of human life, so that this period is often seen as golden age by education organization. Childhood is a very fundamental phase for individual development because it is in this phase that a very large opportunity of an individual’s personal construction and development occurs. Considering this argument, it can be concluded that Pre-Kindergarten- and Kindergarten (4-6 year)-age child is an individual undertaking a very rapid and very fundamental development process to go to subsequent life stage. Children have their distinctive world and characteristics that are very active, dynamic, enthusiastic and curious with what they see and hear, as if they will never stop learning. 3. Characteristics of Developmental Aspects in Pre-Kindergarten- and Kindergarten-age children 206

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Pre-Kindergarten- and Kindergarten-age children have had some characteristics of developmental aspects as explained below: a. Motor development Their motor development is well-coordinated, so every movement is harmonious with the need or interest. This period is characterized with excessive movement or activity so that children tend to show sufficiently agile and energetic movement. Therefore, this age is an ideal period for learning the motor-related skills such as writing, drawing, painting, swimming, playing ball and athletics. b. Intellectual development Intellectual is synonymous with cognitive. At 4-6 year age, children’s intellectuality begins to process. Children can use their thinking ability in solving a problem. c. Language development At 4-6 year age, their language ability develops as their curiosity and enthusiasm increase, so that some questions arise from the children with their language ability. Language ability also develops continuously as the children’s intensity of interaction with their peer increases. d. Social development At 4-6 year age, children can cooperate, compete positively, share with others, have passion over social acceptance, sympathy, empathy, be dependent positively on others, friendly, not selfish, can imitate positive things, and have good attachment behavior. e. Emotional development At 4-6 year age, emotional characteristics of children arise in their emotional bust or temper tantrum, while at 5-6 year, their emotion begins to mature. In this age, children begin to realize the consequences of their emotional display. They begin to understand others’ feeling, for example how others feel when they are injured, so that children learn to control their emotion (Elizabeth. B. Hurlock, 1978). The importance of Introducing Local Wisdom Value to Pre-Kindergarten- and Kindergarten-Age Children Local wisdom is also often conceptualized as “local wisdom” or “local knowledge” or “local genius”, constituting ideology and science as well as a variety of life strategy in the form of activities the local people perform in answering various problems in meeting their need. Their life need fulfilling system includes all aspects of life: religion, science, economy, technology, social organization, language, and communication, as well as arts such as tradition and life slogan (motto). Such the system then becomes a part of lifestyle they deal with. Owing to local wisdom, human beings can undertake their life and even develop (Permana, 2010: 23). Local wisdom is, according to Rahyono, a human intellectuality a certain ethnic group has, acquired through community experience. It means that local wisdom is a certain community’s result (product) through their experience and uncertainly experienced by other communities. Those values will attach very strongly to certain community and those values have passed through a long time trip, along the existence of community (Rahyono, 2009). Similarly, in Javanese community in general (Surakarta people in particular), local wisdom can be seen through: (1) local norms developed such as Javanese behavior (laku Jawa), abstinence and obligation; (2) Javanese people ritual and tradition as well as the meaning behind them; (3) folk songs, legend, myth, and Javanese folk story usually containing certain lessons or messages known by Javanese people only; (4) data information and knowledge collected among society elders, spiritual leaders; (5) manuscript or ancient books believed as true by Javanese people; (7) how the local Javanese people meet their daily life needs; (8) tool and material used for 207

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certain purpose; and (9) condition of natural resource or environment usually utilized in daily community life (Sartini, 2004). Local wisdom in Surakarta (Java) is represented in the well-known philosophy called pitutur luhur (noble talk) or wise words. For Surakarta (Javanese) people, pitutur luhur was obtained from their ancient teaching life values about how to treat their fellow human beings or nature. Pitutur luhur includes: (access from http://jejakjejakhijau.blogspot.co.id/2012/01/kearifan-lokal-di-lingkungan-masyarakat.html) 1. Rukun agawe santosa, crah agawe bubrah meaning concord grows strength, dissension results in damage. It obviously recommends us to live in concord, in an integrated community. 2. Aja nggugu karepe dhewe, meaning never do just the way you want. These words teach about how to control ourselves in order not to treat other arbitrarily. It teaches us how to manage passion and to control passion, rather than to be control by passion. It also teaches how to treat others properly meaning how to treat the nature non-arbitrarily. Otherwise, natural damage due to human beings’ action for their personal interest will affect others as well. 3. Ibu bumi, bapa aksa. It means that mother is earth, and father is sky. It means that earth is the symbol of mother providing soil fertility as a farming activity site. Sky is the symbol of father providing bless through rain. This tenet teaches us how to love, to protect, and to respect earth and sky as we do so to our parents. If we damage earth, sky would be angry. Similarly, if we treat our mother unwell, father would be angry, and vice versa. For example, there is forest destruction. Forest is the buffer of ecosystem balance. If it is damaged, ecosystem would be chaotic and climate would be uncertain. As a result, the sky shows off its anger with such phenomena as storm, high rainfall rate and etc. 4. Asta brata or eight tenets. It is humanity and leadership tenets. This tenets were often taught to Javanese Kings’ princes. This tenet departs from the philosphy of earth, water, fire, wind, sun, moon, animal, and cloud. In its development, asta brata cant be taught not only to the kingdom’s prince, but also to the public. Those eight elements are interelated and affect the human life sustainability. The Javanese philosophy prevailing in Surakarta is actualized in behavioral attitude, through the following attitudes in which Surakarta (Javanese) people should: (Pranowo, 2003: 262-276) 1. Have persistence and spirit in achieving life ideal. 2. Believe in God the One and Only. The presence of human being’s incapability feeling explains any natural phenomena seen and felt as well as human beings’ want to find life support that can guide feeling, creation and work, so that there should be close relationship between Javanese people and their Creator. 3. Have modesty, never being adigang, adigung, adiguna (arrogant, so that an individual can have modesty in treating others). Local wisdom attitude should be embedded since the children is still in early age (PreKindergarten- and Kindergarten, 4-6 years) in Surakarta, recalling that in this age, the sensitive period of children starts to develop. It is the period in which certain function should be stimulated for physical-motor, intellectual, social, and emotional aspects, so that good values should be embedded in order to be carried on until adult. Through embedding good values (local wisdom of Javanese people), the children in Surakarta will be able to behave well socially as well. Such the social behavior will be an activity in interacting with others later, including peer, teacher, parents, and relatives. In relation to others, some very significant events will occur in their life that can help create their personality. If since they were young the children have learnt how to behave socially corresponding to their closest people’s (mother, father, sibling, 208

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and other family members)’s expectation, what they have learnt from their family environment will contribute to creating their social behavior thereby making them a person with good character. One foundation to build good character is by introducing good values as the form of local wisdom prevailing in Surakarta community. Such the value embedment is important to the children to undertake this life later wisely, honestly, obediently to religion tenet, strongly and bravely, toughly, decorously, tenderly, trustworthily, and knowing how to repay others’ kindness corresponding to the rules and mores prevailing within Surakarta community where they live. Thus, later they will be able to minimize the forms of social gaps occurring recently such as collusion, corruption, and nepotism due to, among others, an individual’s poor understanding on the meaning of justice and truth values within society that have not been introduced since they were young. Character of Pandawa as the representation of Javanese (Surakarta) Local Wisdom Value For Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten (4-6 year)-age children, figuring (idolizing) ‘someone or something’ to build a character that can be their idol is very important, to make the role-modeling story acceptable/digestible/even preferable. One of representative character made as figure in introducing good attitude as the manifestation of cultural local wisdom values is Pandawa. The Javanese version of Pandawa story, according to Prof. Dr. Soetarno (a Professor in Surakarta Indonesian Art Institute) in First Fine Art Study lecture delivered on October 2008, told about Prabu Yudhistira constituting the oldest son of Prabu Pandudewanata (the King of Astina Kingdom, the largest kingdom in puppet world) with Dewi Kunti as consort of King. Prabu Dewanata died when Pandawas were still very young. Meanwhile, the custody right is held by his brother (Pandawas’ uncle) named Destarastra less deserved to lead because he was weak and blind. Destarastra had a wife named Gandari actually loving more Pandawas’ father (Pandudewanata) but forced to get married with his brother. Unfortunately, after Pandawa grew adult, the throne was not returned and even was given to his own descendant, Bala Kurawa with Prabu Duryudana being the oldest son. Bala Kurawa were known for their evil, trickiness, resentment, arrogance, extravagance, pretension, selfish, taking shortcut and violence in solving problem, and not caring about their community’s misery. They were getting more arbitrary under Sangkuni leadership as the patih (governor), Gandari’s little brother. Then, with the winning in Baratayudha war, Pandawa could retake Astina Kingdom’s throne with Prabu Yudhistira being the holder of leadership. The names and characters of Pandawa Lima that can represent Surakarta (Javanese) Local Wisdom values are explained completely below: (accessed from: http://yokimirantiyo.blogspot.co.id/2013/01/mengenal-karakter-tokoh-pandawa-lima.html) 1. Yudhistira He is very wise, has no enemy, and almost never lies in his lifetime. He has very high moral, like to forgive and to pardon the enemies who have submitted. Other prominent characteristics are just, patient, honest, obedient to religion tenet, self-confidence, and speculative. 2. Bima Bima has the following characteristics: muscular and brave, tough, resolute, submissive, and honest. He is also crude and fearful to enemy, despite tender heart, loyalty to one attitude, to-the-point and no ambivalent attitude, and he always does what he says. 3. Arjuna Arjuna is smart and clever, silent, tender, precise, decorous, bravery and protecting the weak one. 4. Nakula 209

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Nakula is honest, loyal, obedient to parents, and knows how to repay others’ kindness and can maintain secret. 5. Sadewa He is honest, loyal, obedient to parents, and knows how to repay others’ kindness and can maintain secret.

Figure 1. ‘Pandawa’ Leather Puppet Pandawa Character from the left to right, from the youngest to the oldest: Nakula, Sadewa, Arjuna, Bima, and Bima (Source: http://yokimirantiyo.blogspot.co.id/2013/01/mengenal-karakter-tokoh-pandawalima.html) Pandawa Paper Toys As the Representative of Surakarta (Javanese) Local Wisdom Values Pandawa as one Knight often figured in puppet is a form of Javanese traditional art rich of educational message and moral spiritual value in life. Pandawa is considered as the symbol that can represent goodness values such as wisdom, honesty, obedience to religion to tenet, strength and bravery, toughness, decorum, tenderness, trusteeship and knowing how to repay others’ kindness for Javanese people, particularly Surakarta. Thus, the utilization of Pandawa character and story as learning media for Pre-Kindergarten-and Kindergarten-age children has now been chosen as an effective alternative to deliver learning message in treating others and behaving. Of course, fore the utilization of Pandawa figure and character to be representative as message delivering media, it is visualized in such a way, and adjusted with the form preferred by Pre-Kindergarten-and Kindergarten-age children. It is also adjusted with children’s motor ability in order to be communicative for Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten-age Children. The media considered as representative is paper toy. Paper toy is a category of paper craft, the art of producing a paper-based object, by means of cutting, folding, and pasting the designed pattern in such a way that creates the shape we want. Paper toy resembles origami. But the objects produced by paper toy are more similar to its original form than origami. The objects made paper toys include people, house, car, motorcycle, animal, and etc, the visualization of which seems to be urban style, pop culture art, and trend. Then the form of paper toy is also simple and usually has very prominent texture, either real or imaginary (accessed from http://paperreplika45.blogspot.co.id/2012/09/pengertian-papercraft.html) 210

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This Paper toy developed as some models/types of paper developed during the 2nd World War. At that time, many people developed various war equipment models such as plane, tank, and combat ship from paper material. Then in 1990s, some paper types and models began to come to Indonesia originally as the bonus in Angkasa, Bobo Magazines and etc. As a variety of paper types arose, some creations arose as well from paper as basic material until paper model was booming in 2000s. Paper model template started to be distributed freely through internet, even nearly 80% of paper model template can be obtained freely in papercraft websites divided into some following types: (accessed from https://halodito.wordpress.com/2011/06/06/mengenal-papertoys-papercraft/) 1. Pepakura: the pronunciation of word papercraft in Japanese language; pepakura itself is categorized as cute as possible model, most of which uses anime models or character from Japanese comic. 2. Papertoy: has simple model but featured design skin/texture in that model, can be categorized as urban art/pop art; the key to papertoy is as simple as possible, as beautiful as possible. Although the skin used largely has urban or pop art theme, some papertoy takes skin anime or cartoon made simpler and cuter. 3. Paper Automata: is a papercraft category in which the model used can move with mechanic construction made of paper, described as moveable as possible. 4. Paper model or Paper-Replica is the paper model constituting the replica of original object, generally having high detail level and complexity, described as “not” simple as possible, generally in the form of military sets, vehicle, robots from anime/movie, and etc. Paper toy is considered as a representative media to deliver local wisdom values the Pandawa has, because paper toy can be categorized in education toys, the medium that can stimulate the children’s activity in learning something unconsciously, using both modern and simple or traditional technologies (Andang Ismail, 2006: 156). Education toy is the medium that can improve the children’s knowledge and understanding on something. Through visualizing Pandawa Paper Toy design, PreKindergarten and Kindergarten-age children are expected to assemble and then to perform it. During the process of assembling Pandawa Paper Toy nets, the activity has occurred useful to the development of Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten-age children because of the following reasons. (1) It can stimulate their motor development as it relates to physical movement in PreKindergarten and Kindergarten-age children. Physical movements can practice muscular system thereby creating good and healthy muscular system. Their fine motor ability can also be practiced with the activity of cutting the net/pattern of Pandawa Paper Toy, distinguishing the shapes of Pandawa Paper toy body parts and gluing it. (2) It can sharp social-emotional (affective) ability; during the assembly of Pandawa Paper Toy by Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten-age children, it can be seen the children’s interest and attitude to the paper toy, whether or not they like it, whether or not they enjoy it during assembling their paper toy nets or during performing it. In that process, we can observe the Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergartenage children’s appreciation to paper toy. (3) It can sharpen cognitive ability of Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten-age children when they should think of how to assemble the body parts of Yudhistira, Bima, Arjuna, Nakula, dan Sadewa. Thus unconsciously (when the children think of combining those paper toys), their intellectual ability is being sharpened to develop better. For that reason, it is reasonable if paper toy is considered as a representative medium to represent the characters of Pandhawa containing goodness values from Javanese local wisdom to Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten-age children in Surakarta. Through assembly activity from designing the Pandawa Paper Toy visualization to performing it, Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten-age children indirectly identify Pandawa figure. Then if it used as storytelling media by parents or teacher, it can tell about Javanese local wisdom values contained within it 211

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so that it can be the role model for Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten-age children in Surakarta. Method This research employed a descriptive qualitative approach, the one focusing on describing both condition and process in detail and in-depth, and interrelationship concerning the details found in the target of research (H.B. Sutopo, 2006: 179). The finding of research target was initiated by establishing phenomenological paradigm, so that this can understand the phenomenon to be studies, related to assumptions of both how to view the research object and how to implement the research process (Creswell, 2009), by considering the urgency or importance of Javanese local wisdom value embedment for Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten (4-6 year)-age children in Surakarta. The phenomenon occurring at that age is in golden age developmental period. Thus, this flexible and open-ended qualitative research was expected to contribute to solving the problems occurring later by giving solution in the form of recommended visual Pandawa paper toys as learning medium to introduce and to implant local wisdom values to Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten-age children in Surakarta. This flexible and open-ended research allowed for the change and the adjustment during the research, so that there would be no limitation for the author to find novelties related to the topic of research (Bungin, 2003: 49). This research produced a paper toy visual design so that it required action research method, providing visual product that would be implemented in the medium of introducing and implanting the attitudes reflecting local wisdom values in Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergartenage children in Surakarta later. The action research stage in this research consisted of diagnosing (problem), action planning, implementation, and evaluation cycles. This cyclic process could be seen in the chart below: (1) Diagnosing, the analysis on current condition and need identification, (2) Planning action is the planning as guide (director); (3) Taking action, constituting the designing of information system; (4) Evaluating Action is the review with trial. The operational flow of cycle in this action research was adjusted with its context and use (O’Brien, 1998), so that it can contribute to practical resolution in problematic situation and needs immediate alternative and exerting wider social effect.

The Method of Designing Pandawa Paper Toys The method used to produce Pandawa Paper Toys design through passed through the following stages: (1) researching/observing 4-6 year-age children in some Pre-KindergartenKindergarten schools in Surakarta, concerning the activities in school, their playing and learning abilities, and socialization way; (2) identifying the characters of Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten-age children in Surakarta and the aspects affecting physic-motor, intellectual, social, and emotional development; (3) analyzing the representative learning medium to build the characters of Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten-age children in Surakarta to be able to socialize, by positioning Pandawa Paper Toys a learning medium of introducing attitudes reflecting local wisdom to the Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten-age children in Surakarta; (4) determining the strategy of visualizing Pandawa Paper Toys that are representative and communicative in order to be mounted by Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten-age children in Research on PreKindergarten and Kindergarten children

Identifying character and developmen t

Determining learning medium


Determining visual strategy of Pandawa Paper Toys

Paper Toys Visualizatio n

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Surakarta; and (5) The visualization of Pandawa Paper Toys. The stages can be illustrated in the chart below:

Chart 1. Pandawa Paper Toys Designing Method

Visual Strategy of Pandawa Paper Toys as a Medium of Introducing Attitude Representing Javanese (Surakarta) Local Wisdom The embedment of Javanese local wisdom values (including wisdom, honesty, obedience to religion tenets, strength and bravery, toughness, decorum, tenderness, trusteeship, and knowing how to repay other’s kindness) to Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten-age children is very desirable because it will build good character among the children until they grow adult in undertaking life. For Javanese people in general and Surakarta people in particularly, those local wisdom values are reflected on the characters of Pandawa including Yudhistira, Arjuna, Bima, Nakula and Sadewa. It is important to introduce Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten-age children to the figure and character of Pandawa because their development/growth is in golden age period. The delivery of introduction and learning about local wisdom values is conducted through a joyful and representative medium for their age, through paper toy. Recalling that paper toy can be categorized as educative toy that can stimulate motor ability, sharpen socialemotional and affective abilities of Pre-Kindergarten-age and Kindergarten-age children, so that it is reasonable to visualize the children’s understanding on Javanese local wisdom values through Pandawa Paper Toy to make Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten-age children capable of assembling and performing it. In detail, the strategy of visualizing representative Pandawa Paper Toy for Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten (4-6 year)-age children in Surakarta can be explained as follows: 1. Creative concept a. Creative objective: Pandawa Paper Toy as the symbol of character/figure representing Javanese local wisdom values (e.g. wisdom, honesty, obedience to religion tenets, strength and bravery, toughness, decorum, tenderness, trusteeship, and knowing how to repay other’s kindness) was expected to be recognized by Pre-Kindergarten-age and Kindergartenage children. Furthermore, it could persuade those children to understand and to implement goodness/local wisdom values represented by Yudhistira, Arjuna, Bima, Nakula, and Sadewa. b. Creative Strategy: 1) Target audience intended was Pre-Kindergarten-age and Kindergarten-age children with geographic segment domiciling in Surakarta-Central Java, demographic segmentation, including sex: male and female, social-economic status: medium, psychographic segmentation in which the children are those curious with and interested in learning by practicing motor activities directly, and loving skill. 2) Format and size The nets were printed on A3-size paper to produce a finished product of Pandawa Paper Toys, with 13 cm-height overall (when paper toy was assembled and could be displayed). 3) Visualization technique Technique of visualizing Pandawa Paper Toys was initiated with developing draft character of Yudhistira, Bima, Arjuna, Nakula, and Sadewa using pencil, both 213

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its figure and 3D (3 dimension) net. Then the visualization of manual draft was moved to digital imaging using Corel Draw software, particularly its paper toy nets. After the nets have been designed completely in Corel Draw software, they have been ready to be printed. The product of printed nets was then cut corresponding to Pandawa Paper Toys pattern. To combine one net slice of Pandawa Paper Toys to another thereby creating paper toy that can be displayed/standing table, glue or double cellophane tape is needed as its finishing. 4) Character of Pandawa Paper Toys The character of Pandawa will be visualized in such a way that later results in a paper toy attractive to and preferred by Pre-Kindergarten- and Kindergarten-age children in Surakarta. The character of Pandawa to be visualized in paper toy is as follows: a) Yudhistira He is the eldest brother who is very wise, has no enemy, and almost never lies in his lifetime. He has very high moral, like to forgive and to pardon the enemies who have submitted. Other prominent characteristics are just, patient, honest, obedient to religion tenet, self-confidence, and speculative. All of those characters would be visualized into Yudhistira Paper Toy b) Arjuna Arjuna would be visualized in Arjuna Paper Toy as a handsome and friendly man, who is smart and clever, silent, tender, precise, decorous, bravery and protecting the weak one. c) Bima Bima known as the largest one among his siblings has the following characteristics: muscular and brave, tough, resolute, submissive, and honest. He is also crude and fearful to enemy, despite tender heart, loyalty to one attitude, to-the-point and no ambivalent attitude, and he always does what he says. All of those characters would be visualized in Bima Paper Toy. d) Nakula and Sadewa Nakula and Sadewa are twin brothers who are honest, loyal, obedient to parents, and knows how to repay others’ kindness and can maintain secret. All of those characters would be visualized in Nakula and Sadewa Paper Toys. 2. Visual Strategy a. Idea screening The figure considered as appropriate to represent the characters representing local wisdom values in Java including wisdom, honesty, obedience to religion tenets, strength and bravery, toughness, decorum, tenderness, trusteeship, and knowing how to repay other’s kindness is Pandawa. The five brothers in Pandawa: Yudhistira, Arjuna, Bima, Nakula, and Sadewa always become role model for goodness and heroic character in puppetry in Javanese community. Through those figures, Pre-Kindergarten- and Kindergarten (4-6 year)-age children can recognize noble figure and character of Pandawa. Indirectly it can also cultivate the Pre-Kindergarten- and Kindergarten (4-6 year)-age children’s love to Javanese cultural heritage. The visualization of Pandawa figure into paper toy form is adjusted with motor, cognitive abilities, and visual form preferred by Pre-Kindergarten- and Kindergarten (46 year)-age children, including: (1) brightly colored visual drawing/display; (2) friendly and funny figure visualization; and (3) less complicated and detailed form, in the term of both color and line used in the visualization, so that the process of idea screening to the visualization of Pandawa figure into paper toy can be illustrated below: 214

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Chart 2: Idea Screening to Visualization of Pandawa Paper Toys b. The process of visualizing Pandawa Paper Toys Design The process of visualizing Pandawa Paper Toys was initiated by identifying and learning the figure and character of Pandawa, through books telling about Mahabharata (and Bratayuda war), journal, photographs of Pandawa in the form of both wayang kulit (leather puppet) and wayang orang (people puppet) taken/collected. Then it could be done by means of researching visually the figure and visualization of drawing preferred by Pre-Kindergarten- and Kindergarten (4-6 year)-age children in Surakarta.


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Chart 3. The Process of Visualizing Pandawa Paper Toys The adjustment of Pandawa figure with the result of research on the visual preferred by Pre-Kindergarten- and Kindergarten (4-6 year)-age children resulted in draft figure and nets of Pandawa Paper Toys thereby providing the friendly fixed design to children. The designed net was adjusted with motor, social-emotional and affective abilities of Pre-Kindergarten- and Kindergarten-age children in Surakarta. When figure and nets of Pandawa paper toy had been fixed and touched with Corel draw and adobe Photoshop software working; therefore printout of paper toy nets had been ready to cut corresponding to its design form and then attached to result in 3D-paper toy. 216

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3. Work Visualization a. Nets of Pandawa Paper Toy

Figure 2. The Visualization of Pandawa Paper Toys Nets b. Pandawa Paper Toy

Figure 3. The Visualization of Pandawa Paper Toys Conclusion Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten (4-6 year) age children experience golden age development period (sensitive period) in which about 1,000 trillions brain cells containing connecting tissues/synapses are created allowing for the development of intellectual (cognitive), social, emotional, and socio-motor potencies. In that age development, there is change of mastery toward the higher level in motor, cognitive, affective, and interactive aspects with both fellows and with objects in their life environment. It is noteworthy that the implantation of good social values is important to early age children in Surakarta, particularly concerning the attitudes that can represent Javanese local wisdom values such as wisdom, honesty, obedience to religion tenets, strength and bravery, toughness, decorum, tenderness, trusteeship, and knowing how to repay other’s kindness. Children should have those local 217

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wisdom values in order to be persons with good character. For Javanese people in general and Surakarta people in particular, the figure usually representing the characters of local wisdom values is Pandawa figure, consisting of five knight brothers from Astina Country. They are Yudhistira, Arjuna, Bima, Nakula, and Sadewa. Next, learning media considered as representative to introduce Pandawa figure along with good character inherent to it is Paper Toy. Paper toy is an educative toy that can stimulate motor, social-emotional, and affective abilities of Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten-age- children in Surakarta. Paper Toy as visual aid media of delivering message is visualized corresponding to the shape (forms) preferred by kindergarten-age children, including (1) brightly colored visual drawing/display; (2) friendly and funny figure visualization; and (3) less complicated and detailed form, in the term of both color and line used in the visualization. Through Pandawa Paper Toys learning media, PreKindergarten and Kindergarten-age- children in Surakarta can identify figure and character of Pandawa as a form of Surakarta cultural local wisdom that should be imitated. References Andang Ismail. 2006. Education Games. Yogyakarta: Nuansa Aksara Asih, Ayu. 2015. Peningkatan Ketrampilan Memproduksi Teks Cerpen Dengan Pemodelan Karakter Tokoh Wayang Pandawa Lima Pada Siswa Kelas XI-IPA 1 SMA Kesatrian 2 Semarang. Semarang: Unes Asry, Yusuf. 2010. Menelusuri Kearifan Lokal Di Bumi Nusantara. (Melalui Dialog Pengembangan Wawasan Multikultural Antara Pemuka Agama Pusat dan daerah di Provinsi Maluku Utara, Papua, Maluku). Jakarta: Badan Litbang dan Diklat Kementerian Agama. Bungin, Burhan. 2003. Analisis Data Penelitian Kualitatif. Jakarta: Raja Grafindo Persada. Creswell, John. W. 2009. Reseach Design: Pendekatan Kualitatif, Kuantitatif, dan Mixed, terjemahan Achmad Fawaid. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar. Helms, D. B & Turner, J.S. 1983. Exploring Child Behavior. New York: Holt Rinehartand Winston. Hurlock, Elizabeth. B. 1978. Child Development. Sixth Edition. New York : Mc. Graw Hill, Inc. Montessori, Maria. 2013. Moteode Montessori: Panduan Wajib untuk Guru dan Orangtua Dididk PAUD (Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini). Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar. Mulyono, Sri. 1982. Wayang: Asal-usul, Filsafat, dan Masa Depannya. Jakrta: PT. Gunung Agung. O’Brien, Rory. 1998. An Overview of The Methodological Approach of Action Research, Faculty of Information Studies, University of Toronto, Toronto. Purwadi. 2006. Jurnal Kebudayaan Jawa: Pendidikan Budi Pekerti dalam Seni Pewayangan. Yogyakarta: Narassi. Rahyono. 2009. Kearifan Budaya dalam Kata. Jkarta: Wedatama Widyasastra 218

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Roopnaire, J. L & Johnson, J.E. 1993. Approaches to Early Childhood, Education. 2nd Edition. New York: Merril. Santoso, Suwito. 1974. The Keraton of Surakarta. Yogyakarta: Gajah Mada University Press. Sartini. 2004. Menggali Kearifan Lokal: Sebuah Kajian Filsafati. Jurnal Filsafat UGM, Jilid 37 Nomo 2. Soeratman, Darsiti. 2000. Kehidupan Dunia Keraton Surakarta: Seri Pustaka Keraton Nusantara. Yogyakarta: Yayasan untuk Indonesia. Sujud, Aswardi. 1978. Pendidikan Pra Sekolah.Yogyakarta: UNY Press. Sutopo, HB. 2006. Penelitian Kualitatif: Dasar dan Terapannya Dalam Penelitian. Surakarta: Universitas Sebelas Maret. Suyadi. 2013. Teori Pembelajaran Anak Usia Dini: Dalam Kajian Neurosains. Bandung: PT. Remaja Rosdakarya.

Tim Penyusun Kamus Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahasa. 1996. Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka. Wathon, Aminul. 2015. Kajian Keagamaan, Keilmuan dan Teknologi, Neurosains Dalam Pendidikan. Jurnal lenteraISSN: 1693 – 6922. http://ejournal.kopertais4.or.id/index.php/lentera/article/view/1324. (diakses 11 Mei 2016). Syaodih, Ernawulan. 2012. Psikologi Perkembangan. http://file.upi.edu/Direktori/FIP/JUR._PGTK/196510011998022ERNAWULAN_SYAODIH/PSIKOLOGI_PERKEMBANGAN.pdf. (diakses 11 Mei 2016). Nova, Taufix. 2010. Peranan Wayang sebagai Media. http://taufiknova.blogspot.com/2010/03/peranan-wayang-media.html .(diakses 12 Mei 2016). Nolte, Dorothy Law. 1972. Children Learn What They Live. http://www.empowermentresources.com/info2/childrenlearn-long_version.html (diakses 11 Mei 2016). http://ki-demang.com/kbj5/index.php/makalah-pengombyong/1207-25-kearifan-lokal-budayajawa-sebagai-bahan-ajar-bahasa-indonesia-bagi-penutur-asing-bipa/ http://badanbahasa.kemdikbud.go.id/ lamanbahasa/artikel/1366. http://jejakjejakhijau.blogspot.co.id/2012/01/kearifan-lokal-di-lingkungan-masyarakat.html http://kejawen.co.cc/pranoto-mongso-aliran-asli-jawa http://yokimirantiyo.blogspot.co.id/2013/01mengaenal-karakter-pandawa-lima.html.


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ABSTRACT Literary Performance in the Act of Pendendang By Noni Sukmawati

Literary performance is a form of an art performance which places pantun or verse, a spoken l iterature of Minangkabau, as the main medium. Pantun is un oral tradisional literature delivere d through berdendang or singing tradition which is accompanied by an instrument namely sal uang, hence this performance is called saluang dendang performance. Studies on this saluang dendang performance attempt to understand further on the power of pantun that has been gro wing through the spoken tradition in Minangkabau art performance. They are aimed to obtain pictures on pendendang or the singer as the main actor in choosing the pantun for saluang den dang performance, and in establishing contextual interaction with the audiences or the perfor mance environment. The pantun choices range from the available pantun and new pantun mad e spontaneously based on the situation during the performance. This research uses observation al-participative approach, and is carried out by observing saluang dendang directly, so relevan t data could be obtained. From the research it was found that pendendang possesses power in building interesting performances for the audiences through the selections of pantun, especiall y the pantun spontaneously created during performance.

Intruduction Pertunjukan saluang dan dendang merupakan sebuah bentuk pertunjukan yang ada dalam lingkungan masyarakat dan kebudayaan Minangkabau. Pertunjukan saluang dan dendang ini berupakan pertunjukan nyanyian (dendang) yang diiring alat musik tiup (flute) yan disebut dengan saluang. Pertunjukan ini minimal dimainkan oleh tiga seniman musik, satu orang peniup saluang dan dua orang pendendang. Pertunjukan menurut Sal Murgianto (53: 2016) merupakan sebuah rangkaian komunikasi antara satu orang atau lebih sebagai pengirim pesan, merasa bertanggung jawab pada seseorang atau lebih kepada penerima pesan dan kepada sebuah tradisi yang mereka pahami bersama melalui seperangkat tingkah laku yang khas. Jadi pertunjukan merupakan sejumlah tindakan manusia menjalin sebuah komunikasi untuk menyampaikan dan menerima pesan tertentu dari tradisi yang mereka miliki. Jika pengertian ini digunakan untuk menjelaskan pertunjukan saluang dan dendang, maka pengirim pesan disebut peniup saluang dan pendendang dan tentu penontonya sebagai penerima pesan. Pesan-pesan yang disampaikan melalui pantun-pantun yang dinyanyikan menggunakan bahasa lokal Minangkabau, dengan sendirinya tradisi yang dipertunjukan melalui saluang dan dendang ini adalah tradisi yang ada di dalam kebudayaan Minangkabau. Jadi secara umum dapat dikatakan, bahwa semua orang yang terlibat dengan pertunjukan saluang dan dendang, adalah orang Minangkabau yang paham dengan bahasa Minangkabau. Pesan-pesan dalam sebuah pertunjukan saluang dan dendang selain pesan musikalitas yang khas dari instrumen saluang, pesan yang paling penting adalah pantun-pantun yang didendangkan tersebut, yang bersifat lisan (oral tradition) yang sebagian besar dikarang atau dibuat secara spontan oleh pendendangnya. Setiap pantun tidak terikat dengan judul nyanyian atau irama lagu yang didendangkan, karena sebuah pantun bisa saja dinyanyikan untuk juduljudul yang ada dalam nyanyian pertunjukan saluang dan dendang yang jumlah nyanyian saluang ratusan judulnya. 220

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Kemampuan menguasai hampir semua repertoar lagu-lagu pertunjukan saluang dendang yang jumlahnya ratusan tersebut, merupakan sebuah kemampuan yang luar biasa. Tidak ada partitur musik dan teks-teks pantun yang tertulis. Para seniman pertunjukan saluang dan dendang mengalir mengikuti selera penonton yang cukup beragam. Seorang peniup saluang adalah seniman musik yang harus menguasai semua repertoar lagu-lagu saluang yang dikenal luas oleh masyarakat, karena dialah yang pertama memulai membuka dengan musik pengantar lagunya, dan kemudian baru diiringi oleh pendendang. Sedangkan seorang pendendang, haruslah menguasai perbendaharaan pantun-pantun yang banyak, dan meramunya atau mengisinya dengan syair-syair yang berhubungan dengan konteks pertunjukannya. Misalnya ia bisa mengarang pantun spontan tentang orang-orang yang hadir sebagai penonton, sehingga terjadi interaksi yang dinamis selama pertunjukan berlangsung. Kemampuan seorang peniup saluang maupun pendendang, berdasarkan penelitian lapangan, tumbuh dan berkembang secara otodidak, dalam artian tidak ada guru khusus yang mengajar mereka. Mereka memulainya sendiri, dengan cara bertanya-tanya, menyimak dan mencobanya sendiri. Kemudian mereka magang, yakni hadir di tempat pertunjukan saluang dan dendang dan ikut sebagai pendendang tanpa bayaran. Lagu-lagu yang telah ia kuasai akan ikut ia nyanyikan bergantian dengan pendendang yang lebih senior. Dari proses magang inilah akhirnya ia akan bisa menjadi pendendang profesional, yang diundang dan dibayar sesuai dengan aturan yang berlaku.

Research Questions

 

Bagaimana cara pendendang mempersiapkan dirinya atau memainkan perannya sebagai pendendang yang mengandalkan sastra pertunjukan, dalam hal ini pantun (oral traditions) untuk memberikan kepuasan dan menjawab permintaan penontonnya dan bagaimana struktur pertunjukan saluang dendang yang mengunakan tradisi lisan pantun (Sastra lisan) sebagai teks utamanya. Bagaimana peran penonton dalam pertunjukan saluang dendang dalam membangun sebuah struktur pertunjukan yang bersifat dialogis dengan modal tradisi lisan? Mengapa pantun ratapan (ratok) digemari dan mengapa pecandu pertunjukan saluang dendang betah menyaksikan pertunjukan sepanjang malam.

Methods Metode penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan observasi-partisipatif, yakni dengan mengamati sastra pertunjukan saluang dendang secara langsung, sehingga mendapatkan data yang sesuai dengan maksud dan tujuan penelitian. Selain mengamati langsung pertunjukan saluang dendang, juga akan dilakukan wawancara dengan berbagai kalangan mengenai perkembangan pertunjukan saluang dendang, terutama yang berhubungan dengan tradisi lisan pantun. Kelompok pertama yang akan diwawancarai adalah yang terlibat langsung dengan kegiatan seni pertunjukan saluang dendang, misalnya dengan seniman saluang, penyelenggara pertunjukan, penonton pertunjukan dan pengamat. Data penelitian yang dibutuhkan dari pengamatan langsung adalah data yang memperlihatkan proses dialogis masing-masing 221

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kelompok di dalam arena pertunjukan saluang dendang, terutama dalam hubungannya dengan tradisi lisan pantun. Sedangkan melalui wawancara, data penelitian yang dibutuhkan adalah data dari proses terbentuknya pengalaman, kebiasaan dan kemampuan setiap kelompok yang bermain dan hadir di dalam arena pertunjukan saluang dendang.

Results Pertunjukan saluang dendang yang sering disebut dengan musik malam karena dipertunjukan hampir sepanjang malam, dimulai sekitar pukul 21.00 dan berakhir keesokan harinya sekitar pukul 04.00. Sepanjang pertunjukan para seniman saluang dendang akan memainkan lagu-lagu sesuai dengan permintaan penontonnya, dan bagi setiap pendendang akan diupayakan merangkai pantun yang berhubungan dengan penonton yang meminta lagu tersebut. Misalnya dengan menyebut nama penonton yang memesan lagu pada sampiran, dan memilih isi pantun yang kira-kira sesuai dengan kondisi lingkungan atau situasi psikologis yang sedang dialami. Jika isi pantun tersebut sesuai dengan konteksnya, maka akan ada respon yang spontan pula dari para penonton dalam bentuk teriakan atau suara lainnya yang membuat pertunjukan menjadi bergemuruh dan hidup. Jadi dengan cara yang dialogis-interaktif tersebut, setiap pendendang akan berudaha mengenali setiap situasi dari lingkungan penonton yang ada, dan kemudian memilih pantun-pantun yang tepat untuk didendangkannya. Denga demikian, struktur pertunjukan saluang dendang sesungguhnya dibangun dan berkembang melalui sastra pertunjukan yang bersifat lisan, yakni pantun-pantun yang dikemas pada waktu pertunjukan sedang berlangsung. Selain itu, penonton pertunjukan saluang dendang pada dasarnya adalah orang-orang yang juga memiliki pengetahuan empirik tentang tradisi lisan pantun, termasuk mengenal banyak repertoar lagu-lagu saluang dendang. Bagi mereka yang sudah jadi peminat pertunjukan saluang dendang, sudah ada judul-judul lagu yang menjadi kesukaan mereka. Judul-judul ini akan selalu mereka pesan di setiap pertunjukan saluang dendang yang mereka hadiri. Biasanya setiap peminat pertunjukan saluang dendang, sudah memiliki pengetahuan tentang lagu yang mereka pesan, serta pantun-pantun yang biasa dinyanyika di dalam lagu tersebut. Bahkan karakter dari melodi alat musik saluang sudah sangat hapal pula oleh mereka, sehingga setiap peniup saluang harus pula mampu memainkannya sesuai dengan pakem yang sudah dikenal secara luas. Para peminat ini, yang disebut dengan pecandu gurau, biasanya tidak hanya datang untuk sekedar pendengar, tetapi kadang-kadang juga ikut menyumbang kepada pihak penyelenggara untuk membayar honor seniman pertunjukan saluang dendang. Dengan kata lain sebuah pertunjukan saluang dendang bisa juga penyelenggaraannya bersifat partisipatif, terutama dalam pembiayaannya. Hubungan antara seniman pertunjukan saluang dendang dengan sebagian penonton, yang umumnya adalah masyarakat pedesaan, seperti telah memilki hubungan emosional yang kuat. Di setiap nagari (desa) yang sering dijadikan tempat pertunjukan saluang biasanya telah ada kelompok penonton yang disebut pecandu gurau tersebut. Kelompok ini biasanya telah mengenal dengan baik setiap peniup saluang dan pendendang, sehingga mereka sering dijadikan refrensi untuk memilih seniman pertunjukan saluang dendang yang akan ditampilkan. Kelompok pecandu gurau ini juga biasanya yang memberikan apresiasi terhadap masyarakat lokal tempat acara pertunjukan saluang diadakan. Bahkan setiap seniman saluang dendang yang diundang (ditanggap) juga akan meminta referensi tentang situasi lokal tempat mereka akan membuat pertunjukan. Jadi sebuah pertunjukan saluang dendang merupakan sebuah jaringan 222

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yang cukup luas di wilayah pedesaan Sumatera Barat, terutama jaringan antara seniman saluang dendang itu dengan para pecandu gurau yang tersebar diberbagai desa. Topik penelitian, yakni bagaimana tradisi lisan pantun (sastra lisan) tersebut menjadi teks penting dalam pertunjukan saluang dendang, dan bagaimana pendendang menyampaikannya sebagai pesan yang menghidupkan sebuah tradisi pertunjukan. Dari pengamatan lapangan dan wawancara dengan sejumlah pendendang, pada umumnya mereka menjelaskan bahwa apa yang mereka sampaikan adalah bagian dari kesadaran kolektif dari penonton. Untuk dapat memahami kesadaran kolektif tersebut, mereka harus bergaul dan mengenal secara baik lingkungan masyarakat Minangkabau. Mengenal secara baik persoalan-persoalan hidup seharihari yang dihadapi, serta menguasai secara baik nilai-nilai hidup yang harus dimiliki oleh masyarakat. Pada umumnya suasana musikal dalam pertunjukan saluang dendang adalah ratapan, karena tradisi merantau kuat di Minangkabau, yang pergi dan yang ditinggalkan mengalami kesedihan, dan pengalaman pahit yang mengekpresikan kesedihan dan kesulitan hidup, maka setiap pendendang harus mampu mengekpresikan hal tersebut melalui pantun yang disebut dengan ratok. Suasana ratapan dalam pertunjukan saluang dendang biasanya secara otomatis menyambungkan emosional dengan penonton pertunjukan . Agar ada pesan positif yang bermanfaat, maka dalam setiap pertunjukan juga harus ada pantun-pantun yang didendangkan berisi pesan-pesan nasehat, dan pesan-pesan yang mampu menghibur penonton. Untuk dapat mendendang pesan positif ini melalui pantun nasehat atau yang menghibur ini, setiap pendendang juga harus mengenal dan mempelajari secara baik budaya dan kehidupan masyarakat Minangkabau. Tradisi lisan atau budaya bercerita yang demikian kuat dalam masyarakat Minangkabau,yang merupakan khasanah pengetahuan tradisional yang memberi amunisi bagi setiap pendendang untuk tampil secara baik dalam pertunjukan saluang dendang.

Conclution 

Budaya bercerita (maota) dalam kehidupan masyarakat Minangkabau, yang kebudayaannya berbasiskan tradisi lisan tersebut, telah menjadi modal sosial yang sangat kaya bagi para seniman pendendang untuk menyusun, merancang dan menyampaikan pesan-pesan melalui pantun (oral tradision) yang didendangkan kepada penonton dengan cara spontan dalam pertunjukan saluang dendang. Pengalam hidup d dengan sendirinya menjadi kemampuan yang melekat dalam diri setiap pendendang, sehingga memiliki kemampuan mendendangkan ratapan, kesusahan yang dirasakan dan kerasnya kehidupan diperantauan, dan kesedihan bagi yang ditinggalkan rasa ini yang disampaikan pendendang dalam pertunjukan saluang dendang. Inilah yang membuat pecandu saluang dendang bertahan sepanjang malam dari jam semilan pagi samoai jam empat pagi, karena peniknat merasa pendendang mewakili apa yang mereka rasakan dan menyanyikanya. Budaya pertunjukan saluang dendang yang cair dan tidak formal, serta terjadinya interaksi yang bersifat dialogis antara seniman pendendang dengan penonton, telah menumbuhkan dan mengembangan budaya pertunjukan saluang dendang yang bersifat partisipatif serta memberi kesempatan yang cukup luas bagi pendendang untuk berimprovisasi dan menyampaikan pesan-pesan melalui pantun dengan cara yang spontan. Pada dasarnya struktur, alur dan capaian sebuah pertunjukan saluang dendang dibangun, dirancang atau terbentuk karena interaksi antara penonton dan pendendang, yang dipertautkan oleh modal budaya dari tradisi lisan pantun yang mereka miliki, sehingga pertunjukan saluang dendang dapat disebut sebagai sastra pertunjukan berbasiskan tradisi lisan pantun. Penonton punya kesempatan berpartisipasi untuk ikut berkontribusi 223

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membangun dan mengembangkan struktur pertunjukan, dan ini menjadi daya tarik penonton, sambil menghayati suasana ratapan dendang yang seperti mewakili diri mereka sendiri.


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The Development Of Formal Ceremonial Coronation Attire Of Seri Paduka Baginda Yang Di-Pertuan Agong From I-XIV Starting From 1957 until 2016. Nor Idayu binti Ibrahim University Technology MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam [email protected] Abstract- There is specific formal attire wear by “Seri Paduka Baginda Yang di-Pertuan Agong”. The exploration related with Malaysia royal institution and royal etiquettes are aspiring, interesting and there are numbers of printed publications had discovered in depth, onto this fields. Unfortunately, most of them have not yet discovered in-depth research about the development of formal ceremonial coronation attire of “Seri Paduka Baginda Yang di-Pertuan Agong”. The purpose of this paper is to discover the development of ceremonial coronation attire and to document the knowledge regarding the research paper topic. Meyer Schapiro theory of style is used in this research equivalent to feature its style and design of the ceremonial coronation attire. Method applied was the qualitative method because it is the suitable approach to gathering valid data from the experience experts. It is also discussed on the style, muskat and the design of ceremonial attires of them. The coronation attire also known as Royal Regalia. The items are Tengkolok di-Raja, Pending di- Raja, Short Keris and Long Keris. Finally, this research hopefully will benefit and provide a vital source of references to the Malay civilization, researchers, academicians, scholars, students, cultural activist, and also Malaysian regarding with the formal coronation ceremonial attire of “Seri Paduka Baginda Yang diPertuan Agong” especially back dated during the period of 1957 until 2016. Keywords - Coronation ceremonial attire, muskat, style, design.


INTRODUCTION Seri Paduka Baginda yang di-pertuan Agong is the highest ruler in Malaysia. Their ruler cycle rotate every five years of throne. Clothing is needed of each individual, regardless of status and position. Clothing is required in every activities of life, from the official ceremony to normal activities. Each activities tend to have different type of clothing that suit in different agenda. Clothes can be to wrap up the naked body from any element that could hurt body, adjust their body temperature with the fluctuate weathers, keep their dignity and pride and also give the comfy to the wearer by Zubaidah Shawal (1994). The royalty’s family and traders, they are taught to adorn beautiful clothes from the early ages. Their costumes, are adapted from the foreign elements such as wearing robes, wore coat made of satin and brocade textiles with striking fabric color. They also wear headdress with velvety materials ornamented with golds, and also wearing headband of gold thread, Zubaidah (1994). This shows that, the Royalties attire had been influence and been adapted from the out reign civilization. Their clothes made from luxury fabrication that are high in quality and beauty. But yet, the Malay identities can be trace from these costumes by observing thru the ornaments and the detailing. 225

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AIM To discover the development of formal ceremonial coronation attire of “Seri Paduka Baginda Yang Di-pertuan Agong from I – XIV” from 1957 until 2016.


OBJECTIVES To explore the style that had been use for the ceremonial attire of “Seri Paduka Baginda Yang Di-pertuan Agong from I – XIV” from 1957 until 2016 and to document the knowledge regarding this research topic.


SIGNIFICANCE This research will oblige as an informative documentation to the academicians and historians that can be directed as a reference guide. Researchers may refer to this study and find other lacking data and be inspired to dig more on the “Seri Paduka Baginda Yang Di-Pertuan Agong” related to the Royal Institution Tradition and Customs. This heritage knowledge that being inherited to the lovers can be preserved and persist for the upcoming generations.


RESEARCH QUESTION What is the specific style for the formal coronation attire of “Seri Paduka Baginda Yang Di-pertuan Agong ?


RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Method of qualitative, based on semi-structure questions to selected respondents. The analysis of the finding been analyse by applying an art theory by Meyer Schapiro the theory of Style.

VII. LITERATURE REVIEW “Seri Paduka Baginda Yang Di-pertuan Agong” is a representative from several states in Malaysia. According to Abdul Aziz Bari in his book entitled “Majlis Rajaraja; kedudukan dan Peranan dalam Perlembagaan Malaysia” (2003), the federal constitution stipulates that a king was eligible to be elected as the “Yang Dipertuan Agong” with several issues that must be consider, of 1) unless if he is not adult, 2) he told the “Penyimpan Mohor Besar Raja-raja” that he does not intend to be selected as “Yang Di-pertuan Agong”, and 3) “Majlis Raja-raja” has adopted a resolution that he was not fit to run the tasks of “Seri Paduka Baginda Yang Dipertuan Agong” due to infirmity of mind or physical or else for other reasons. The selection of “Yang Di-pertuan Agong” is confidential. After the selection occurred, “Yang Di-Pertuan Agong” must be on duty for five years and the cycle keeps rotating for every five years.


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Table 1: List of Seri Paduka Baginda Yang di-Pertuan Agong N Details N Details o o Negeri Sembilan Johor 1 8







31 August 1957 – 1 April 1960 Seri Paduka Baginda Almarhum Tuanku Abdul Rahman ibni Almarhum Tuanku Muhammad (24.8.1895-1.4.1960) Selangor 14 April 1960 – 1 September 1960 Seri Paduka Baginda Almarhum Sultan Hisamuddin Alam Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Alaeddin Sulaiman Shah (13.5.1898-1.9.1960) Perlis 21 September 1960 – 20 September 1965 Seri Paduka Baginda Almarhum Tuanku Syed Putra Alhaj ibni Almarhum Syed Hassan Jamalullail (25.11.1920-16.4.2000) Terengganu 21 September 1965 – 20 September 1970 Seri Paduka Baginda Almarhum Tuanku Ismail Nasiruddin Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Zainal Abidin (24.1.1907-20.9.1979) Kedah 21 September 1970 – 20September 1975 Seri Paduka Baginda Almarhum Al-Sultan Almu’tasimu Billahi Muhibbudin Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Badlishah (Born in 28.11.1927) Kelantan 21 September 1975 – 30 Mac 1979 Seri Paduka Baginda Almarhum Tuanku Yahya Petra ibni Almarhum Sultan Ibrahim (10.12.1917-29.3.1979) Pahang 26 April 1979 – 25 April 1984 Seri Paduka Baginda Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah Al- Musta’in Billah ibni Almarhum Sultan Abu Bakar Ri’Ayatuddin AlMu’adzam Shah (Born in 24.10.1930)



1 0

26 April – 1984 – 25 April 1989 Seri Paduka Baginda Almarhum Sultan Mahmud Iskandar Alhaj ibni Almarhum Sultan Ismail al-Khalidi (8.4.1932-22.1.2010) Perak 26 April 1989 – 25 April 1994 Seri Paduka Baginda Almarhum Sultan Azlan Muhibbudin Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Yussuf Izzudin Shah Ghafaru’llahullahu (Born in 1928) Negeri Sembilan 26 April 1994 – 25 April 1999 Seri Paduka Baginda Almarhum Tuanku Ja’afar ibni Almarhum Tuanku Abdul Rahman (19.7.1922-27.12.2008)

1 1

Selangor 26 April 1999 – 21 November 2001 Seri Paduka Baginda Almarhum Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Sir Hisamuddin Alam Shah (26.4.1999-27.12.2008)

1 2

Perlis 13 December 2001 – 12 December 2006 Seri Paduka Baginda Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin ibni Almarhum Tuanku Syed Putra (Born in 17.5.1943)

1 3

Terengganu 13 December 2006 – 12 December 2011 Seri Paduka Baginda Al-Watiqu Billah,Tuanku Mizan Zainal Abidin ibni Almarhum Sultan Mahmud Al-Muktafi Billah Shah (Born in 22.1.1962) Kedah Seri Paduka Baginda Al-Sultan Almu’tasimu Billahi Muhibbudin Tuanku Alhaj Abdul Halim Mu’adzam ShAh ibni Almarhum Sultan Badlishah. (Born in 28.11.1927)

1 4

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VIII. FINDING “What is the specific style for formal ceremonial coronation attire of Seri Paduka Baginda Yang di-Pertuan Agong? Finding, the styles for formal ceremonial coronation attire of Seri Paduka Baginda Yang di-PertuanAgong are in two styles. The first and second Seri Paduka Baginda Yang di-Pertuan Agong wore a complete set of “Baju Kurung/Baju Melayu cekak musang”. Both styles are complete from the headdress until to the bottom accessories. The headdress for the first Agong, Seri Paduka Baginda AlmarhumTuanku Abdul Rahman ibniAlmarhumTuanku Muhammad (31.8.1957 – 1.4.1960) is in “dendam tak sudah” style. The style of ‘dendam tak sudah’ is originated from the Negeri Sembilan. The second Seri Paduka Baginda Yang Dipertuan Agong, Seri Paduka Baginda Almarhum Sultan Hisamuddin Alam Shah ibniAlmarhum Sultan Alaeddin Sulaiman Shah (14.4.1960 – 1.9.1960), Tuanku sultan of Selangor. Tuanku also wear a complete set of Baju Kurung cekak Musang in the same material from head to toe. The difference of both styles is on the headdress. The second Seri PadukaBaginda Yang di- PertuanAgong wore a tengkolok diraja in “setanjak balung raja” folded. This represents the Selangor state style of tengkolok or “solek”, unfortunately Tuanku had died before his throne ceremonial. The front side of the headdress “tengkolok”, compliment with the national symbol of a crescent and eleven pointed stars brooch. Tuanku wore a full set of baju kurung cekak musang with a pair of pants with the same material. At the fastening front part of the baju kurung, it is included with five buttons. Besides, tuanku also wore a samping in “dagang luar” style neatly fasten with a big size royal waist buckle “pending di- raja” with national symbol at the center part. Other accessories include, a short royal keris “keris pendik diraja” and he also wore an honor of Darjah Utama Seri Mahkota Negara (D.M.N) complete with breast stars, a yellow sash and badge. According to the interview with Sulaiman Ahmad (2016), the placement for the breast stars and its’ measurement is following the protocol and etiquette. The placement call as the diamond shape, start at the middle parts, followed by the left side. The placement of breast star is depend on the total of breast stars that Seri Paduka Baginda Yang di-Pertuan Agong want to wear for that particular occasions. The ceremonial coronation attire for Seri Paduka Baginda Yang di-Pertuan Agong style had change from wearing the full set of Baju Kurung cekak musang to Muskat starting from the third Seri Paduka Yang di-PertuanAgong, Seri Paduka Baginda Almarhum Tuanku Syed Putra Alhaj ibni Almarhum Syed Hassan Jamalullail (21.9.1960 – 20.9.1965). Tuanku wore a black suit of Muskat with royal yellow songket of Tengkolok and samping. Tuanku also wore a black trouser with golden thread “tekat tuji” that being embellish to the hemline of the trouser in similar design of the muskat. The following Seri Paduka Baginda Yang di-Pertuan Agong the forth, Seri Paduka Baginda Almarhum Tuanku Ismail Nasiruddin Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Zainal Abidin (21.9.1965 – 20.9.1970). The changes occurred at the samping and tengkolok in material of royal yellow songket has is change to black and golden thread songket. Besides, the sash change from the yellow sash into the red sash with bow tie at the end. Move to the sixth Agong, Seri Paduka Baginda Almarhum TuankuYahya Petra ibni Almarhum Sultan Ibrahim (21.9.1975 – 29.3.1979), tuanku wear the same muskat with red sash but at the top part of the tengkolok di-raja there is a figure of the Kelantan State symbol. 228

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Figure 1: Variation of Maskat style.

First style

Second style

Third style

The seventh Seri Paduka Baginda Yang di-Pertuan Agong, Seri Paduka Baginda Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah Al-Musta’in Billahibni Almarhum Sultan Abu Bakar Ri’Ayatuddin Al- Mua’adzam Shah (26.4.1979 – 25.4.1984) has made major changes on the golden thread muskat design, while the whole style remain the same. The design is in updates version which is in a specific details and intricate design. The hibiscus motif used is in more stylize pattern but still keep the “awan larat” pattern as a whole. The third changes of the muskat design occurred during the ninth Seri Paduka Baginda Yang di-Pertuan Agong, Seri Paduka Baginda Almarhum Sultan Azlan Muhibbudin Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Yussuf Izzudin Shah Ghafaru’llahullahu (26.4.1989 – 25.4.1994), the golden thread design has finally changed into more simpler design but still maintain the similar element of national flower, the hibiscus and repetition of “awan larat” pattern along the muskat with a single line along the opening part of the muskat. Other than that, the style remains the same. Last but not least, the current Tuanku, Seri PadukaBaginda Yang di-Pertuan Agong Baginda Al-Sultan Almu’tasimuBillahi Muhibbudin Tuanku Alhaj Abdul Halim Mu’adzam Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Badlishah (starting from 13.12.2011) have a changes at the sash part from the red sash into the yellow sash. Besides that, the size of the Royal waist buckle plate is smaller compared to the previous size. According to the interview in (2016) the changes occur is due to the certain personal reasons and body size of Tuanku. In compliment with the muskat attire, the set of royal regalia for Seri Paduka Baginda Yang di-Pertuan Agong the tengkolok di-raja, short keris, long keris and royal waist buckle still in the same set back dated from 1957 until 2016. The ceremonial costume explain as an attire that suit with specific ceremony or event, in other words clothing worn for a very special occasions. For example, in academic protocol of graduation ceremony, all participants have to wear the graduation robe, complete set with the mortar board or bonnet. The exploration on the material, style of the garment comes with numbers of motif that embellished the coronation attire. The motifs, form and meanings of the embellishment and tekat tuji are explored in great detail. It is hopes that with greater understanding and appreciation among Malaysians, the art of traditional Malay attires and the exclusive embellishment of gold thread embroidery will be preserved and be maintained as our traditional Malays heritage. The design and idea of the muskat must be agreed by Majlis Raja-Raja. The ideas of golden thread embroidery for the muskat is being agreed by Majlis Raja-raja and being acknowledged by Tan Sri Rais Yatim the Ministry of Culture and Tourism back dated in 1992. From that onwards, the design at the muskat remain until now. Furthermore, the design of the “awan larat” with hibiscus has been recognized as national indication of Malaysia.


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IX. CONCLUSION Malay outfit born of the growth and development of clothing ancients through the changes process. These are due to the influence bring by the merchants and the surrounding community. Result of this clash, various kinds of textile, variation of clothing, headwear, and accessories appear in Malay. According to Abbas and Norwani (2003) till now the most popular women traditional attires are baju kurung, baju kebaya panjang, baju kebaya pendek, baju kurung kedah, and baju kurung Pahang. The ceremonial costume explain as an attire that suit with specific ceremony or event, in other words clothing worn for a very special occasions. For example, in academic protocol of graduation ceremony, all participants have to wear the graduation robe, complete set with the mortar board or bonnet. The exploration on the material, style of the garment comes with numbers of motif that embellished the coronation attire. The motifs, form and meanings of the embellishment and tekat tuji are explored in great detail. It is hopes that with greater understanding and appreciation among Malaysians, the art of traditional Malay attires and the exclusive embellishment of gold thread embroidery will be preserved and be maintained as our traditional Malays heritage. The design and idea of the muskat must be agreed by Majlis Raja-Raja. The ideas of golden thread embroidery for the muskat is being agreed by Majlis Raja-raja and being acknowledged by Tan Sri Rais Yatim the Ministry of Culture and Tourism back dated in 1992. From that onwards, the design at the muskat remain until now. Furthermore, the design of the “awan larat” with hibiscus has been recognized as national indication of Malaysia. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT My big appreciation and thanks goes to my supervisor in UiTM Shah Alam, Dr. Arba’iyah and to all who had supported me with this research. Thanks a lot for the supports, patience and ideas in assisting me with this research. I also would like to express my gratitude to my family, my appreciation goes to all of respondents and colleagues who had provided the facilities and assistance during interview sessions and data collections, and to those who had lend me their hands, really appreciated that. REFERENCES Zubaidah Syawal, “Busana Melayu,” Kuala Lumpur: Jabatan dan Antikuiti Malaysia, 1994. Abdul Aziz Bari, “Majlis Raja-raja; Kedudukan dan Peranan dalam Perlembagaan Malaysia.” Selangor: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. Siti Rosnah, “Raja Permaisuri Agong; Payung Mahkota Ibu Pertiwi.” Unknown, 2006. Radzuan bin Radzi (2016, March 19). “The Seri Paduka Baginda Raja Permaisuri Agong attire.” Nor Idayu Ibrahim-intervieweer. Sulaiman bin Ahmad (2016, May 24) “Muskat Seri Paduka Baginda yang di-Pertuan Agong.” Nor Idayu Ibrahim-intervieweer.


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REJECTION OF THE CIGARETTE BILLBOARD SAMPOERNA A MILD “MULA MULA MALU-MALU, LAMA LAMA MAU” Donna Carollina Graduate School of Indonesia Institute of Arts Yogyakarta

Abstract In early 2015, a billboard advertisement of cigarette product Sampoerna A Mild titled “Mula Mula Malu-Malu, Lama Lama Mau” or in English means “Initially Shy, Then Wanting” were protested by the majority of Indonesian people. Protests were stated on the website www.change.org, with a petition asking for the billboard to be removed immediately. Shortly after, Sampoerna A Mild company responded to the protest by apologizing to the people of Indonesia and removing the billboard. This case raises several questions for the author: Why was Sampoerna A Mild’s billboard removed?; What were the communicative sign contained in the illustrations that causes the billboard to be removed?; What was the idelogical background of Indonesian society which causes them to reject the billboard of Sampoerna A Mild? To answer these questions, this research based on a case study uses the methods of art critic as described by E.B Feldman. Data collection was done based on the study of literature, then the findings were analyzed inductively. Results of research revealed that the billboard was removed because it was considered a pornographic illustration. Pornography as seen in the communicative sign illustration of a young couple hugging each other, as well pornography in the illustration which includes the text that reads “Mula Mula Malu-Malu, Lama Lama Mau” or “Initially Shy, Then Wanting”. The majority of Indonesian society rejected the billboard of Sampoerna A Mild and considered the billboard illustration to contain pornography due to their ideological background which is based on ethics and morality of Indonesian culture. Therefore, that rejection of the billboard is mainly due to an illustration displaying things that are in violation of Indonesian culture. Keywords: advertisement, billboard, cigarette product, Sampoerna A Mild, pornography


INTRODUCTION Advertising activity continues to change. Changes can be caused by regulations assigned by the government of the country. In Indonesia, the changes can be seen in the advertisement of cigarette products, such as billboards. Initially, advertisement of cigarette products can show the form of cigarettes and smoking activity on its advertising illustration. But the practice is no longer done after the Indonesian government certified Undang-Undang Penyiaran 32 Tahun 2002, regulating the practice of promoting the form of cigarettes in their advertisements. As well as the regulations listed in the Etika Pariwara Indonesia, on the discussion about advertising of cigarettes and tobacco products. The impact of these regulations on the advertisement of tobacco products is the approach that is currently used to communicate the content of the advertisement using communicative signs. It is intended that the consumer or the communicant can read the meaning presented by the communcative signs. But some billboards of tobacco products are protested, resisted, and ended with the removal of the advertisement because of the signs that were presented in the illustration billboards, one of which is Sampoerna A Mild’s billboard. In early 2015, a billboard advertisement of cigarette product Sampoerna A Mild titled “Mula Mula Malu-Malu, Lama Lama Mau” or in English means “Initially Shy, Then 231

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Wanting” were protested by the majority of Indonesian people. Protests were stated on the website www.change.org, with a petition asking for the billboard to be removed immediately. Shortly after, Sampoerna A Mild company responded to the protest by apologizing to the people of Indonesia and removing the billboard. The case intrigued the author and raised several questions. Why was Sampoerna A Mild’s billboard removed?; What were the communicative signs contained in the illustrations that causes the billboard to be removed?; What was the idelogical background of Indonesian society which causes them to reject the billboard of Sampoerna’s A Mild?

Picture 1. Billboard advertisement of A Mild that received protests from Indonesian society (Accessed from www.habibasyrafy.com, on 18 April 2015).

METHODS This research is a qualitative study using a case study approach. To answer the research questions, the methods of art critic as described by E.B Feldman will be used. Feldman (1967:469) described that there are four steps in criticizing the work of art including description, analysis, interpretation, and evaluation. Each steps cannot stand individually without the other theories to support and sharpen the research results. It is necessary to use a set of other theories such as visual communication design theory, theory of sign, and cultural theory. A set of theories will be operated on the method of art critic and the data collected by the literature. The findings will then be analyzed inductively.



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Find out the reason behind the rejection based on literature

Criticizing with art critic method





To observe and describe the elements in the design of billboards using the visual communication design theory.

Analyze the unity of the elements in the Sampoerna A Mild billboard using visual communication design theory about the basic principles of design and layout.

Interpret the meaning of the Sampoerna A Mild billboard through the communicative signs that presented it. Using sign theory which reveals that the sign is a referent system was built as the correlation in the interpret process.

Compare the design of Sampoerna A Mild billboard and consider the role and impact of the socio-cultural sphere of Indonesia. The process done by considering cultural value system that developed in Indonesian society.

Make conclusions based on the findings obtained from the analysis process inductively.


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Sampoerna A Mild is a renowned pioneer of mild cigarette kretek in Indonesia produced since 1989. Sampoerna A Mild's strong dominance in the market of cigarette products in Indonesia is due to the promotion and marketing strategy undertaken, one of which is to advertise on billboards. 1996 was the starting point where Sampoerna A Mild launched an advertising campaign with the power of words and visual illustrations that are able to amaze consumers and communicants. This condition persisted until early 2015, when Sampoerna A Mild’s billboard entitled "Mula Mula Malu-Malu, Lama Lama Mau" or in English means “Initially Shy, Then Wanting” was protested by the majority of Indonesian people. The protests arose because of the assumption that the advertisement production of Bates and Chi agency contains pornography (by Zia Ul Haq in website pksipiyungan.org). Even a protest by Irfan Novianda held as a petition on the website www.change.org, rejected the billboard and asked for public support to have the billboard removed (www.m.tempo.com, on 06 January 2015). Shortly after, Sampoerna A Mild company responded to the protests by apologizing to the people of Indonesia and removing the billboard. To criticize Sampoerna A Mild’s billboard, author uses the method of art critic by E.B Feldman consisting of description, analysis, interpretation, and evaluation. This method is used in order to criticize billboard in detail and depth. Description. In description, the billboard used a photo as illustration. This advertisement is a horizontal dimension and have a size of 16:9. Illustration on the billboard have a white background and the illustration shows a young couple hugging each other. In addition to the two young couple image, also appears the text “Mula Mula Malu-Malu, Lama Lama Mau” printed in black. Sampoerna A Mild’s red logo also appears in the circumstances, distorted but still readable behind the text “Go Ahead” in black. While the bottom of the billboard shows an illustration and text of the smoking ban (regulations required by the Indonesian government). The illustration depicts a male figure holding a cigarette and skullshaped smoke. Besides the illustration contained the text that reads “Peringatan: Rokok Membunuhmu” or in English means “Warning: Smoking Kills You” in black. While the far right, there is the text “18+” inside the circle and printed in black. Analysis. Design is formed by unitary elements. The elements includes illustrations, photography, symbols, and typography (Adityawan, 1999: 3). In the outline, the key elements in the illustration of Sampoerna’s billboard includes photography and typography, where the photo shows a young couple hugging each others and the typography reads “Mula Mula Malu-Malu, Lama Lama Mau” and also “Go Ahead”. The placement of each elements in the layout are united and balanced. This balance are seen from the arrangement of elements that makes up the illustration. Layout uses symmetrical balance, with one column grid (grid manuscript). It is seen from the balance on each side of the layout (Anggraini & Nathalia, 2014: 63). The typeface used for the text is decorative, where this type is usually used only for the title (heading) text (Anggraini & Nathalia, 2014: 63). In relation with the use of typography, the illustration billboard of Sampoerna has fulfilled the criteria, good legibility and readibilty. Interpretation. In Sampoerna A Mild’s billboard, elements that stands out and is the main point lies on the photo depicting a young couple hugging each other and the text "Mula Mula Malu-Malu, Lama Lama Mau”. Both of these objects becomes the system referents for the deciphering of meaning. This is possible because the advertisement, though its function is to sell the objects, also shows the process of meaning (Williamson, 2007:2). 234

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Broadly speaking, the photograph was appointed based on the image of selfexpression of Indonesian teenagers today. Especially with the style of dress in casual outfit, which is synonymous with freedom of expression for teenagers. This is reinforced by the tattoo on the boy's arm. Most people argue that tattoos are a form of self-expression. Similarly, the girl with loose hair and sleeveless shirts that shows their whole arms also reinforced the statement. Loose hair and bare arms showing sensuality of women, as is often exposed by the mass media, had become the typical stereotypes of beauty and sensuality of modern women. This illustration depicts how the reality of the freedom of young people to behave and get along today, unabashedly showing the close relationship between the opposite sexes. As depicted on the object, the young couple is hugging each other, but there is still a distance between each of their bodies. As if they have a close relationship but there is still a distance. It is also seen from the position of the girl who is looking away from the face of the boy. The text "Mula Mula Malu-Malu, Lama Lama Mau" clarifies the photo illustration, explaining that the relationship between the couple is relatively new. There is a hesitation, represented by the word "Malu-Malu" or in English means "Shy". "Mula Mula Malu-Malu" or in English "Initially Shy" indicates that at the beginning of every relationship, they seem "Malu-Malu" or in English "Shy" between each other. In the photo, the object described as the "Mula Mula Malu-Malu" geared more towards the girl. Because the girl is in the arms of the boy, from this position it was assumed that the boy in the photo is trying to "lead" the girl, who look embarassed. Furthermore, the text "Lama Lama Mau" or in English "Then Wanting" tries to convince the communicant that although initially shy, the girl gradually will "Mau" or in English "Wanting". The word "Mau" can be translated into a fairly broad range of meanings. However, the orientation of this word directed to negative associations. These words seems to be aimed to the context of the freedom in their relationship. "Mau" can be interpret as to do more things in their relationship. This assumption can easily arise because today's youth with the identity of freedom of expression, is considered closely lapsed into a free sex activity. These negative associations tends to be harassing or demeaning girls. In additiion, the phrase "Go Ahead" can be interpeted in Indonesian "silahkan saja" or "go ahead, there is no problem with it". The tagline used as approving or undestanding that smokers are free to do anyhing they wanted with no need for doubt. The text “Mula Mula Malu-Malu, Lama Lama Mau” have another alternative interpretation for new smokers who are initially shy to smoke. New smokers (mostly young smokers) often hides the fact that they smoked. Thus, these smokers often smokes secretly. But over time, these smokers got used to it and are no longer ashamed to smoke even in public. Evaluation. The theme of Sampoerna A Mild’s advertising campaigns from 1996 to 2015 often raised social issues that are rife in Indonesia. The theme was appointed in its advertising tagline to provoke and reflect the social atmosphere within the Indonesian community. Because of the actuality of the theme raised, few consumers and communicants are interested in Sampoerna A Mild. Likewise with the theme “Go Ahead” which started in 2009. This tagline is used as a encouragement for smokers of Sampoerna A Mild to do what they like without hesitation. But this time, the theme was quite provocative as Sampoerna A Mild tried to give a picture of the reality of young people today in their daily run. “Mula Mula Malu-Malu, Lama Lama Mau” billboard included in the advertising campaign carries the theme “Go Ahead”. This billboard was protested by the assumption that the illustration of the billboard contains pornography. “Mula Mula Malu-Malu, Lama Lama Mau” and the text “Go Ahead” reinforced the assumptions that it tolerates the action of free 235

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sex. Combination of this text can be read as “initially it was shy but later wanting, its okay and go ahead”. Although there are alternatives to interpret the meaning of these billboards that relates to new smokers, who are initially shy to smoke then no longer as doubtful, the illustration of a young couple hugging each other reinforced a meaning that implies pornography. This interpretation then brought on the removal of the Sampoerna A Mild’s billboard. In relation to pornography, it refers to the definition of writing, pictures, or objects that violate decency, or text, images, or objects that can evoke or stimulate lust (KBBIIndonesian Dictionary). The things related to pornography has been regulated in UU RI No. 44 Tahun 2008 and Etika Pariwara Indonesia Poin 1.26 related to pornography. From the description of these articles, the illustration of Sampoerna A Mild’s billboard fit into a category that contains pornographic material. It is seen from the photos and text that linked to pornography. The illustrations are exploiting things that violate cultural values of Indonesian society. Cultural values consisting of concepts concerning all things are considered valuable and important to a society. This value is used to guide the life of the community. Cultural values are the highest and most abstract level of customs (Koentjaraningrat, 2014:75-76). Customs serves as guidelines for the Indonesian community, living in accordance with those disclosed in the proverb “Adat bersendi syarak, syarak bersendi kitabullah”, meaning in acting, human must always remember the rules of custom and religion. And in another proverb, it says, “Adat di isi, lembang dituang”, meaning doing everything according to the custom (Chaniago, 1993:14). These proverbs are deeply trusted by most of Indonesian people. Indonesian people tends to believe the motto and symbols made by themselves (Lubis, 2013:29). Then it creates the Indonesian society whose cultural characters are elegant, gentle (sentimental), spiritual, noble, and civilized. The society is very concerned with the cultural values of ethic (noble and spiritual) and morality (civilized). It makes pornography as a thing that violates the rules of ethic and do not reflect the morality of Indonesian society. Thus, Sampoerna A Mild’s billboard was rejected by most of Indonesian society because the illustrations contained in the billboard does not reflect the ideology of Indonesian culture. IV.


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https://www.change.org/p/sampoerna-akhirnya-hentikan-reklame-mesum-iklan-rokok-a-mild. 18April 2015. https://m.tempo.co/read/news/2015/01/06/078633182/Ini-Penggagas-Petisi-Tolak-IklanRokok-Mesum. 5 Mei 2015.


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DIALECTICS THE LIFE OF VISUAL ARTS IN WEST SUMATRA 1986 - 2003 Composition and Research Program Graduate School of Indonesia Institute of The Arts Yogyakarta, 2016 By : Nessya Fitryona Abstract This study is an effort to explain the process of dialectic that occurred in the visual art practices in West Sumatra in 1986 - 2003. At the time, there was a struggle of view inside looking at the art work and art practice. The condition started from the contradiction situation happened in the presence of art installation in 1986 and began to thaw coincide with the emergence of Komunitas Seni Belanak (KSB) in 2003. Dialectical process in the life of visual arts in West Sumatra started from thesis was the view of convention in modern art that has developed before 1986. Then it continued on antithesis phase in 1986. Antithesis phase was divided into two periods. Firts the period is the arrival of Agus Purwantoro (1986 - 1999) and the second period is the movement of IKIP Padang college students (1995 - 2003). The period of the arrival Agus Purwantoro produced antithesis phase the negation release of convention modern art practices in West Sumatra. That convention regarded curb freedom in expression. Synthesis in this period culminate to rejection of negation which offered by Agus, and return the great thesis about view of modern art which still grew strong. The next antithesis phase is found from period of the movement carried out by a group of college students in IKIP Padang. Then negation offered of freedom openness to the development of discourse fine arts. The movement culminate to the establishment of Komunitas Seni Belanak (KSB). That movement produced a synthesis like accepting the views and practices of visual art with new tendency in contemporary art practice which indicated important the milestone of development in West Sumatra. Keywords: Dialectics, Modern Art, Contemporary Art

INTRODUCTION West sumatra is one of areas in the development of the visual arts in indonesia that has received attention from observers of the arts. Over a period of two decades, life the visual arts in West Sumatra in year 2000 show the increase in activity of the visual arts and development of form and visual style works appear. This can be seen from event the art of the intense held such as an exhibition big reunion alumni SMSR perodically, exhibition artist from West Sumatra which spread in indonesia in Indonesia National Gallery, exhibition Bienalle Sumatra which organized since in 2012, until the exhibition in art spaces of alternative more and more appear. From the activities of the art of which organized, can be observed many various changes a tendency forms work and art practices which significantly from previous development. This is indicated happen a shift the view in art practice. Previously, the development of a way in West Sumatra in the 20th century appears to exist in the modern of arts. That develops the art work first identical with a characteristic visual mooi indiё with naturalistic style. The existence of pattern the modern of art start various since establishment of education institutions art (Rosa, 2004 : 11). The establishment of institution 238

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started with Kweekcshool in 1856 and Indonesiche Nederlands School (INS) Kayu Tanam in 1926. In the sixties, next appear two education institutions of art namely Institut Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan (IKIP) Padang and Sekolah Seni Rupa Indonesia (SSRI) Padang. Style of the visual arts especially naturalist painting in West Sumatra then development towards realists, expressive, decorative, kubistic and some style of the visual arts in other modern art more diverse including calligraphy to abstract. So far, artist still use a mediums of expression as a conventional. Most artist who actively involved in West Sumatra in decade 2000, especially young generation began to carry works having freedom of expression such idea and medium in they art work. The art works they do with mix media, installation art, performance art, happening art, enviromental art, until works use technology latest. Wriggling it can be seen clearer of the appearance of Komunitas Seni Belanak (2003). Shift a view in art practices in West Sumatra of course not present by self. But there are things trigger, influence, and initiated happen a change of views in art practice. Such as Saidi said, a concatenation of the changes that occurred is a process history that runs dynamiclly and dialectically. According to that, journey of the art history which dialectical tinged with the emergence of a new art work with the spirit of entry even a radical which cannot be separated from motivation a tendency the dominant of art work present before. So that the changes that occurred in the life of the art form of him on a territory in the spectrum of history having potential tinged with various spirit entry to a tendency the development of that occurred earlier to condition of an condition new development having a pattern of terms of dialectical (Saidi, 2008 : 2). Depart from that statement, development of visual art in west sumatra around the end in the year in 1980 show a interesting fact. Rosa (2006 : 14) said in 1980s appear symptoms a visual art that considered “extreme” through the art installation, performance art, happening art and variety of art that the dissolution of idiom-idiom form matra, no longer talk dwi matra, trimatra, and caturmatra. Based on that statement, known that phenomenon starts from he emergence of installation art called “Di sini Diam” in 1986 at surroundings campus IKIP Padang (Ganto, no.48/Th.VI/ November 1995). The presence of work was followed up with the emergence of works performance art, happening art, and paintings use various media non conventional.The work was known as new form and different in emergence in Padang even West Sumatra. In the next, works appear have the potential as spirit struck the condition in visual art practices that develops formerly in West Sumatra (Purnawati, 1994 : 7). Various responses that has emerged since the middle year 1980 indicates the a dialogue spaces. That condition first appeared not be taken for granted, but reap a range of conditions contradictory. In addition, phenomenon that occurs in the middle year 1980 show the process of conflict two the view of art practices. Two views consist of sight art practices of modern visual art who has long been developing in West Sumatra and views new possibilities in arts practice. That almost to escape view and become a phenomenon that is pulled to examined. If be attracted in a straight line to practices of visual art that happened in the year 2000, the condition contradictory of struggle both views that goes around the year 1980 is evident has relation shifted to a condition that was much open, especially the reappearance Komunitas Seni Belanak in 2003. It means, that phenomenon not is stand alone but has relationships to relate in dialectically. So problems in this research was which the process dialectics occurring in the life of visual art in West Sumatra within 1986 and 2003. METHODS The research is qualitative study with descriptive analysis and historical approach. Data collected of words obtained from the and behavior that observed covering perception, 239

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motivation, the act of (primary data) and archive and documentation activity and art works who attended between 1986 - 2003 (secondary data). The problems this research with the theory dialectics which stated by G.W.F. Hegel. According to Hegel, history move forward with in a dialectical manner in landscape idea, the difference of time the development of that runs continuously in phase thesis, antithesis, and yielding synthesis show new existence. Then, the new existence will return to the through movement dialectically (Mudhofir, 2001 : 43). T




Keterangan :




T = Thesis A = Antithesis S = Sinthesis

The level of idea in perspective dialectics hegel have ties as by the collision of views formed in the life of visual arts in West Sumatra in around the end of year 1980 to look liquid at the beginning of the year 2000 until in next time. Thesis can be seen from developmentally a historical which show focused a view, or concepts a framework for the creation of artist, and shows a ideology thought art or culture widely (Burhan, 2013 : 121). Then the thesis has the potential to cause an idea that is opposition to that which is called antithesis. This happened because that reality is represented on an idea first demanded that reality (Ash-Shadr, 1993 : 151). Thesis and antithesis are reconciled in form of a new affirmation. That is aufgehoben. Aufgehoben have three meaning: firts, exclude or deny, thesis or antithesis eliminated. Second, caring for storing or preserving contradictions thesis and antithesis. Thrid, put the thesis and antithesis in a higher level.

RESULTS A. The View of Modern Art in West Sumatra Before 1986 Movement of dialectics started from the big ideas or large narrative as thesis. The large thesis can be seen from developmentally a historical which show focused a view, or concepts a framework for the creation of artist, and shows a ideology thought art or culture widely (Burhan, 2013 : 121). Before the entry of the influence of the modern visual art in West Sumatra as with the presence of the dutch colonial that carries modern culture in the era of colonialism, visual art practise still known traditionally to the production of objects of art collectively and anonymous. Such carvings in Rumah Gadang, songket, pottery, and other handicrafts products. Contiguity the modern art in West Sumatra stems from an education art founded the Netherlands government that imparts concepts and universal values, including in the field of Western art that is Kweekschool. This school then bring out an artist named Wakidi who succeeded impact on the lives of the visual arts in West Sumatra with pointedness pattern naturalistic in paint (Rosa, 2006 : 9). Most profession artist who begin to appear having a tendency representation objects of natural scenery at West Sumatra in landscape, calculating, and scenic. Art works that appear in accordance catch visual with to cultivate techniques be standardized. There are replicate work paint, make perspective color, meticulous technique, subtlety in processing form and color same as mooi indiё painting who developed in Indonesia (Rosa, 2004 : 8). 240

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Later, diversity pattern the fine arts modern richer with growing some educational institutions that has an interest in visual art, namely Indonesich Nederlandsche School Kayu Tanam (1926), majors of fine arts IKIP Padang (1963), Sekolah Seni Rupa Indonesia /SSRI (1965). The diversity the dynamic with introduction various forms art work as sculpture, graphic art, kriya, in addition to the art of painting that develops dominant. The existence of many institutions the art plus the role of artist who shows tendency toward the modern art next influence in the perspective of in art work and art practices that is embedded in the middle of the 20th century. Themes that often presented still tending to rest upon of natural scenery West Sumatra in subjective presented in exotic and lyrical covering activity social life, the figure of portrait, still life to religious themes as calligraphy and a small number is leading to criticism social. That ideas represented into various pattern universal the modern of visual art adapted of teachings of West such as realists, impresif, expressive, decorative to abstract in beside still like for pattern realists and naturalist in art works artists. That can be seen from its tendency art works artist in year around 1970 to 1990. Such as Asri Rosdi with his abstract paint, Kamal Guchi with his naturalist paint and surealistic, Evelina Dianita with realistic and naturalistic, Nazar Ismail with etnic art work, Firman Ismail and A.R. Nizar with they naturalictic paint.

Firman Ismail, Warisan Nenek di Kaki Bukik Barangan 50 Kota, 90 x 60 cm, oil on canvas

Arbi Samah, Lukisan IV (±1970)

Darvies Rasjidin, Tagak Gala (1987), 85 x 85 cm, oil on canvas

Art practices that took place before 1986 show symptoms in accordance with the phenomenon the modern of visual art still adhered to insulation in art, values novelty in pattern and the force and the use of techniques unconventional in art work. In the art of conventional, art works as an object still have a distance (Susanto, 2004 : 44). So, based on symptoms art practices that happen until the decade early 1980, and from its tendency work arises from artists in the tradition of academic and art practices that is outside academic, view that develops wider at the time before 1986 which became the big is convention against practices of modern art of perspective to use of usual material in art work. Based encourge their active role which caused occurred dialectic in West Sumatra, the whole process can be divided into two periods. First, a period arrival of Agus Purwantoro in 1986 – 1998. Second, a period of movement of college students IKIP Padang 1995 – 2003. B. Phase antithesis I : A period of arrival of Agus Purwantoro in 1986 – 1998 Dialectics know a groove the developments that it is kept in motion, changed without stopping, and continuously caused throughout history. The process of the occurrence of dialectics according to Hegel began from a the idea that is the thesis. Then the thesis has the potential to cause an idea that is opposition to that which is called antithesis. This happened because that reality is represented on an idea first demanded that reality (Ash-Shadr, 1993 : 151). In the middle of the attainment of the development of modern art especially the art of painting that has grown rapidly and dominant in West Sumatra, about 1980 happened activity that steal attention. The art works appear use alternative mediums, and valor in offensive themes 241

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in the context of criticisms of social, culture, economic, and political within the scope of the problems that were more complex. In addition, there are the presence of forms the fine arts alternative as mural, installation art, happening art, and performance art. Form art practices was found in artist Agus Purwantoro from year the end of the 1980 until the end of 1990. Agus Purwantoro art work at the time as single artist did an action in art practice which very different from the previously had form and themes that negation a tendency developing in West Sumatra. This has resulted in Agus Purwantoro and his gait as walk alone and separate from its symptoms art. A period of the arrival of Agus Purwantoro started in 1985. He came to Padang, West Sumatra to meet call the Rector of IKIP the as teachers major the fine arts. It is an artist graduates from Akademi Seni Rupa Indonesia (ASRI) Yogyakarta 1977. A form of negation of phase antithesis in the development of visual art in West Sumatra starts with desire Agus to break down reliability view academic still riveted on the concept of art practices that still conventional and stiffening in West Sumatra at that time. Contention resulted in negation of new bids to the shape of and the pattern think to see work of art as something free and in spite of elements reliability. Struck the new started of the appearance of his first art work, namely art installations “Di Sini Diam” in 1986 on south of campus IKIP Padang. That art instalation consist of pile of chairs that have been worn. The emergence of experimental art works, art installation, performance art and happening art in art practice offered Agus Purwantoro then have a pro and contra response. Response was triggered from the shape of art work and the difference in the use of material unusual and distinct. That art work such as art instalation “Di Sini Diam” (1986), art instalation “Eling” (1994), art instalation “Persembahan” (1995), art instalation “Kambing Hitam” (1996), art instalation “Nasib Nyamuk” (1994), art instalation and happening art “Bumi GonjangGanjing” (1998). Most of his work had the characteristics of work use of language estetik is kitsch. Agus art works simulate and copying elements the style of high artistic or object daily for the benefit of work. For example he use objects like the seat of daily, used goods as cans, damaged table, cardboard, an envelope, newspaper, a broom stick, clothesline, until materials the kitchen as vegetables.

Action happening art in Bumi Gonjang-Ganjing activity in 1998 at soccer field’s IKIP Padang

Art instalation by Agus Purwantoro, Eling, at Taman Budaya Padang (1994)

Exhibition art instalation Nasib Nyamuk by Agus Purwantoro at yard office’s FPSB IKIP Padang (1995)

Hauser said, phase antithesis characterized by the appearance of the power of a force new productive, an effort glory new, a technique achievement, individual talent, or readiness 242

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with the effort to the condition production that is, a form of government, a legal procedures, the concept of moral, and norma is the old way, a penerobosan what happened between an ancient new and repetition adaptation the need, and by a necessary condition (Hauser, 1982 : 340). Phenomena the works of art installation, performance art, and art forms experimental other, as a result negation done Agus Purwantoro has links while the effect on the social condition political that was going on the time as a condition of social required in that phase antitesis namely Orde Baru (1966-1998). Social conditions as a result in Orde Baru responded by Agus Purwantoro by covering the various criticism in secret behind his art work. Themes in the art work of artist in West Sumatra at the moment most is still in the theme condition Minangkabau custom, sociocultural of life, spiritualities, and exotic nature in the side there are an attempt to find novelty and originality in art work with the emergence of various pattern and personal style in painting sporadiclly. In addition, social condition artists in West Sumatra about 1980 until 1990 most still tied to the impact of from a condition of being those experienced who have had an impact on art activity. Impact on the difficulty of to give exhibitions in Taman Budaya Sumatra Barat, expensive tools of painting, there is no artist who dare the total of art work and plunge professionally in the life of arts, and looking at other alternatives in of expression. Various negations Agus Purwantoro done in his art works and his activity art practices, including also in terms of teaching system which he apply to his college students. System its teaching having the style of teaching different from academic is formal, structured, and discipline. Agus have a different perspective to art practice of likeness in the application of their experiences in the academic environment. Subjectivity from born of a he saw and might feel toward art practices in West Sumatra and within academic make it moved to change views and paradima artist who did not have greget for him. While for in the academic, he realized that college students are when that took enlightenment and something new to satisfy a feeling of them in art (Agus Purwantoro, interview august 4, 2016). That twist around in educating college students in art use format that is more open and not only chase on view be standardized academic formally, structured, and established. Agus having views the artwork is not quite turned on within the art society and the academic environment. So, required extracurricular activities which performed by a college student with society which are pertaining to expand the scope of art practices and consumption art in the general public. That is a positive for students concerns. According to him college students will be trained to organize, and always an innovator, motivator in the creative by various events he do inside campus or in public place which is in direct contact with the society (Agus Purwantoro, interview january 26, 2015). Various alternatives material attempted directed Agus in lecture also is a solution of which to help college students to make art work without having to buy oil paint which is considered to be expensive bags less for them. Whereas in of expression it is not as an obstacle. So that in agus purwantoro period of teaching at the fine arts majors IKIP Padang, more students tend produce the experiments art works with alternative media. Those activities received positive responses. Some from them feel motivated and be passion to make something new as they expression in art work. Before the arrival of Agus Purwantoro, art works college students was focused on control engineering and formal conventional forms. That is basic competence in visual arts in academic. So it was still formed strong convention of modern art in campus. Ripeness technique is strongly accounted especially on the form of realists and suitable to the character objects based catch eyes. Transfer the science and understanding shape view towards the students before the existence of Agus Purwantoro also cannot be separated from the existence of figures had played a role in teaching the fine arts in IKIP, as Idran Wakidi, Muzni Ramanto, Achyar 243

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Sikumbang, and some other senior lecturer but having strong pattern in works is naturalistic and realistic. A method of think dialectical used hegel as the fundamental principle explain the various existence and development of reality in the domain of idea. Gait Agus Purwantoro in West Sumatra in idea and the idea to view freedom to experiment with and expression and anti reliability in art practices of apparently not is fully supported. That can be seen from Agus Purwantoro is single artist in West Sumatra when it was actively involved with experimental art. In 1999, he chose to to java and teaching in eleven march university, Solo. Of moving Agus Purwantoro back to java, causing activity works experimental almost lost. Antithesis done Agus Purwantoro, in the end of the coming produce synthesis the return of view long to modern art. After Agus Purwantoro exist with his mind in West Sumatra, next ignitd some college students doing different art prnctise with benchmark convention into standard assessment campus. A groove motion the process dialectics ongoing relentless throughout history. Synthesis resulted can be the new which bring out to new antithesis and both make peace form a new synthesis. So that the dialectical Hegel is described with the motion of spiral (Mudhofir, 2001 : 43). The movement of spiral created of the skeleton dialectics between the thesis, antithesis, and its synthesis then back into the thesis who moves forward and progressive. Occurred when the process dialectics coming of Agus Purwantoro, and yielding its synthesis back the view of modern art which conventional especially in campus. That next, trigger reaction antithesis of among collage students. C. Phase antithesis II : A period of movement of college students IKIP Padang 1995 – 2003 In the period of the movement of college students appear the seeds of the movement of progressive desires a change of views on art practices in West Sumatra. That is in which the end of movement antithesis done Agus Purwantoro. Art practices that occured in West Sumatra became an object observation among college students at that time. Direct observation are result of discontent against symptoms and art practices that happen around them. Based on they subjective observations, development the life of art in West Sumatra no have the mean and stagnant especially that become trigger the beginning were art practices in around campus in major the fine arts IKIP (Iswandi, interview May 28, 2015). Phase antithesis on the movements of students from scratch student who start thinking critical and sceptical towards matter and visual art practices that given campus. This in turn consciousness raising self-conscious of their role as young artists generation and determine the direction development of visual art in West Sumatra in the next. Self-awareness then according to Hegel forming ideas or structure thought to refuse or negation great idea art practices on campus considered disrupting the development of discourse and art practices by a new tendency. Openness against discourses and information is also concerned with the beginning of the year 2000 marked the entrance of the reign of Indonesia in Reformation era, has allowed opportunities society in free speech and openness to the current global discourse in line with progress in the field of technology. This also resulted in was so easy to be traced and discourse known the development of the art of both national until global stimulates thinking critical of a fact and increasing needs of information widely among younger generation. A period of the movement of students start was initiated in the 1995. Then students beset manic to new discourse they can from outside environment West Sumatra by the fact that they observe based on symptoms and art practices in West Sumatra. It is also accompanied by 244

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desire a group of students at that time to have the opportunity follow activities exhibition (Iswandi, interview May 27, 2015). Discourse development of circulating in this area are still localized. They start looking for reference and discuss relating to discourses in the arts of coming from outside West Sumatra and comparing. Discourse and references on the development of the fine arts outside West Sumatra come one of which is through relation between alumnus SSRI/SMSR that continued education to Java especially in Yogyakarta. Some of students who enough critical was experiencing shifting patterns think or view based on discourse and art practices that they get from outside campus. There is a feeling of dissatisfaction students to campus triggered by several things in the campus, such as not the availability of facilities to university students the fine arts especially of the art of painting studios of painting conducive to students practicing paint on campus. This might impact on less facilitate space college students to work on campus. About 1996, some students of major fine arts in IKIP force 1995 and some force on it beginning to form an association of which was started from a boarding houses. The association is was on the road srigunting freshwater area, the. About 1996 students the fine arts often gathered in location, then the assembly finally named Kreatif group (Iswandi, interview, may 28, 2015).The name of the group it comes from a place name boarding houses namely, Wisma Kreatif. Some student who joined in the group still always conduct the activity of making work of art in order duty college together. Sometimes explore techniques in work outside duties college. Later they signed a house in Gajah street, Gang Belanak still in the area of about Air Tawar Padang. The students who formerly gathered at Wisma Kreatif, moved to rented in Gajah street and joining a sodality named Kantau. The name Kantau as a association of being appellative familiar after they made a mural with writing “Kantau” in one part the outer wall boarding houses. Group Kantau intend to made activities of art like play, negation a condition they felt on campus to shades formal art, bound and stiff and having views still closed at art practice with new various trends. Students who joined in Kantau groups of them Irwandi, Rajudin, Iswandi, Erlangga, Syahrial, Ardianto, Ibrahim, Ferdi, Johor and students other often converging on that place which of them become an artist famous in West Sumatra. Kreatif group and Kantau originally begins with intention gathered and discuss together develop into an effort tried to fight back of limitations that are had happened in the life of arts in West Sumatra. Based on the above, so this limitation covering facilities for exhibitio, exchange of information, and media publication art activities. Discourse this was obtained through various a medium as books the theory art have consumed some college students, reference catalog exhibition. It is finally trigger critical attitude and awareness against gaps of development of an art that was going on in West Sumatra with that occurs outside the district. After forming informal group as a forum to discuss and exploration art work and the last they have agreed to make a container that more large and complex namely form a community art . About 1996 - 1999, the movement of students are still in the collection discourse and information to the development of the fine arts outside West Sumatra, and discuss. Group of students formed has not bring up struck meaningful and looked in reality as do activities exhibition or were art work in public space. It was because students do not have the power to do that. Then with started a shared interest simple, which is to bridge their art work to reach the apresiator, through the agreement of ±25 young artists and college students who held about the year 2002, so formed a community was answering they uneasiness (Ibrahim, interview january 24, 2016). The community is Komunitas Seni Belanak. That community next inaugurated and declared in 2003 and opening exhibition prime this community titled “Firts Step” in the Sarasah Gallery. Art works that presented and the way to art practices offered to the public art and society in general by this community is both show 245

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the development that more progressive in the life of the visual arts in West Sumatra. The new possibility presented in the form of work alternative and experimental, and mixed media. To meet the challenges climate the visual arts in West Sumatra which in condition that is complex, Komunitas Seni Belanak successfully position itself bring the development of life the arts in West Sumatra more open and majesty.They do a lot of format activities varied with forms the arts which more innovative. They next capable of forming and build elements art world required in build climate the fine arts such as an author and young curator, media distribution knowledge about art and forth of their members. In his zeal there are also discussion activities, workshop, the screening, collaboration an art project and some exhibition art and training writing art criticism in campus and outside campus. Komunitas Seni Belanak also manage to build social network which began open to publish all their activities. In accordance with the goal at first which to open discourse and information from outside West Sumatra, they open up the opportunity to the cooperation with the art community in Indonesia such as Komunitas Taring Padi, Cemeti Art foundation, and Ruang Rupa Jakarta. Indeeed they can building even cooperation with an artist from Australia, namely Alexandra Croby, in the their arts even is “Art Day is Today” in 2006. Through activities those which are open and flexible, they were also able to promote the art into environment public to extend and build appreciation of the society toward arts. Activities are “Get The Book” held in Tunggul Hitam society in Padang, the existence of community in 2004. In addition, they also form mutual relation and bring discourse by inviting any figure having a role in sphere the fine arts in Indonesia as curator and artists from several areas the base the fine arts of them Komunitas Seni Belanak ever invited Kuss Indarto in the exhibition prime they “Firts Step” (2003) and Asmudjo Irianto as cirator in exhibition “Apresiasi urban” (2008). The ends of the movement of college students 1995 - 2003 as young artists next show a movement heading to the development of that is more open in view art practices in West Sumatra. It was accompanied by entering and began strengthening discourse the contemporary art in this region. This condition is phase synthesis characterized the seconstructions which done by Komunitas Seni Belanak on climate life of arts in West Sumatra before. The community up with its values of art more bring the face contemporary art. The condition aufgehoben as a result of the stage synthesis (become). Aufgehoben in the concept of thought dialectics Hegel that is made thesis and an antithesis in which contention into a unified later appointed to the situation of higher. And, the modern art in art practices is conventional which remains the large in the life of the visual arts in West Sumatra developing in tandem with a new tendency possibility which attended the art practices of contemporary art favorite of by mostly on young artist generation. This seems visually of activities of an exhibit present in West sSumatra in 2000 to the current. Hegel said, every new generation in scope history that run in dialectical can assume himself as the destroyer, conservationists, and falsifies a culture which inherited from a predecessor (Aiken, 2002 : 85). So, in the movement has done college student who joined in Komunitas Seni Belanak as artists new generation is a condition falsifies in arts practices in West Sumatra to the development of that is more open and follow the developments discourse the art. Was said to be falsifies, because of they supported not cut off tradition naturalistic and landscape they predecessor to activity arts practices done they members, on the other hand they also adopt arts practices of contemporary openly in they art work. In West Sumatra, that shift can be seen from the activities exhibition where senior artist and young generation join show pattern and raise the issue of contemporery both social, political, and economic critics. In addition, shift the notion of arts practices also changes art practices senior artists in West Sumatra about angkatageneration 1990 down to forms that are better innovative and having exploration by a new tendency. The phenomenon of art also 246

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increased in the area of cooperation the exhibition, not only located in West Sumatra or Sumatra, but also held nationally into the event exhibition more established.

Karya Iswandi “Menjemput Hijau” (2006)150 x 150 cm, Acrilic on canvas

Karya Nasrul Palapa berjudul Pancang Emas di Batas Cakrawala II, 145 x 145 cm, mix media

Karya Jon Wahid berjudul Takatuang, 290 x 50 x 40 cm, mix media

CONCLUSION In 1986 happened phase antithesis in arts practice in West Sumatra marked with the emergence of experimental art works like art installation, performance art, happening art which negation reliability thesis towards the notion of convention in modern art practices that develops before. Period of 1986 - 2003 is a transition between views of convention to art work and practices in modern art to art works and practices contemporary art in West Sumatra. That time having two important point, firts point the arrival of Agus Purwantoro as grow struggle the view of art practices in West Sumatra and shows the starting the entry of the phenomenon apractices in contemporary art in the life of visual arts in West Sumatra. Second important point is emergence Komunitas Seni Belanak with their role in open discourse of contemporary art as milestone early leads life the visual arts which move more progressive in an activity and arts practices among artists in West Sumatra. Reference Aiken, Henry D., 2002. Abad Ideologi. Yayasan Bentang Budaya : Yogyakarta. Ash-Shadr, Muhammad Baqir. 1993. Falsafatuna. Mizan : Bandung. Burhan, M. Agus. 2013. Seni Lukis Indonesia Masa Jepang Sampai Lekra. UNS Press : Semarang. Mudhofir, Ali. 2001. Kamus Istilah Filsafat dan Ilmu. UGM Press : Yogyakarta. Saidi, Acep Iwan. 2008. Narasi Simbolik Seni Rupa Kontemporer Indonesia. Isacbook : Yogyakarta. Anonim, (-- November 1995), “Lebih Dekat dengan R.Agus Purwantoro, Sosok Seniman yang Gelisah”, Ganto. ______________, (11 Oktober 2006), “Menapak Jejak-Jejak Seni Patung, Patung Karya Seni 3 Dimensi yang Berbicara Lewat Massa dan Ruang”(2), Haluan. Purnawati, Linda, (11 Oktober 1994), “R.Agus Purwantoro, Pelukis Aspal”, Haluan. Rosa, Ady. (2006), “Moderenitas Seni Rupa Sumatera Barat 150 Tahun Sudah”, Katalog Pameran 150 Tahun Seni Rupa Sumatera Barat dengan tajuk “Ngarai Sianok Defferenca in Dentro Uno”, 22 – 30 September 2006, Gedung Perpustakaan Bung Hatta Bukittinggi. 247

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_________. (2004), “RupaRupa Dalam Kuak Rupa”, Katalog Pameran Seni dan Budaya Pekan Budaya Sumatera Barat Festival Minangkabau 2004, 18 – 24 Desember 2004, Taman Budaya Sumatra Barat. Agus Purwantoro, 58 tahun, praktisi seni, seniman, dalang, mantan staf pengajar di IKIP Padang dan sekarang menjadi staf pengajar di UNS. Saat ini tinggal di Magelang. Ibrahim, 38 tahun, kurator, penulis, ketua Komunitas Seni Belanak periode pertama, mahasiswa angkatan ‘99 di IKIP Padang serta pendiri ruang alternatif seni RAS. Saat ini tinggal di Padang. Iswandi, 41 tahun, seniman dan salah satu anggota senior komunitas seni Belanak, mahasiswa angkatan ‘95 di IKIP Padang. Saat ini tinggal di Padang.


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The Study of solar incident on Planar Surface for Kinetic Art Author: Mr. Waiyawat Saitum Affiliation: Faculty of Decorative Arts, Program in Design Arts, Silpakorn University, Bangkok, Thailand. Contact information: [email protected] Abstract In future, renewable energy will become mainstream global energy source because it flows all the time, also the solar energy. The sun always directly emits light through the earth, depending on how we utilize it. The study will fill the gap that the most of photovoltaic panel facing to the same direction against solar incident for maximum efficiently. It would be better if photovoltaic appliance to have aesthetic and capability in the same time. But changing planar surface angle for artistic purpose also need to consideration of efficiency for solar energy. The purpose of this study is to explore the most appropriate angle of solar incident that impacts directly to the planar surface, which will leads to gain maximum electric energy from photovoltaic cell. The variation angle of planar surfaces will be discovered could possibly produce energy to be applied for any purposes. The additional sources of other renewable energy gadgets may install to generate more electric power. These planar surfaces can be composited together into many new shapes and forms for researcher to create more impressive artwork. In this study, the chosen material was Monocrystalline solar cell (mono-Si) to generate energy, wood and glass for kinetic sculpture. The procedures of study were as follow: 1. Specific location by Latitude will be achieved I. Altitude II. Seasons III. Sunlight direction IV. Sunrise and Sunset time 2. Calculate Solar radiation from each Photovoltaic cell for energy gain. 3. Compares output energy and mechanic usage for Kinetic Art 4. Increases capability of solar incident by improving angle of planar surface or multiply. Results of this research will be the search of artistic identity in art forms, it will be guideline for designers to develop potential Kinetic arts and or further creative works. Keywords: Geometric, Solar incident, Planar surface, Kinetic art, Photovoltaic


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1. INTRODUCTION Geometric is a basically design that can be create artwork very simply and also can adapt to enigmatic visual. Geometric shapes is the math of shapes made of points and lines. Some shapes are simple, such as the triangle, square, and circle. Other shapes are more complex that it takes math in order to create them. These shapes are the opposite of organic shapes. While geometric shapes are more precise, organic shapes are natural. Geometry is nothing but numbers made visible. Geometric shapes are 2D and can be explain in geometry in 3D, which mean the points and lines are forming to become mass volume. It deals with the construction and representation of free-form curves, surfaces, or volumes. (Gerald Farin, 2002, pp. 1) In recent years, the world economic growth and population increase need more energy, is an essentially important for the socio-economic development of developing, as well as developed countries. (Hrayshat ES., 2007 pp. 1873). Renewable energy is a sustainable and clean source of energy derived from nature. (Huang YH, Wu JH., 2007, pp. 345). Sunlight is one of renewable energy comes directly from sun. And with this, we can collect energy every day for free and waste no more non-renewable energy. A great amount of energy from sun is absorbed by the earth’s surface itself, as well as by oceans, plants, and buildings. The energy that plants absorb is potentially convertible into food energy and material for combustion (logs, etc.) or fossil fuel (long-term decay). The energy absorbed by the oceans causes water evaporation and motivates the complete water (hydrologic) conversion cycle. (Richard Crowther, 1983, pp. 44) The earth is a giant spacecraft, supporting life as it orbits the sun. The sun provides the earth with the energy it needs to sustain and maintain life. The earth with its thin atmosphere (a layer only 160 kilometers, or 100 miles, deep) supports more than four billion people. Smaller spacecraft in many ways duplicate the conditions and functions of the earth by utilizing the sun's energy and shielding their occupants as they travel through space. (Richard Crowther, 1983, pp. 44) All visual art involves light. There is, however, a growing interest in light art, works where light is a primary medium. It is a hazy boundary that separates light art from other visual art. But new lighting technologies, creative artists, and the dynamic nature of light are producing more and more pieces that are clearly on the light art side of the border. Permanent and temporary light art pieces now appear in many venues. (Russell P. Leslie, 2004, pp. 28). Solar cells, also called photovoltaic (PV) cells, convert sunlight directly into electricity. PV gets its name from the process of converting light (photons) to electricity (voltage), which is called the PV effect. When scientists at Bell Telephone discovered that silicon (an element found in sand) created an electric charge when exposed to sunlight. Soon solar cells were being used to power space satellites and smaller items like calculators and watches. The direct conversion of sunlight to electricity occurs without any moving parts or environmental emissions during operation. The electricity from photovoltaic cells can be used for a wide range of applications, from power supplies for small consumer products to large power stations feeding electricity into the grid. (Pearsall NM, Hill R, 2001, pp.1)


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Normally, in visual art, the term kinetic art, derived from the Greek word kinesis, refers to works that apparent movement, or art that depends on movement for its effects. It’s reveal how things look like when they are moving. Although ostensibly fascinated by machines, some Kinetic artists developed a profound interest in analogies between machines and human bodies. The Kinetic art utilizing mechanical or natural motion to bring about a new relationship between art and technology. The movement introduced Kineticism across several forms of art, including any kind of arts such as painting, drawing, and sculpture, and many of artists aspired to work with something newer resource for ideas in order to bring Kinetic art to a wide audience. According to reasons above, a Geometric have some significant to study for base design to combine with Photovoltaic cell because of both are Geometric shape. This can be merge between art and science together which represent the stylishness of renewable energy by art object. Furthermore, this can be typify of renewable energy product of photovoltaic for building whether interior or exterior decoration. With all these reasons, this purpose of the research is to study the Geometric Design for Kinetic Art Creation with Renewable Energy: Photovoltaic which is so much important. And it also inspire to develop kinetic art. The research methodology is practice base, the process try to create kinetic art by using different kind of local natural materials. The final stage will be access into the identity characteristic in art form. The researcher expects that the results of this study will be a guideline for any designers to understand an inspiration of Kinetic art, how to create artistic art form that touching any moving hearts, build up more value of crafts and promote their gorgeous imagine. Finally, this study will be the most useful for the next generation designers and any researchers who need to develop their knowledge potentiality in Kinetic arts. 2. METHODOLOGY The mainstream of this research were consist to 2 issues; solar geometry and sculpture design. Finalize, they will lead to design development after data corrected according to Figure 1.

Figure 1. Research methodology.


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3. EXPERIMENTATION Figure 2. Shows the 4-steps study process used to assess the expected effects development of model appearance on specific site. The study process can be summarized as follows. In the first step, a site survey was performed using visual observation and a fish-eye lens camera to assess the area suitable for model situate. In the second step, the location for the model situate was selected and the shape of form was designed taking into for observation. In the third step, the possible light incident was recorded and estimated by entering the meteorological data and system design parameters into calculation software. Based on the appropriated angle of light incident of planar surface, the solar incident feasibility and development processes were assessed in the fourth step.

Site Assessment

Design of Model Appearance (Planar Surface)


Simulation of Light Incident

Development of Model Appearance for Solar Incident Feasibility Figure 2. Overall procedure to Development of model appearance in the study site.

1. Site assessment The planar surface’s orientation (azimuth, the direction it faces) or tilt varies from optimal solar incident’s touch. The optimal combination of array tilt and azimuth will depend on a few variables, including geographical location, seasonal weather patterns. Azimuth and tilt are both required data from equation. For the site assessment monitoring for light incidents on planar surface On Thursday 11th August 2016 (rainy season) at the top of a building close to Bangkoknoi canal in Bangkok, Thailand (13° 46' 44.3136'' N; 100° 28' 9.012'' E). The procedures were calculated for sunrise and sunset time from the date on particular day at the study site, using a digital topographic map to locate the specific site. In order to assess the effects of shadows on the model, researcher analyzed the daily sunshine hours on site using the solar radiation analysis method on the period of autumnal equinox (The moment when the Sun appears to cross the celestial equator, heading southward. Due to differences between the calendar year and the tropical year. At the equinox, the Sun rises directly in the east and sets directly in the west, day and night are of approximately equal duration all over the planet. They are not exactly equal, however, due to the angular size 252

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of the sun and atmospheric refraction.) To measure the shadow effects caused by small obstacles, such as vegetation, small building and the skyline was recorded and analyzed using a fish-eye lens camera. This enabled field analysis of the skyline at the solar site. The results of shadow-effect were recorded in the form of a shading data for shading elements surrounding the solar site, as expressed from approximately time and angle calculation by values between “0.0” (complete shielding of direct radiation reaching the PV system) and “1.0” (no shading effects). (Melo, E.G, 2013, pp. 15)

Figure 3. Shows observation site.

2. Design of model appearance (planar surface) For the purpose of the study, it was hypothesized that planar surface of model constitute a tilt array for the highest value of solar incident on the surface was designed with the following parameters: number of planar per model (if there are separated), and array spacing. a. Model Surfaces Practical modeling of spatial surfaces is more convenient by means of transformation of their flat developments made as topologically connected kinetic structures. According to topology, any graph on a surface consists of three types of elements: planar facets (F), linear edges (E) and point vertexes (V). There are two well-known types of transformable structures, based upon the structural units corresponding to the planar (F) and linear (E) elements of surface division. Those two types of surface models can be represented respectively by the folding structures with hinged flat faces (figure. 4a), and the kinematical nets with non-triangle meshes (figure 4b).


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Figure 4. x.Transformable surface models: a) folding structure (Vranka 1990: 9); b) kinematical net (Otto, Burkhardt and Hennicke 1974: 130)

In addition to the planar and the linear types of the flat developments of surfaces there is a third possible type of flat transformable structures with vertexes (V) as structural units. Approximations of surfaces by ordered sets of points is the common method in mathematics and computer graphics. In these cases a separate point is represented by a dot in the virtual space, and its numerical value relates to the three Cartesian coordinates. The physical model of a point may be represented as the contact of two physical 3D bodies such as tangent solid spheres or tangent cylinders with non-parallel axes. A flat or spatial system of the contact points produces the vertex surface model, that is, the point approximation of real continual surfaces. (Dmitri Kozlov. 2013, pp 242) In combining the geometric terms of the supplementary textbooks with the terms from the basic textbook a logical sequence of instruction results from placing “space”- the set of all points - after “sets of points.” “Paths (straight and curved)” logically follows “points.” “intersecting lines” should follow “lines.” “Curved lines” should follow “straight lines,” and “regions” - a limited part of a plane - comes after “plane.” (Shirley Jo Probert. 2014, pp 24-25). b. Shape The shape of architectural objects in general can be treated as envelopes: 2D surfaces embedded into 3D space. (Dmitri Kozlov. 2013, pp 253) c. Proportion Proportioning systems have always been among the most essential elements of visual order and an important consideration of aesthetics. At the same time, they constitute the basis for dimensional coordination in building design, fabrication, and construction. The golden ratio, which is not merely a human invention but the most common ratio in the geometry of natural forms as well, is included in since it alludes to planar and spatial tilling and tessellations that have often been encountered in architectural history. (Katherine A. Liapi. 2002, pp. 80). 3. Observation The observation of solar geometry consist about 4 main factors; solar incident, time, date and atmosphere. a. Solar Incident A simple logic drives the whole design. The relative position of each facade component with the different seasonal sun paths defines its geometry (openness, 254

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deepness and panelling inclinations). Each component is defined globally yet resolved locally, and calculated individually, module by module, following the same shared rules. (Areti Markopoulou. 2011, pp. 131) b. Time The solar day is exactly 12 hours long at the equator during the equinoxes. During the summer solstice (June 21), the sun is at its northern extreme position and the declination is at its positive maximum. (Edward Anderson, 1983, pp. 25) c. Date As the earth progresses along its orbit about the sun, solar declination changes due to the tilt of the earth’s polar axis with regard to its orbital plane. Solar declination then depends on the earth’s position in its orbit, that is, on the day of the year. (Edward Anderson, 1983, pp. 24) d. Atmosphere Solar radiation incident on any given surface can be decomposed into two components, the direct or beam component emanating from the sun and a diffuse component that results from multiple reflections and scattering because of particles in the atmosphere. The diffuse component may also include reflections from the ground and local surroundings, where the surface in question is sloped rather than horizontal. Differentiating between the two components is vital for accurate calculations in most solar energy applications; however, a number of steps may be required to arrive at realistic estimates at an appropriate level of detail for a given location depending on the basic data available. (Yasser Aldali, 2014, pp. 9) The model was putted on the roof of the building, see figure 5. For the characteristic and some details. The camera was set for 4 point align to the wall; front view (toward 33°NE), left view (toward 123°SE), and top view and perspective view observe atmosphere for clouds status. The time was assigned for 1 hour period started at 06:00 (Dawn) until 18:00 (Dusk) o’clock as shown in Figure 6. The model Edged Cone shape situated at the top of a building and set to point to Solar Zenith Angle.

Figure 5. Shows the characteristic of model.


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Figure 6. Shows different of shade and light direction for each period.

4. Simulation of light incident Equations was used for calculation for solar systems. It enables more accurate analyses of how to adjust planar surface to face most directly to sunlight, given the environment, all over model characteristics and the atmosphere conditions. For an explanation of the Excel formulas. In this study, after observation for primary data collection. The solar time and solar altitude were calculated by entering the meteorological data of the study site and any values which needed, such as angle of planar, time, date and etc. The shading data obtained by onsite solar assessment according to the tilt angle of the model surface array, into the formulas. The following equation were used to calculate for results; a. Solar Time Time based on the rotation of the Earth with respect to the Sun. Solar time units are slightly longer than sidereal units due to the continuous movement of the Earth along its orbital path. For example, by the time the Earth has completed one full rotation on its axis with respect to the fixed stars, it has also moved a short distance in its orbit and is oriented slightly differently to the Sun, so that it must turn slightly more on its axis to complete a full rotation with respect to the Sun. For finding solar time, the equation is


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Solar time = Standard time + 4(Lst - Lloc) + E


Solar time will use to correct in solar declination equation (John A. Duffie, 2006: 11) b. Solar Declination The angle formed by the line from the center of the earth to the center of the sun on a particular day and the plane containing the earth's equator is called solar declination 8. As the earth progresses along its orbit about the sun, solar declination changes due to the tilt of the earth's polar axis with regard to its orbital plane. Solar declination then depends on the earth's position in its orbit, that is, on the day of the year. Solar declination for each day of the year is listed in The American Ephemeris and Naval Almanac for each year. (Cooper, P. I. 1969) suggests the approximate equation for calculating the declination. 360

𝛿 = 23.45 [365 (284 + 𝑛)]


In this equation, n is the day number with 1 being January 1 and 365 being December 31. This approximation is satisfactory for flat-plate and mildly concentrating collectors. (Edward Anderson, 1983, pp. 24) c. Solar Zenith and Azimuth Angles In order to relate the solar zenith and azimuth angles to latitude, date, and time of day, we need to consider two coordinate systems. The first is the local coordinate system that sues the horizontal plane and the vertical axis on the earth’s surface. Taking i, j and k to be unit vectors pointing, respectively, south, east, and vertically up, we can write the solar unit vector S as. (Edward Anderson, 1983, pp. 24) S = i sin θz cos γs + j sin θz cos γs + k sin θz


In the earth-centered coordinate systems, S can be expressed as S = i cos 𝛿 cos ω + j cos 𝛿 sin ω + k sin 𝛿


Where i, j and k are unit vectors along the meridional axis m, the easterly asix e, and the polar axis p, respectively. The components of S in the two coordinate systems are then related by SV = Sm cos ∅ + Sp sin ∅,


SS = Sm sin ∅ - Sp cos ∅, SE = Se Substitution of the components of S given in Eqs. (3c.1) and (3c.2) into EQ. (3c.1) gives cos θz = sin ∅ sin 𝛿 + cos ∅ cos 𝛿 cos ω,

(3c.4) 257

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cos γs =

sin ∅ cos 𝛿 cos ω − cos ∅ sin 𝛿

sin γs =

cos 𝛿 sin ω

sin θz


(3c.5) (3c.6)

sin θz

The solar zenith angle and azimuth angle can be calculated with these results for a given latitude, date, and time of day. (Edward Anderson, 1983, pp. 26-27) d. Sunrise and Sunset Neglecting the refractive bending of the sun's rays by the atmosphere, we can say that the local sunrise and sunset occur when the sun is in the horizontal plane at the point of observation. Then the zenith angle for either event is 90°. Hence, for sunrise or sunset, the corresponding hour angle: ωs = ±cos-1[ -tan φ tan δ]


with the positive sign corresponding to sunrise and the negative sign to sunset. When γ exceeds 90°, the sun rises north of east, and when γ is less than -90° (say, it is -100°), the sun sets north of west. In the mid and lower latitudes of the northern hemisphere this occurs during the summer. (Edward Anderson, 1983, pp. 28) According to the equation above, solar data can be collected as follows: On Thursday 11th August 2016, Sunrise time was 06:04 at 74° and Sunset time was 18:43 at 286° from north. The site point to 33°E from N. And because of Rainy season, the atmosphere status was scatter clouds. So, all data such as time, date and location has been insert into 3D application for simulating the solar incident on model for check the correction of shade and light. See figure 7.

Figure 7. Shows solar incident in 3D simulation.

5. Development of Model Appearance for Solar Incident Feasibility


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The newly designed was estimated in accordance with the initial shape of model. In order to change the appearance, 3d modeler application were used for create simulated model into real scale and assume present period sunlight in approximately location to observation situated site. According to topology, the development of model shape form were consists of three types of elements: planar facets (F), linear edges (E) and point vertexes (V).

Figure 8. Shows three types of elements.

Firstly, original model was create to the same dimension of real model which used for observation, see figure 9. And after corrected from calculated data using equation, model have to be shorten because of it have to change its shape for contact more light from the sun. From the observation site, Bangkok. 15° is the average degree of sunlight direction in the sky, so planar surfaces have to point to 90°-15° (Solar zenith – average solar position) to face against the sun, see figure 10. So on, more FEV were added for more complex shape by simply method; two planar which have connected surface for 15° / 15°. Now, just minus 5° for the first one and plus 5° for the other and then become 10° / 20°. Average of sunlight will share the incident on both planar surfaces as shown in figure 11.

Figure 9. Shows 3D model in the same dimension of observation’s model.


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Figure 10. Shows 3D model after correction from calculated data.

Figure 11. Shows 3D model develop for more complex.

4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Site assessment Thailand DMS latitude and longitude coordinates are 13° 44' 12.1812'' N; 100° 31' 23.4696'' E which means the sun will be located approximately 14° - 15° up in the sky from Solar Zenith Angle, toward south. So, for the most appropriate angle of planar surface for solar incident. The model should be change the angle of shape point up toward the sun for 75° (90° - 15°). Different latitude could be cause of changes for following factors; season, atmosphere, daytime, nighttime, solar radiation and etc. The same original model shape could be change into various art forms up to the reasons above. Design of Model Appearance (Planar Surface) Geometric design is kind of basic design to complex, simply art form can created by repeat action such as rotate, scale and move to FEV. The many of original art forms may such a simply design but after apply some movement to them, more new complex art form will be happen. Some designs were created from free thought but for some designs, it have to consider about uncontrolled factors. And the design have to change for more support. Observation The observation of solar geometry consist about 4 main factors; solar incident, time, date and atmosphere. All of the actions must be accurate and regularly done in assigned period. To observe sunlight in summer may overflow values too much and acquired data could mistake to the results because of solar radiation is too strong. In rainy or winter season, atmosphere could be unpredictable because of humidity or air pressure that affect to vapor or clouds. So, it would be better if the observation can set on the lowest period for less expectation. 260

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Simulation of Light Incident It have to clone every environment and context from observation process for more accurate results. Even computer could be mistake by a little omit. 3D simulation takes the most similar to the real spectacle which happen in real. With this process, the modeler can develop some art form by refer the results. Development of Model Appearance for Solar Incident Feasibility If model would be situated in the different location, the shape of model have to change for the most appropriately solar contact. Example, Iskenderun on the eastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey DMS latitude and longitude coordinates are 36°3501300 N; 36°10 0 2400 E which means the sun will be located approximately 36° up in the sky from Solar Zenith Angle, toward south. So, for the most appropriate angle of planar surface for solar incident. The model should be change the angle of shape point up toward the sun for 54° (90 - 36°).

Figure 12. Shows the expected shape of model if it were built at the top of a building in Iskenderun (36°3501300 N; 36°10 0 2400 E), on the eastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey.


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Figure 13. Shows comparison of different location cause of model changing.

CONCLUSION The development of model shape form could be change by rotate, scale and move the three types of elements: planar facets (F), linear edges (E) and point vertexes (V) by according to topology. The more complex, may turn simply model into aesthetical sculpture but this action have to improve under consideration. Changed of model form will be differently from original because of sunlight. Different latitude, environment and period could be major factors for consideration of making arts. Thailand DMS latitude and longitude coordinates are 13° 44' 12.1812'' N; 100° 31' 23.4696'' E which means the sun will be located approximately 14-15° up in the sky from Solar Zenith Angle, toward south. So, for the most appropriate angle of planar surface for solar incident. The model should be change the angle of shape point up toward the sun for 15°. For other location on earth, latitude will be the first priority to check for. According to the earth geometry, angle of sunlight, season and atmosphere will change when latitude changes and longitude is not necessary to concern of. All of the conclusion could be record the study result as guideline for inspire any artist making some design which intend to create artistic artwork. NOTATION The following symbols are used in this paper: 𝛿 = Solar declination angle θ = Solar incident angle φ = latitude γ = Azimuth angle ωs = Sun’s hour angle at sunrise or sunset Lst = standard longitude for the time zone in question (reckoned as positive west of the Greenwich meridian) 262

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Lloc = true longitude of the site for which the calculation is to be made E = Equation of Time correction INNOVATIONS These are interesting solutions that require further studies in order to make Some of them have other applications and the changes proposed give them new uses. It is a facade system based on a set of mathematical rules and logics ready for export and adaptable to different locations or materials in response to local conditions and available technologies and materials. Based on adaptation and not on repetition, it is able to read context conditions and respond to them. (Areti Markopoulou. 2011, pp. 130-131) It can be attach to the photovoltaic cell for benefits from energy issues because of these cells need to be facing to the sunlight for make some electric energy. Furthermore, maybe energy that generate from photovoltaic cell could be used for moving own model to make kinetic art. REFERENCES Aldali Yasser, Ali Naci Celik and Tariq Muneer. (2014). Modeling and Experimental Verification of Solar Radiation on a Sloped Surface, Photovoltaic Cell Temperature, and Photovoltaic Efficiency. JOURNAL OF ENERGY ENGINEERING, 139, 9. Areti Markopoulou and Rodrigo Rubio. (2011). Smart Living Architecture - Solar Prototypes. Institute for Advanced Architecture of Catalonia (IAAC), Endesa Pavilion, Barcelona. Cooper, P. I. (1969). "The Absorption of Solar Radiation in Solar Stills," Solar Energy, 12, 3. Dmitri Kozlov. (2013). Structures of Periodical Knots and Links as Geometric Models of Complex Surfaces for Designing. Nexus Netw J – Vol.15, No. 2, 2013: 241-255. Edward Anderson. (1983). Fundamentals of solar energy conversion. Boston : AddisonWesley Publishing Company, Inc. Gerald Farin. (2002). Handbook of Computer Aided Geometric Design. Amsterdam : Elsevier Science B.V. Hrayshat ES. (2007). Analysis of renewable energy situation in Jordan. Renewable and Huang YH, Wu JH. (2007). Technological system and renewable energy policy: a case study of solar photovoltaic in Taiwan. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2007;11(2 (February)):345–56. John A. Duffie and William A. Beckman. (2006). Solar engineering of thermal processes. New Jersey : John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. John Tovey. (1971). The Technique of Kinetic Art. New York : Can Nostrand Reinhold Company. Katherine A. Liapi. (2002). Geometry in Architectural Engineering Education Revisited. Journal of architectural engineering / september 2002, 8(3): 80-88 Melo, E.G.; Almeida, M.P.; Zilles, R.; Grimoni, J.A.B. Using a shading matrix to estimate the shading factor and the irradiation in a three-dimensional model of a receiving surface in an urban environment. Sol. Energy 2013, 92, 15–25. Otto, Frei, B. Burkhardt and J. Hennicke. (1974). Grid Shells. IL 10. 263

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Pearsall NM, Hill R. Photovoltaic modules, systems and applications. In: Clean electricity from photovoltaics. Hill and Pearsall; 2001 . p. 1–42 [MA3.doc, chapter 15, 04.25.01, 1]. Richard Crowther. (1983). Sun/Earth Alternative Energy Design for Architecture. Canada : Van Nostrand Reinhold Publishers. Russell P. Leslie. (2004). The evolving public face Of light art. Public Art Rev 15 no2 Spr/Summ 2004 Shirley Jo Probert. (2014). Art activities for enriching geometric concepts in the fourth grade. Michigan : ProQuest LLC. Sustainable Energy Reviews 2007;11(8 (October)):1873–87. The American Ephemeris and Naval Almanac, U.S. Naval Observatory Naval Almanac Office. Vranka, A. (1990). Short-span Roof Structures Made of Bamboo. Unpublished ms.


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TEACHING PERFORMANCE ART BASED ON RESEARCH STUDIES: REVIEW OF NEEDS AND NEEDED IN TEACHING TRADITIONAL ARTS FOR FOREIGN STUDENTS Novia Murni, SS., M.Pd Lecturer at Indonesian Institute of the Arts Padangpanjang [email protected] Mobile: 082382224820 Abstract Teaching and learning process is a complete process of transferring and getting knowledge for both (teacher and learner). Trough teaching and learning process, both teacher and learner are placed in certain condition in where they are interact, communicate, processing, absorbing knowledge, and understanding of the study materials along with all phenomenon wrapping it along the process. Phenomenon can be divers between one teaching and learning process, but it can be analyze to see the real condition based on research instead of using predictions. The research for sure will help general understanding, event deep understanding over one phenomenon. Furthermore it will help in produce new theories and acts dealing with teaching to improve the quality. This paper inspired by writer experiences, knowledge, and researches dealing with traditional art performances’ teaching and learning process. The paper will focused on the important of teaching performance arts, based on research studies, to matching the needs and needed of both side (teachers and learners). The scope limited in traditional performance arts along with cultural studies for foreign students. The discussions are: 1) teaching and learning process in higher education; arts institutions, 2) the important of research to understand the phenomenon, finding the answer, and to get solution over problems in teaching and learning process, 3) implementation of teaching and teaching material over views based on needs and needed as a result of a research studies. The aim of this paper is to explain: the importance on teaching and learning process based on research studies to over view and fit up the needs and needed along with it implementation in the form of teaching materials. Key Words: Teaching, traditional performance art, research studies, foreign students

Introduction Teaching is not one simple process and cannot be making as a simple one. There are a lot of afford needed along the process of teaching, hence far-away before the teaching process itself. Teaching processes can be work out in a good guaranteed ways if only it can be measure and fully-tested, surely must after studies and researches. It will be so naïf to say that teaching can be done by anyone in any way as long as the goals receive. Teaching is not that simple and cannot be simplified. Like another part of a coin, learning becomes the “couple” of teaching that cannot be ignored. Learning itself are complicated and somehow not firm. So many things bound and link with both teaching and learning process that make it complicated but rich at the same times. These condition works for any kinds of teaching and learning, including teaching and learning of performing arts. Performing arts become a new wave of scientific studies after modern times even though it actually has been studies for centuries. The tendencies of new era of life and living in 20 th century make performing arts become a hit. The needs and needed of learning performing arts become a trend than necessities for some reasons. The reason spread from a basic one like 265

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hobbies, talent, likes, called, need, life, and live to being socialize, trend, pride, cultural exchange, and government programs. To overcome and cope up the needed and reasons for learning performance arts; some teaching programs that fit up have to be made. It has to be understood that making a teaching programs is not simple. It is a complicated process that not only considered the goals and the learners’ nature but also the possibilities of application and development that can be measured and tested. To make it measurable and tasted able also applicable in scientific ways therefore research have to be conducted. Researches on making a teaching program (the methods, technique, materials, and etc) beside make it measurable and tested able also applicable in scientific ways have the other important aim; to make it useable and acceptable. Useable and acceptable in the teaching and learning process is the first key to consider in make a teaching program. Both factors useable and acceptable have to be present equally. If it useable only but not acceptable it is noting and reveres. To conclude, teaching and learning process in short need a useable, acceptable, measurable and testable program that can be applied in real condition. Again, all can only be gained through research.

Discussion 1) Teaching and learning process in higher education; arts institutions Teaching and learning process in higher education need much more concern both for the lectures and learners. The concern here especially in arts institutions lies on the application of theories based on research and development over problems and founding in learning process. As arts institution teaching and learning somehow differs from other institutions which are based on science and knowledge not science, knowledge and talents. The talents factors somehow determined the continuity and process of teaching and learning atmospheres. Talents as a one of the essential factors of accepting students in arts institution somehow become a wild card that can make the teaching and learning process become smooth or stuck. Talents mention in here as a factor to be concern since talents are somehow varies among learners. The variations lie on the range of kinds and levels. Some learners are very talented that seems event genius; some are just talented while the rest can be said less talented. As long as any drops of talent still exist the condition can be said well but when there’s no talent factors left therefore all that can be hope is the learners’ abilities. It cannot be dined that the arts institution accepted learners that do not have any talents at all but they have abilities in arts. They have abilities since they are used to: work on, dealing with, manage, live in, or grown up in arts world/businesses. Beside they who are mention before, there are learners that accepted from a no talent, no art/art world background. They are who interested and want to live their carriers in art world later on in the future. The condition and situation mention above can be seen as glimpse of pictures of arts institution in where things are somehow somewhere and some parts are different from others. Beside matters of talent, abilities, interest and art world/business background, there are also some students that are accepted to come with certain status like visit students and exchange students. These students/learners come under government or diplomatic programs which are studies or learn for certain time; short or long stay. Most of them come from different countries and nations with different education background. Some are have talent in art, some are from arts world/ businesses, and some no talent at all plus not event have been touch with art/art world. The toughness become hard since most of them cannot use Indonesian Language. Since they are under government/diplomatic programs learning process, their present and learning must be accepted and prepared well. Along with all factors that bound with them and the situation wrapped them these learning and teaching process become much more challenging both for the learner themselves and for the teachers who have to teach them. At the end it has 266

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to be admitted that these conditions make it much harder to making appropriate teaching designs which are applicable and useable. The problems and challenge of teaching and learning process in dealing with foreign students who come and accepted as part of government/diplomatic programs are rich and complicated. In teaching and learning process for the foreign learners/students, teachers not only dealing with the learning materials only but also with the learners background, personalities and views. These are as factors that cannot be neglected nor ignored. Still the goal to make them absorb the materials that will be teaching to, but the challenge is how make them absorb it in proper ways not rejected it or worst drop it as they feel they have no need of it. To make the teaching and learning process for the foreign learners possible to carry on, work out and can reach the goal a teaching design is a must. The teaching design must be the design that not a prediction one but the design that has come from research studies. 2) The important of research; arts institutions As been mention above, the condition and situation of arts institution is hoped can be understood and can be seen as a thing which should be overcome in a wise way. Now the question “How wise is it?” Well the answer is simple as wise as it have to be and can be done i.e.; through research studies. Research studies are needed to understand the phenomenon, finding the answer, and to get solution over problems in teaching and learning process. Through educational research, teachers (in here lecturers) can identifying the problems or issues along the teaching and learning processes/studies. These problems and issues can be later on processes through research to find out the solution over the problems/issues. Creswell (2002: - ) stated that: Educational research is a cyclical process of steps that typically begins with identifying a research problem or issue of study. It then involves reviewing the literature, specifying a purpose for the study, collecting and analyzing data, and forming an interpretation of information. This process culminates in a report, disseminated to audiences that is evaluated and used in the educational community. The above quotation shows what is mean by educational research and what involve along with it. Educational research as stated is cyclical process of steps, in where the steps are measured and done for purposes. The steps later on end up in the form of report that is evaluated. The evaluation is needed to measure again the applicability of the research that that can be used to. Furthermore, Creswell (2002: -) stated that “In less comprehensive terms, educational research is an organized approach to asking, answering, and effectively reporting a question”. Through the statement it is clearly seen that educational research is prepared and follow some procedures along with an organized approach that will help and useful in answering questions that arises and reporting it in a measurable accountable ways. It have to be understood that the differences among foreign learns are so large. The varies not only lies on age, sex, personalities, language, culture, nationalities, but also in education back ground, talent, views, perception, studies habit, interest and reason of joining the program. The foreign learner will happened to be not in the same age and same levels of studies in the same years of coming and acceptance. They happened not in the same interest of arts nor same talents. Factors to be concern most are the reason for joining the program, the real interest and age. The others most important thing that can determine the continuities of learning process and gaining of goal are the review of teaching designs and materials every years since the learners will be much different (phenomena. atmosphere, circumstances, differences, needs and needed) and improvement must be make. 267

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The rich phenomenon and also complicatedness; like what have been mention in first part of discussion, make it impossible to just make a teaching design based on materials of learning only nor predictions. The need of research studies in education is come for some reasons: 1) Make the teaching design measurable and testable, 2) Make teaching design can be accountable 3) Make the teaching design can be applicable and implemented in scientific ways 3) Make the teaching design can be used not only in limited area or for certain condition, 4)Make teaching design can be develop and spread out, 5) Make teaching design as an instrument of teaching and learning process for the intellectual richness and science studies., 6) Most of all make teaching design as an appropriate instrument to overcome problems that present in teaching and learning process. Furthermore, still dealing with educational research, Creswell (2002:-) notes the following reasons, describing the various purposes of educational research: 1. Improve Practice Research can suggest ways of improving practice that have been verified with many applications and by many different types of people, which is difficult for practitioners. 2. Add to Knowledge Research can add to what we know about how people learn and what we can do help facilitate the learning process. 3. Address Gaps in Knowledge Research can address areas in which little is known, like perhaps the effects of online versus traditional classroom learning. 4. Expand Knowledge Research can allow us to extend what we know in ways we never conceived. 5. Replicate Knowledge Research can act as a test to verify previous findings. 6. Add Voices of Individuals to Knowledge Research can add an important perspective for different learning types. Much of the educational research prior to the Eighties is based on able, white, middle-to-upper class males. This is certainly not reflective of our increasingly heterogeneous students, and research helps revise theory and practice to reflect different student needs. 3) Implementation of teaching and teaching material over views based on needs and needed as a result of a research studies. Before we discuss about teaching and learning materials lets discuss first what teaching and learning materials. The teaching and learning materials which is discuss here is the teaching and learning materials of performance arts. In simple way performance arts are the arts which are performed. The palaces of performance can be varies; stage, off stage, live or recorded and etc. To gain more understanding of what is performance art actually, the range of performance arts and entire things that link with it is also need to be understood. Let’s see some definitions about performance arts which are explained in the simplest ways to gain the understanding Merriam Webster online dictionary (2016:1) stated that performance arts “a type of art that is created in front of or presented to an audience by the 268

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artist”. In here Webster showing the essential boundaries of what is called performance arts and its criteria. Performance arts must be performance in front of audience and perform by an artist, so there are three essential factors must be present at the same time in the same place; the performance, audience, and artist. Dealing with the range of what is called performance arts and what bound with; UNESCO (2016:1) stated that: The performing arts range from vocal and instrumental music, dance and theatre to pantomime, sung verse and beyond. They include numerous cultural expressions that reflect human creativity and that are also found, to some extent, in many other intangible cultural heritage domains. The quotation above showing the range of performance arts which is stated it stated start from vocal and instrumental music, dance and theatre to pantomime, sung verse and beyond. It furthermore explains that the performance arts bound with cultural expression, human and creativity. The performance based on the quotation clearly explains the scope of performance arts and what bound with it. Teaching and teaching materials are two things that bound to each other in teaching and learning process. In simple way it can be said that; teaching cannot be done without teaching materials while it is not called teaching if not with teaching materials. Teaching itself develops along with teaching materials, and teaching materials will support the teaching process. The development of teaching will be gained as the material are also develop with it. Even though some materials stay the same and techniques of teaching are develop most, it cannot be judge that the failure has done. Some teachers mostly focused on the way how to teach rather than develop the materials since, the development sometimes must be follow and equal with curriculum. It is need to be understood that the development of teaching and teaching material along with its implementation need process which can be gain trough research studies. Research studies are must in here to make it again can be “accounted”, beside that, the research itself has to be view and review based on need and needed. Teaching materials itself and what is need and needed factors to considerate to can be seen from the view of Minister of education of Colombia States (2016: 1) that stated: Teaching materials are Learning resources are texts, videos, software, and other materials that teachers use to assist students to meet the expectations for learning defined by provincial or local curricula. Before a learning resource is used in a classroom, it must be evaluated and approved at either the provincial or local level. Evaluation criteria may include curriculum fit, social considerations, and age or developmental appropriateness. The quotation above shows us that teaching materials not limited in the writing form or manual one but also can be in some different variations such as; texts, videos, software, and other materials. The functions of using different kind of materials also stated that is for assist students to meet the expectation of learning. In simple way we can say the teaching materials in different variations which are exist and used to achieve the goals of teaching and learning process; the understanding and mastering of what studies. One point which is put at the end of the line at the quotation above still concerning with learning is; no matter what materials are used it has to define by provincial or local curricula. If we talking about the materials for foreign learners who studies in arts institutions since it is not bound with provincial or local curricula therefore it should be made in small scope based on the need and needed of the studies equalizing with the reasons for their coming to our nation to learn. Furthermore the Minister in the quotation 269

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have been stated that before learning resources is used in a classroom it must be evaluated and approved at either the provincial or local level. Again since the resources is not in the level of provincial and local therefore it must be evaluated and approved in the arts institution themselves, based on the need and needed of learning. It have to be understood that some variations and biases might appears and colored the process of creating the materials but it will not be too much differentness appears. Most only lays in the vision and mission of arts intuitions themselves. The last line of the quotation above stated something about evaluation of the materials. Evaluation criteria is stated may include curriculum fit, social considerations, and age or developmental appropriateness. For these there is no way to conduct it unless by using research studies. Therefore research studies are a must and essential. As the discussion of the importance of research studies have been discussed above let’s focused on the implementation. The implementation of teaching and learning material even the studies one is not easy. The difficulties will come along the way of teaching and learning processes therefore the good materials like have been mention in the quotation above is the one that can be developed based on appropriateness. It has to fit up in different situation or circumstances and condition also the background of the learners. It has to be flexible to be fit up to. If these criteria do not present or exist therefore the implementation can be difficult to made, worst every years the materials have to be made new following the need and need of teaching and learning programs. The good one or the implementation one is the materials that can be reviewed not remade all the times. Other things to be considered in the implementation of teaching and learning materials that had design are the implement ability. It cannot be denied that some teaching and learning materials are very good and almost superb on the papers but only “superman and the heavenly institutions of other world” can implement it. What we should understood is, the good teaching and learning materials which are designs based on need and needed that is gained through research studies must be placed and implemented in the “right institutions and teach by the right teachers” based on the real condition and situation that wrapped them. In simple words; the teaching and learning materials is made by concerning the place of implementing and human resources who implementing it. By understanding these implementation of teaching and learning materials based on need and needed can be achieved. Now what about the overview? Is it needed and what is the implementation overview? Implementation overview is needed and a must. Implementation overview in simple words is the overviews of the teaching and learning materials implementations to show problems, achievement, development, failures, successes, strength and weaknesses of the materials implementation. The overview again has to be conduct under research. It has to be remembering that; the research is done after the implementations not before the implementation and must be again based on need and needed. The overviews can give a big help in seeing clearly the phenomenon, atmospheres, and real condition of previous implementation to help overcome the next implementations. If the overviews are not being conducting after each semesters or years of studies therefore the next implementation of teaching and learning programs is a chaos. It can be said that overviews is the least but not last process to be done in the implementation which are crucial for the continuation of the studies. In arts institutions the overview of the implementation has been conducted in some subjects or programs. Efforts has been done and keep on doing for years to improve the teaching and learning processes for the foreign students but it cannot be said enough and far away from perfectness. The large different background of knowledge, studies, nations, personalities and views among students that come along with changes of policies as changes of institution’s structural policies makers, who are the management of higher education, made things gone “wild” sometimes. This wave happened almost here and there so it cannot be avoided as it is parts of life. These make it is hard for the implementation to stand fit save and secure. 270

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If than the questions is how the management of higher education involve here the answer is so simple, the management of higher education in an institutions is the policies maker who decide the rolling of a policies in an institution. Therefore their decisions in here the implementation of ; 1) teaching and learning designs, 2) people who doing the research, 3) people who manage the foreign programs, and 3) teachers resources, become the most determined things that determined the flow of the higher education itself and how it will end up. In simple understandable ways dealing with management, polices and policies makers Terry and Leslie (1992:17) stated that: Membuat keputusan adalah memilih suatu alternative dari dua pilihan atau lebih, untuk menentukan suatu pendapat atau perjalanan suatu tindakan, ia adalah peristiwa psikis dan kreatif, dalam mana pikiran, perasaan dan pengetahuan di himpun bersamasama untuk sebuah aksi. Biasanya ia mencakup ketidak pastian. Dalam pengambilan keputusan, seorang manajer berurusan dengan nilai-nilai yang akan datang, yang sampai tingkat tertentu belum di ketahui. In English it will be said: making decisions is choosing an alternative from two or more options, to determine an opinion or an action journey, decision making is an activity that involve psychic and creative action in which the thoughts, feelings and knowledge gathered together for an action. Usually it includes uncertainty. In making decisions, a manager dealing with future values that in certain extent not yet known. The quotation sharply stated that making decision is not a simple matter since its will determined the continuities of values. In simple words the future existence of an institution and named is bet by the discussion made. There are two things we can get from here dealing with the implementation; 1) the range of differences of students or learner especially their abilities and background knowledge on arts and language have to be considered as the main factors of designing and implementing teaching and learning materials, 2) the implementation of teaching and learning materials no matter how good it is, it has to “step on the stable ground” and must be take care in right ways by right policies, by the right policies makers that has abilities and understanding on the matters along with right teachers resources. If it can be gained there will be the result of research studies and the development of it can be achieved.

Conclusion Teaching performance arts based on research studies is a must and can no longer be ignore and let as the way it is. The implementation of the result of the research is needed for the development of the institutions. The implementation is needed to follow steps and regulations along with the process. The implementation need to be overviews to see the achievements and development that has been made. Factors which is must be concerned most is the made of designs, implementations and overviews that based on need and needed.


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References: Creswell, W, John.2002. Educational Research Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating; Quantitative and Qualitative Research. Boston: Pearson Education Inc. Terry R, George and Leslie W Rue.1992. Dasar-Dasar Manajemen.Jakarta: PT Bumi Aksara Other resources https://www.bced.gov accessed 2 august 2016 http://www.unesco.org accessed 2 august 2016 http://www.merriam-webster.com accessed 2 august 2016


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POSTER PRESENTATION CONSISTENCY (The Dark Side of Dajang Rindoe) Kiki Rahmatika Choreography Department Indonesian Institut of the Arts Yogyakarta [email protected] ABSTRACT

In globalization era which is more sophisticated, people are more and more faced on the rapid improvement of technology and communication. Those improvements should able to generate the unbound human being. But, the tradition often become the wall for people movement either in mind or physically. This situation commonly experienced on women though freedom should actually be had by women. However, giving up is not the option. Keep expressing the thoughts and doing the movements independently and responsibly are the exact decision. Because there isn’t any tough wall that able to restrain the mind that would like to fly freely. This choreography is started from Dajang Rindoe’s manuscript which is deconstructed. In the process of cultivation of this work, the foundation of creation used text deconstruction, creativity, and choreography. Text deconstruction is implemented in finding the new point of view of the women freedom. Creativity approach is used for the reason that the artwork creation is not separated from the thinking process and work creatively. By this approach, the way of thinking and working creatively will be developed. The third approach that is choreography is used as the foundation in creating the dance aesthetic that involving the body movement, composition, unity, harmony, behaviour and other visual aspects. CONSISTENCY dance work is a description about woman toughness to get her freedom in order to maintain her integrity. The freedom that need the full struggle for her to get. Because the freedom itself has the meaning to be able to live independently and responsibly. In the real life, the freedom women who able to preserve her firmness independently and responsibly are very scarce. The imbalance of this firmness then fades the women integrity.

Keywords: deconstruction, firmness, woman integrity. Introduction CONSISTENCY (The Dark Side of Dajang Rindoe) is a dancework that tells about woman determination in struggle to reach her freedom to taining her integrity as awoman. ‘Struggle’ in this dancework is resulted by deconstruction of Dajang Rindoe’s Manuscript that save on library of Leiden University. This deconnstrustion way is using not to argue or 273

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resistance to the contents of the text. Deconstuction is used to give the other view without must blame and broke the previous views. On his book with a title Derrida (2005) Muhammad AlFayyadl said that deconstruction is a way to break reliability of a text, so that it will result new interpretations. Research Question. 1. What the result of deconstruction of Dajang Rindoe’s manuscript who written by Van Der Tuuk? 2. How use creativity and choreography to make a dancework? 3. What the important essence of CONSISTENCY dancework? Method The method that used in this research is qualitative method, eventhough data collection methods used in this research is by Dajang Rindoe’s manuscript. For data analysis this research use deconstruction approach by Jacques Derrida written by Muhammad Al-Fayyadl, creativity choreography written by The Liang Gie, Doris Humphrey, Sal Murgiyanto, Joan Russell and Hans-Thies Lehman for create the dancework. Deconstruction is used to found essence and meaning that will be used as guidance to create a dancework. Creativity approach is used because creativity of dancework can not be separated from the process of thinking and creative work. By this approach process of thinking and creative work will be build. Whereas the second approach is choreography. It is used as base on create dance aesthetic that consist of body movement, composition, unity and harmony and act aspect and the other visual. Result Dekonstruksi Dajang Rindoe’s manuscript rewrite by Van Der Tuuk as anthropologist from Netherlands on 1668. The manuscript sourced from oral literature that tells hereditary by a man. So that the story of Dajang Rindoe just have one viewpoint, it is man view point. It is tickle choreographer to deconstruction the text to give the other view about Dajang Rindoe’s dead by woman viewpoint. When the text deconstructed, choreographer use naratology approach. Naratology can definition as a set of concepts about stories and storytelling. While, structure of fictional narrative is series of moment that on the story contained the other elements, such as: figures, background, viewpoint and the other. Study of narrative discourse on this case considered to have involved languange, literature and culture, which in itself is very relevant as the object humanities. For naratology studies, teory of contemporary literature had give very wide area coverage to narrative eksistention (Ratna, 2004: 128-130). The moment can be either action (Moment likes human action) and happenings (moment that not by result of human action). Discourse on the other side is as a advice to reveal the content. Based on text of Dajang Rindoe’s manuscript, there is action (moment likes human action) that spken by narrator. The important moment that happens on manuscript who written by Van Der Tuuk is divide self of Dajang Rindoe. Divide self of Dajang Rindoe if it is look from re-storytelling of Van Der Tuuk is caused by war between Tanjung Iran region and Palembang Sultanate. The war is happenings because rejection of Dajang Rindoe’s father (Wayang Semu) to Prince Riya proposal. On that situation Wayang semu had make a promise to Dajang Rindoe’s 274

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grandfather (Kriya Carang) to marry Dajang Rindoe with a man (Ki Bayi Radin) that had choosen by Kriya Carang. Because of the rejection Tanjung Iran was destroyed and all family of Dajang rindoe were dead. Dajang Rindoe only has two option; die or accept Prince Riya’s proposal. Dajang Rindoe choose dead with a requirement to Prince Riya, she ask Prince Riya to divide her body to be two part. The first part (from head to waist), she ask Prince Riya to burry to Dajang Rindoe,s land of birth (Tanjung Iran). Then the second part (from waist to food) burry to Palembang sultanate region. However, story that rewrite by Van Der Tuuk is a story that sourced from man voice. There isn’t woman voice on the manuscript. It is make choreographer make a conclution that rewrite of Dajang Rindoe’s manuscript based on man view point. So that absence of woman voice on Dajang rindoe’s manuscript make choreographer renarration and re-discourse moment of Dajang Rindoe die by woman viewpoint. Relate to deconstruction, narration that choreographer try to presence on new discourse certainly not to destroy the structure of story in manuscript who rewrite by Van Der Tuuk. Because the principal of deconstruction is not to destroy of text but also to presence the other view point from the meaning of story. Relate to structure of story above by naratology, choreography presence discourse on the text especially on Dajang Rindoe’s divide movement. Divide self of Dajang Rindoe’s if mean correspond to structure and view point of Vandertuuk is a loyality form to men (grandfather, father, and boyfriend). But if the story narrated back with choreographer’s view point as Dajang Rindoe (woman present), certainly will give the different result. By woman view point, divide self of Dajang Rindoe is critical to men. This critic appear because at the time tradition is not give space to woman to voiced. The critic with divide self have a the meaning of satire. The satire is when Dajang Rindoe ask Prince Riya to divide her body to be two part. The first part (from head to waist), she ask Prince Riya to burry to Dajang Rindoe’s land of birth (Tanjung Iran, Muara Enim). The first part burry in her land birthday have satire meaning that as a woman she loyality with her promise with give her heart and thinking. Then the second part (from waist to food) burry to Palembang sultanate region. The second part was burry on Palembang Sultanate because it is have satire meaning that Palembang’s people always doing something with a lust without thinking by brain and considered by heart. From the explanation above can get conclution that the die of Dajang Rindoe with divide her body to be two part not to show surround. But the rejection to tradition and the power of man to woman. Dividing the body meaned if Dajang Rindoe not only rejection the proposal of Prince Riya, but give a sharp critic about the dead of humanitybecause tradition and the power of man. Dajang Rindoe’s rejection not only to show feel of consistency to obligation as a daughter and lover. Consistency on this context is resistancy (fight) woman on struggle her inetgrity. So that this dancework up about woman integrity and choreographer give a title CONSISTENCY. 1. Creativity Human as a creature whose most perfect. They supplied with thinking. By thinking human can doing a few needs on them life. Fullfillment of the need then make human to doing something. Fullfilment in this situation is not only understood as physical needs (clothing, shelter, and food), but also spiritual needs (heart). So, on the basis of fulfillment human required to think and be creative. Jacob Sumardjo on his book Filsafat Seni formulate that creativity is a very individualized mental creativity that is manifestation the freedom of human as 275

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individual (Sumardjo, 2000:80). But also The Liang Gie on his book Teknik Berfikir Kreatif (Gie, 2003:18), provide limits on creative thinking as follows: “… creative thinking is a series of actions performed by people using his intellect to create a new thinking from a collection of memories that contain a variety of ideas, information, concepts, experience and knowledge…” So, it is conclution that creativity is self expression from intellectual that appear cause human freedom as individualto create something new. Something new in this context not to meaned as a orisinality that is individualistic. Every artist creative esentially is to create something from something that be before. There isn’t something new in the world. An arwork created by collecting of idea, experience, concept and knowledge out of themselve. Concept Concept is a vision or artistic plan that will embodied on a creativity of dancework. Without clear vision creativity of dancework not have direction and purpose. This concept make artwork creativity process became targeted and sructured. And then artistic vision that had determined will translate to artistic mission in the form of methods of creating dancework. Excitatory early This dancework is come from visual excitatory when get new information the form of andaiandai from Muara Enim and repro of original manuscript of Dajang Rindoe that rewrite by Van Der Tuuk to Indonesian Languange, Malay Languange, and Ka Ga Nga script. a. Theme. Creativity of CONSISTENCY dancework want to transformation the new meaning fom deconstruction result and not to retells content of manuscript, so the theme of this dance is nonliterer. b. Title. Title which choesen on this dancework is. The title is intend to give a description about be different way of view from a woman on resistance her ideology and integrity. By my supervisor the title translated to Indonesian Languange became Keteguhan Hati Pererempuan: Sisi kelam Kehidupan Dajang Rindoe. c. Type of Dance. CONSISTENCY dancework is use postdramatic type. Postdramatic is atype of dance that adaptated from theatre. if on theatre using postdramatic because there isn’t have obedience again, it is also happening with dance where dance not only create based on literature but also by essentially story. So that this dancework leave the manuscript and deconstruction its to get the new meaning. The meaning became the first base to embodied dancework by dramatic type. d. Mode of dance presentation Mde of dance presentation is a result form from creativity process that deliver to the certain choreography, so that on the ending of creativity process, an choreographer can understand with right form of choreography that had produced. Mode of presentation CONSISTENCY dancework ia representational. Representational is describe a reality that accordance with the motion as present can known the meaning, form of dance creted as clear according to idea of story. This mode is intend to result a choreography that summon to manifestation ideas as clear (realistic). 276

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e. Motion. Motion that used in this dancework is daily motion (realist) and symbolic (stilitation). Realist motion used accorded with he theme of dance (nonliterer) and mode of presentation (representational) was used. Realist motion will give description to audience to daily moment that presenced like fall, walk, run, survive and the others. While stilisation motion is used to express symbols accordance to the meaning that want to told. Stilisation movement displayed by transformation process from realist motion. So motion patterns on this dancework can knowing as follows: Realist----Realistic-----Symbolic. f. Dancer. Dancer is the most important element on creating dancework. Selection of dancer is a important process in a dancework because dancers must can explain the conceptual reasons. Gender, body posture and composition is an aspect that must thinked on make an dancework that take postdramatic type. CONSISTENCY is a dancework that dancing by 7 dancers, it is consist of 6 women dancers and one man dancer. The man dancer has a propotionsl body and has good technic used to presentation a wall (tradisi) that strong, big and great. One woman dancer with the small body, agile and has good technic is intend to express resistance. One woman dancer with fat body, heavy and slow with a simple technic is intend to express weakness, failure that continue in order to bring hope. And four dancers whose have propotional body is an expression of woman power. Decicion of dancer amount body posture not only considered to express situation, but also to floor patterns that is important aspect on selection of dancer amount. CONSISTENCY dancework that consist of 7 dancer is using focus on one point, focus on two point (1-1), (4-2), dan focus on three point. (1-1-2), (2-4-1). The three focus deliberate used to show situations that mutually exclusive but also have mutually relation. Besides that using of unison motion, canon motion, alternate motion, and broken motion also very relate to dancer amount. Unison motion and canon motion used to show the impress of woman power. This motion choosen because if one motion do by one dancer not will show the effect of power. But, if one motion doing with alternate, unison and canon will show the effect of power that biger. Alternate motion used to show the impress about be commotion and uncomfortable situation. While the broken motion to express destroy and anger. g. Music. Music is one of important element on choreography, although on the reality often get dancework that not use external music. It is because basicly there is music that not visible, in the other word there is music can felt by motion. But, basicly music is soulmate of motion. Djohan on his book with a title Psikologi Musik tells that music is human action, music can arouse feelings of listener (2005). CONSISTENCY is a dancework that many played on area atmosphere. The atmospheres that eventually charted music as illustration. Music as illustration is music that functioned to give atmosphere that support choreography. So that a moment that describe can build on audience perception. But also because on CONSISTENCY dancework there are many unison motion, so music on this dancework had levels were quite dominant as a confirmation of motion. Music on CONSISTENCY dancework consist of a few element of sound that have function to describe atmosphere in order to can shape the imajination of audience. The elements of sound are percussion choosen besides as the key of tempo 277

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also as ilustration from situation of resistance to static of tradition. Singing bowl and tibet vocal are used to ilustration the great of tradition that very binding human life. Violin used to ilustration of regret. Bass and piano used to ilustration of woman consistency. h. Stage artistic. This dance work was performed in the Sociteid Militer hall of Yogyakarta Cultural. That place choosen because had atmosphere that support with CONSISTENCY dancework concept. When make sketch of place, choreographher join with one of student in interior studies on Magister of Institute of the art of Yogyakarta whose name is (Nurhayatu Nufut Alimin) and stage crew from Yogyakarta (Susilo). After doing discussion about space with Nurhayatu, finally got an idea to make or different stage became two world. The first world is for solo choreography that we agree with name limitation. And we try to make the limitation on a level with wide “1m x 1m” and high 30 cm. On athe level choreographer let the body felt the limitation. Limitation memory that has saved on the choreographer body finally was aplicated on creativity. At the times wrestle this creativity choreographer came academic supervisor (Sal Murgiyanto, Ph. D) to talking about the two world. Sal Murgiyanto was agree about the concept and ask to do the eksploration on that level in order to get feelings of limitation and the feelings not lost from choreographers body. Finally this limitation not only limit on space but also limit on the body. i. Costume. Costume must support the concept of creativity that will presence, besides use of the clothing colour that base on the psicology of colour. Beside that costume not only use as tools of comunication and it is must give comfortable feelings to for dancer to move. On this dancework choreographer had experience three times costume possibility that designed by a designer (Embran Nawawi). Finally costume of CONSISTENCY dancework found three kind of costume that used, that is:  Man costume that representation of wall tradition.

Pict 1. Costume of CONSISTENCY (Representation of Wall Tradition) Photo: Ari Kusuma

This costume consist of black shirt and black trousers. Looking from the form of costume that use by the body of a man dancer, the costume not show costume like general. This form was deliberate because the black colour not only as distraction symbol, it is also to show that a man free from tradition rules, so that man always can higher than woman. Woman costume who on the limitation. 278

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Pict 2. Costume of CONSISTENCY (representation of resistance) Photo: Ari Kusuma

Woman costume who on the limitation is embodied with patterned fabric of tapis that show Lampung’s identity, gold and red fabric where is the red colour more dominant than gold colour. It is to show about woman body that always want to resist although be on the limitation condition. Jumpsuit costume was choosen because it is to symbol of bravery. Costume of women dancers whose representation of resistance.

Pict 3. Costume of CONSISTENCY (representation of resistance) Photo: Ari Kusuma

This costume is looks like the previous costume. Different both of the costume just on the colour. Gold colour is dominant is to show woman resistance whose effort to reach freedom. But also to get a free didn’t need doing something radical, resistance that base on wisdom is resistance that begin by logic. The wisdom is representated by the golden colour. 279

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j. Make up. Make up is one of element on choreography that relate to figure characteristic. Make up is play an important role to give face effect of dancer according to choreography concept hwen lighting illuminating the dancer. There are 3 kind of make up that used in CONSISTNCY dancework:  Make up of aman that to representation his body as wall of tradition (distractor). The make up didn’t need made to be certain character, because that want to show is motion quality not the character of face.

Pict 4. Make up of man dancer (representation of rbustness of tradition) Photo: Ari Kusuma

Make up of woman who on the limitation is used to dance opening Tata rias perempuan yang berada dalam keterbatasan. It use to opening dancer (dancer whose on the lvel) is natural make up, us a fondation, blush on pink, pink lipstick. Face make up on down choosen to express guts on limitation.

Pict 5. Make up of woman dancer (representation of woman resistance) Photo: Ari Kusuma

Make up of woman who doing resistance. Make up that used to dancer that doing resistance is natural make up, use fondation,blush on pink and maroon lipstick.


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Pict 6. Make up of women dancer (representation of resistance) Photo: Ari Kusuma

k. Lighting. Role of lighting very support a dance permormance. On the dance script can explained lighting concept or illumination that use on the dance presentation. Lighting on CONSISTENCY dancework also had a role as atmosphere shape. This concept is more accent on dancer performa which can presence with confirm the atmosphere. Psicology of power is a knowldge that to study and to identification human perception to colours in the nature.mood of someone can influenced because a colour that caught by eyes (Triadi, 2005). Someone called with a term Psicology of power to articulate perception as unique with peopl mind was seen. As well as nature colours can tells and to influence people mood. The lighting concept on this dancework was function as confirm scene and as tool to confirm symbol of the dancer body. Evry choose colour effect or illumination, choreographer guidance by psicology of colour book, whhere the colours have a mean follows:  Red is use to confirm anger atmosphere.  Blue is used to confirm atmosphere scene and as tools to confirm symbol or gesture of the dancer.  Purple is used to confirm about the great of tradition.  Orange is used to confirm about consistence. Base on the above comprehension choreographer can result a new artwork, unique, and rarely get people’s attention or don’t get famous on our tradition, but maybe as intuitive had feel and very famous to all human. Creator must can change something that ordinary to be extraordinary, or something didn’t had means tobe had a mean. So that we need creativity, both in the process thinking and acting process. Creativity of dancework is base on courage creator on doing the creativity. On this artwork choreographer make a dancework by using simple symbols that forming by body (daily movement), so that it can be a dancework that not only meets creativity movement, but also this body symbols can be dancework that a moment that remember on audition heart. Choreography 1. Eksploration. Eksploration on the choreography process is a step between danccer and choreographer. The essential of this process is exploratory between dancer and choreographer. Choreographer role as subject who responsibility to know about dancers technic. This process doing after choreographer had a dance concepts. S 281

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that this process include on eksploration that had planning, although uncertainly. The intention of this eksploration to found the other ideas from the dancers as interpretation artist on unity definition work relation between choreographer and the dancer. This experience can develop because the dancer have mutually interpretative. Eksploration based on form or structural especially relation to the other dancers founded in a book Lois Ellfeldt dalam bukunya yang berjudul A Primer for Choreographers. Eksploration is a process to result possibility motion. The possibility motion will choose as a tool to show a message. The eksploration are follow as:

Pict 7. Exploration of Want to Free (Photo: Achmad Oddy Widiantoro)

Pictures in above is result of eksploration from a theme ‘Want to Free’ . CONSISTENCY is a woman effort to keep integrity as woman (Dajang Rindoe). Consistence which doing by divide self is acritic or effort to resistance her integrity. The critic is a contemplation where a woman also need gave voice to take a decicion, especially if the decicion about her life. That’s actio is a way to to destroy the wall of tradition. Different with the effort that doing by Dajang rindoe, as a choreographer will choose the other way to solving problem. If Dajang Rindoe choose diie in the wall of tradition, choreographer choose to still life and effort so that the voice can hear although the great wall and high became distraction to freedom. This eksploration had doing three times. First eksploration was presented to Dede Pramayoza as a dramaturg from Gajah Mada University. The second eksploration was presented to Prof. Feriyyal from Pakistan as a practical dancing. And the last ekploration was presented to artists from Thailand (Choreographers and Dancers. By presentations of eksploration choregrapher had many advice that can apply to CONSISTENCY dancework. The advice are the choreographer must can enjoy the limitation on the level (Dede Pramayoza). Choreographer must learn how to plan emotion (Prof. Feriyyal). Choreographer expression very good and the symbol was used very relevant with present(Thailand artists) This eksploration give me many knowledge about woman freedom. Besides that choreographer get a reason why often use contract release (Martha Graham) and fall-recovery (Doris Humphrey). This technic not directly get and learn from Martha Graham and Doris Humphrey. This technic get from watch Pina Bausch 282

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dancework ‘Rite of spring’ by youtube.contract and release besides used on plan a motian, the technic also teach choreographer, if want to be a real woman the woman must learn how to contract and how to release emotion. Dancework which a theme ‘Want to Free’ is a woman resistance on going to keep her integrity with independently and responsibility. The theme became one of stimulus to results motions that can represent group choreography.

Pict 8. Exploration of Run from unfreedom (Photo: Achmad Oddy Widyantoro)

Freedom is a situation that always dreamed by every human, but many tradition that not relevent again became a wall especially for woman. Tradition like binding woman, even though if looked with life present many values that not relevant again. So that free from binding is a situation that very dreamed of woman. Because by a freedom that independently and responsibility woman can reach her integrity. Run from tradition is one of way to get a freedom. Run on this eksploration combine with alternate motive. This motive is intend to show restlessness impression from the rule that existin the vicinity.

Pict 9. Exploration of Resistance to Wall of Tradition (Photo: Achmad Oddy Widyantoro)

Avoid tradition is not an easy way. As far as any woman try and run, finally will meet distractor on keep and resistance her integrity. On this position consistence needed to fight rules on tradition which have not relevant again on human life. Exploration aboveis expression from body that rebelled and trie to escape. 283

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Pict 10. Exploration of the power of wall tradition (photo: Achmad Oddy Widyantoro)

Tradition is a wall that very strong. By the power that it have, tradition can became fences or barries that impede freedom of people. Tradition as strong wall explorated by man body and jump technic to show the impression of strong and kokoh.

Pict 11. Exploration of try to survive (Photo: Achmad Oddy Widyantoro)

Everytimes try to out and free from tradition, this effort always get fail. But fallis not a condition that must accept as lost. Sometimes fall make we learn be patient and refrain. We need to step backward to get the next three steps. On this fall position will prove of what courage is owned by a woman. A woman who easily give up of course have alow level of firmness. Otherwise if a woman has a high degree of firmness will make the fall as a lesson for introspection. Rise up and fight again is the right choice to be completely detached from the walls of tradition. Exploration of the body from falling to stand by lifting up one leg is a form of woman effort to remain consistence resist the traditin that distraction.


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Pict 12. Exploration of to continue survive (Photo: Achmad Oddy Widyantoro)

Effort will always meet with possibility fail or succes. Fall up to be a risk in fighting to achieve a goal. Everytimes felt fall up will stronger our consistence as a woman to struggle our dream. Surround is not a choice, because surroun just a choice for loser. 2. Improvisasi At this stage has a variety of artistic and visual shadow accordance with the theme of dancework determined, the next step is to conduct experiments in motion to realize the imajination. Experiments were first performed to respond to any incident that is the story of Dajang rindoe.choreographer give instructions to the dancers to move, according to the stimulus whose they can. On this step spontanity more especially to get forms that better from exploration result. Exploration doing by give stimulus to to the dancer, so that can to result respon and spontanity. After feelings, knowing and look the atmosphere and can to respon directly somethings that relate to memories before die of Dajang Rindoe. Without the whatever instruction all dancer was free to feelings and intercourse. This is important to doing to uniting in advance between the energy that is in the body of a dancer with the motion you want to use, resulting in unity between the dancers body and the motion that is used. Thus the motion already belong to dancers who will lead the body to bring up the symbols and gives meaning to the motion itself. After all the dancers finished making spontaneous movements associated with the theme Dajang Rindoe, choregrapher and dancers perform throughout the evaluation. In the evaluation we mark the new forms from the spontaneity of the body. The results we discussed back in for questioning precision-accuracy motion previously used and defined in this dance work consistency.

3. Embodies After the stage of exploration and improvisation passed, aspects of the shape and the technique can be awakened through some exercises that have been planned as follows: 

Latihan pertama: 285

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Awareness of the movements of the entire body, including footwork, arms, hands, body, head, and so on.  Latihan kedua: Sensitize or concentrating effect of such spatial directions, level, dimension, motion in place (Stationary) and motion move (Locomotor).  Latihan ketiga: Resuscitate the influence of time as their rhythm, tempo, and duration. Constant rhythm, and not constant, fast and slow tempo, and an assortment of other time dynamics.  Latihan keempat: Awaken the use of force by the changes in the variation of intensity, quality and light or heavy pressure. The scope of dance as well as the use of this power lies in between the two extremes of maximum tension, or require a lot of energy, maximum relaxation or do not need to use a lot of energy.  Latihan kelima: Sensitize the use of breathing. Breathing through dance is a specific setting that has to do with movement in order that in the motion is not disturbed, the more a dancer that must require a lot of energy in a long duration.

After all forms of visual and audio created and agreed upon by all the artistic support team, then before rehearsal (GR) lock stylists artistic achievements that have been created. This means that the artistic search process has been stopped, and no changes will occur more visual form. When it is fully stylists submit to the stage manager (M. Fachrodian) to become a leader in regulating the course of the show. Since rehearsals until the show progresses. Conclution Consistency dance works (The Dark side of Dajang Rindoe) is a work that has the essence of deconstruction results Dajang Rindoe manuscripts. The essence of the dance work is freedom, determination and integrity. The essence of it is concluded that that the freedom that a woman is a result of the struggle is not given. Freedom is a desirable state of women in order to achieve the goals and ideals. But it takes persistence to have freedom, as well as possible freedom is freedom that is capable of operating independently and is responsible for ensuring the integrity of a woman is maintained.


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Pict 13. Result of Dancework Photo: Ari Kusuma

Creativity and choreography of a dance piece Consistency rather than starting from the studio, but the creativity and choreography can be run under the guidance of the essence obtained from the deconstruction of manuscripts Dajang Rindoe. Creativity and choreography is a creative tool that is able to transform text into a dance. A dance piece that lasts approximately 40 minutes of this, contains events that may be experienced by people in general. As the events fall up where everyone has experienced defeat in achieving its goals, but as shown in the work of consistency this work to show firmness of women who do not want to lose with limitations. Surrender is not an option, rose still fight and walked achieve ideals is the right choice. So that this work is not only giving the reference spectacle eye, but becomes a mirror and reflection materials who's watching the work of this consistency. Consistency works brings many benefits academically, but also provide value in life. The benefits obtained from the making of the work of stylists are becoming more aware stylist neighbor deconstruction and transformation. Additionally stylists acquire knowledge and practice of bodies about the possibilities of body shape is able to represent the essence of deconstruction manuscripts. Undergo a process of creation of course, not only related to the intellectuals. Patience is an important part that always gets a good test in terms of material, time, dancers and even bureaucracy. The tests were almost fade determination in finishing a dance stylist consistency to finish and be free from a period of study in Postgraduate ISI. Because if the stylist is not able to complete the study period stylists, this equates to destroy the integrity stylist hairdresser as a woman who has been a stylist wake. Of these, more stylists agree that freedom is a situation that must be fought not given. Of the process of creation can be seen that the creation of a dance piece Consistency is an attempt to find another way of freedom.


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KEPUSTAKAAN Al-Fayyadl, Muhammad. (2005), Derrida, Yogyakarta: LkiS Pelangi Aksara Yogyakarta. Djohan. (2005), Psikologi Musik, Yogyakarta: Penerbit Buku Baik. Ellfeldt, Lois. (1971) A Primer for Choreographers. Palo Alto: Mayfield Publishung Company. Gie, The Liang. (2003). Teknik Berfikir Kreatif , Jakarta: Gramedia) Humphre, Doris. (1983). The Art Making of Dance. Terjemahan Sal Murgiyanto. Jakarta: Dewan Kesenian Jakarta. Murgiyanto, Sal. (2015), Pertunjukan Budaya dan Akal Sehat, Fakultas Seni Pertunjukan-IKJ: Komunitas Senrepita. Nurgiyantoro, Burhan. 2005. Teori Pengkajian Sastra. Yogyakarta: Gajah Mada University Press. Ratna, Nyoman Kutha. 2004. Teori, Metode, dan Teknik Penelitian Sastra. Yogyakarta:Gajah Mada University Pers. Russell, Joan. (1969). Creative Dance in secondary School. London Maconald dan Evans Ltd. Sumardjo, Jakob. (2000), Filsafat Seni,Bandung: ITB. Triadi, Darwis. (2005). Color Vision. Jakarta: Gramedia


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The suitable fabric for Thai art folding of banana leaves on clothing Miss Chanakarn Ruangnarong Program in Design Arts Graduate School, Faculty of Decorative Arts, Silpakorn University Email: [email protected]

ABSTRACT Thailand has a uniquely long-standing tradition of arts and crafts. Thai art folding of banana leaves, probably the best-known such as food wrappers and precious handicrafts has been practiced to make colorful decorations for festivals. As time passed, roles of using parts of banana have been reduced but there has been an attempt to help conserve it only some art and craftsmanship. This research will study and analyze about Thai art folding of banana leaves, the folding technic from art and design, product and fashion for diversity of folding. Furthermore, Fabric is the key of this research to know the type of fabric suitable for folding. Thus, the experiment and practice show the fabric qualification by selected 9 properties included 1. Good stability 2. Good draping 3. Heat resistance 4. Smoothness 5. Balance 6. Wrinkle 7. Stretch 8. Strong 9. Soft with the wearable fabric are 1. Natural Fabric 1.1) Cotton 1.2) Linen 1.3) Muslin 1.4) Jute 1.5) Ramie 2.Man-made fabric 2.1) Polyester 2.2) Nylon 2.3) Organza 2.4) Satin 3. Blended Fabric 3.1) Cotton Spandex 3.2) Linen Viscose. The result is Polyester, Cotton Spandex and Linen Viscose respectively suitable for folding. In conclusion, the purpose of this research compiles the theory, technique, and method of Thai art folding of banana leaves. Moreover, the many types of folding technique from Thai art folding of banana leaves for clothing construction that can be a guideline and modified in the next stage for designers who interested in craftsmanship, culture, and tradition. Then, to create the guideline from the Thai art folding of banana leaves. Finally, the wearable art by using the clothing construction guideline from the Thai art folding of banana leaves. Keywords: Fabric, folding, wearable art, traditional techniques

1. INTRODUCTION Considering plants that have been closely linked to the traditional Thai ways of life, banana can be placed among the top ranks. This is not only because its parts are used in many traditional ceremonies but also due to the high nutritive value of its fruit that has made it a simple home remedy or a quick fix for flagging energy levels. Also, banana is a very useful plant to the Thai household. To begin with, most parts of the plant can be used for various purposes as explained below. Leaf and stem of banana, in former times, was linked to and became an important part in the Thai ways of life from birth to death. When a mother delivered a baby, there was a ritual of presenting offerings to a midwife as an auspicious start for the new mother and the new baby. At this stage, banana was a must as a part of the offerings. Today, as formerly, when a baby starts to eat, its first food is bananas as it is considered a fruit of high nutrition which is friendly to its digestive system. As children grow up, some parts of the banana can be made into simple toys. A banana stem is cut and made into a toy horse or a gun for children to play with, and the leaf can be woven into animals, such as a centipede and tapian fish; it can also be folded into an oboe. Generally, a banana leaf can also be used as an umbrella because of its large size, or used to wrap food or things and to cover soil to prevent evaporation 289

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of its moisture. Moreover, leaf of a kind of banana called tani is used as cigarette papers and those of wild bananas can be used as a temporary roof of a house. The fibrous outer layer of the stem of the banana plant is left to dry, split into strips, and used as ropes to tie things such as vegetables. Apart from being a nutritious food for babies as mentioned above, banana is proven as possessing many curative properties as it contains various kinds of vitamins and minerals. Thus, it can help overcome and prevent many kinds of illnesses and ailments; the abundant nutritional contents explain some benefits of eating bananas (Blue Lotus, 2004). Thailand has a uniquely long-standing tradition of arts and crafts. Unlike most of its neighbors, it has never been occupied by a foreign power or engaged in wars of conquest, and it has thus enjoyed a relatively peaceful development since ancient times. Patronized by the court and the temples, the designs and craftsmanship of Thai artisans have flourished (William Warren, 1994: 1). Thai banana leaves folding, probably the best-known example of Thailand’s precious handicrafts, has been practiced to make colorful decorations for festivals. Leaves are folded in delicate, triangular and intricate patterns before being presented to Lord Buddha statues at temples. The religious offerings made from banana leaves and flower petals are called “Bai Sri”. The art of banana leaf folding is handed down from generation to generation (Artcrumps, 2013). According to archaeological evidence in “Twelve-Month Royal Ceremony” book as a literary work by the King Rama V, krathong was first created by Tao Sri Chulalak or Nang Noppamas in Sukothai, she created a valuable handicraft called krathong with banana leaves, flowers, and carved fruit to worship the goodness of river, Pra mae Khong Ka (Chatchai Wilailuck:2007). Luckily, with the talent of Nang Noppamas, a note of her story, creation, and handicrafts has been made. Therefore, we had the opportunity to know that krathong, the art of banana leaves folding and flowers arrangement of Thailand that has begun in Sukhothai (Maneerat Jantanapalin:1983). Since Ratanakosin Era, Thai people have admired the aforementioned craftsmanship. The King Rama V liked it very much and every queen was interested in it. Queen Saovabha Phongsri trained governors and teachers of Rajini School about the art of banana leaves folding, flower, and dry flower. Furthermore, the Queen supported the art of banana leaves and flowers; new techniques for banana leaves folding and flowers arrangement art were adapted by the queen herself (Jantana Suwanmalee: 1986). On the other hand, Thai people no less overlook their precious things than accept some culture from another country. (Maneerat Chantanapalin:1997) As time passed, roles of using parts of banana as such materials as food wrappers or children toys, as well as its role in some ceremonies, have been reduced, and mostly replaced by plastics or other easier-to-find materials. However, there has been an attempt to help conserve the art of decoration from parts of banana, especially for traditional ceremonial purposes, as it is considered a fine art from ancient Thai folk wisdom (Blue Lotus, 2004). Also, Thai banana leaf folding is one of the remaining traditional art that still exist and are known by some art and craftsmanship student, so proliferation is the way to inherit and develop the Thai culture (Pattrawut Thongyam:2005). However, a Thai fashion designer, Wisharawish Akarasantisook, his unique concept is high level of craftsmanship in little details (Monruedee Jansuttipan:2012). He contemplates the abstract and extracts its very essence into the material through technical experiment; the latter at times becomes the main narrative of his fashion design. Championing technical mastery, immaculate handicrafts, and intricate details on pattern, He plays with repetition of forms and geometric shape (Gennaio:2015). Furthermore, he always uses Thai wisdom in his collection 290

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because he is concerned about Thai culture, Thai tradition, and handicraft skill, being aware that it is going to exhausting then if no one use it (Wisharawish :2015). In conclusion, this research will study and analyze about Thai art folding of banana leaves, the folding technic from art and design, product and fashion for diversity of folding. Furthermore, Fabric is the key of this research to know the type of fabric suitable for folding.

2. MATERIAL AND TOOLS 2.1 Materials First, fabric and apparel design, commonly referred to as fashion clothing, relates the physical properties of fabric to human need for functional, occasional and fashionable clothing. Materials combine the art and design, the science for support the fabrics suit for the many types of clothing. Second, fashion designers must have the sense by the aesthetic, function and form to be offered a challenging and concentrated foundation in design, drawing, pattern making, construction and fabric analysis. Finally, the types of fabric is important for clothing design. The folding experiment by choosing the suitable and fashionable fabric for clothing to folding according to Thai art folding of banana leaves. Fabric divide to 3 types by the manufacturing processes as natural fabric, man-made fabric and blended fabric as fallow. 2.1.1. Natural Fabric 1.) Cotton is the fibrous covering of cotton seeds; these fibers vary widely in length (staple). Cotton is generally off-white to tan in color, but is usually bleached white. Cotton is very absorbent but dries slowly, can withstand high temperatures and vigorous agitation, and dyes easily. It is the most widely used fiber in the world; cotton fabrics range from coarse canvas to the finest batiste. ( Holly Brackmann, (2006). The surface designer’s handbook. Retrieved from https://books.google.co.th) 2.) Linen is the oldest known fabric, with examples dating back to 6000 B.C.E.; its fiber, called flax, comes from the stem of the flax plant. Linen is naturally light cream to gray and very durable. It absorbs water readily and dries faster than cotton. It is stronger when wet than when dry, but it has little resilience and therefore wrinkles easily. Linen can be machine-washed and dried; in fact, repeated washing and ironing makes it lustrous. But because it is subject to abrasion, stored fabrics should be refolded periodically to even out wear. (Holly Brackmann, (2006). The surface designer’s handbook. Retrieved from https://books.google.co.th) 3.) Muslin is a cotton fabric of plain weave. It is made in a wide range of weights from delicate sheers to coarse sheeting. It gets its name from the city of Mosul, Iraq, where it was first manufacted. Early muslin was handwoven of uncommonly delicate handspun yarn, especially in the region around Dhaka of what today is Bangladesh. It was imported unto Europe for much of the 17th and early 18th centuries. (Muslin. In Wikipedia. Retrived August 12, 2016 from https://en.wikipedia.org /wiki/muslin) 4.) Jute is a long, soft, shiny vegetable fiber that can be spun into coarse, strong threads. Jute is one of the most affordable natural fibers and is second only to cotton in amount produced and variety of uses of vegetable fibers. (Jute. In Wikipedia. Retrived August 12, 2016 from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jute) 5.) Ramie, naturally white, comes from the stem of a plant in the nettle family. It is the strongest of the cellulose fibers and dyes easily. Like those of linen, the fibers 291

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are not resilient or elastic, and so the fabric wrinkles easily, but it absorbent and dries quickly. (Holly Brackmann, (2006). The surface designer’s handbook. Retrieved from https://books.google.co.th) 2.1.2. Man-made fabric 1.) Polyester was developed in 1941 and today is second to cotton in usage. It is often blended with cotton, linen, or wool, but is also used alone either as fiber or as fiberfill for insulation. It is a very strong fabric, resistant to abrasion, wrinkling, and frequent washing. As with nylon, pleats and other shapes can be permanently set with heat. Polyester microfiber produces fabrics with improved hand, drape, and texture that more closely resemble silk than do regular polyester fabrics. Low absorbency means that polyester dries quickly. Trade name include Dacron, Mylar, Trevira, Ploar Fleece, and Polartec. Some if the latter two fabrics are sometimes made of recycled plastic bottles. Polyester can be dyed only with disperse dyes. (Holly Brackmann, (2006). The surface designer’s handbook. Retrieved from https://books.google.co.th) 2.) Nylon (polyamide), developed in 1935, was the first synthetic fiber. Although first used for women’s stockings, its major uses today, because of its lightness and strength, include carpenting, tent, and backpacks. Nylon has good abrasion resistance and flexibility. It is more absorbent than other synthetic fibers but is damaged by sunlight. Nylon can be dyed with acid, disperse, and vat dyes. Pleats and other folds can be permanently set with heat. (Holly Brackmann, (2006). The surface designer’s handbook. Retrieved from https://books.google.co.th) 3.) Silk organza used in the resist-scouring process, is stiff because the fabric still contains sericin. The highest quality, most lustrous silk is obtained by killing the silk moth in the cocoon and reeling, or unwinding the filament and degumming it. If the moth is allowed to emerge from the cocoon, it will cut the filament as it exits; the resulting short fibers are used to make noil (raw silk), which has less luster than reeled silk. (Holly Brackmann, (2006). The surface designer’s handbook. Retrieved from https://books.google.co.th) 4.) Satin is a weave that typically has a glossy surface and a dull back. The satin weave is characterized by four or more fill or weft yarns floating over a warp yarn or vice versa, four warp yarns floating over a single weft yarn. A satin fabric tends to have a high luster due to the high number of floats on the fabric. Because of this it is used in making bed sheets. Many variations can be made of the basic satin weave including a granite weaves are the three basic types of weaving by which the majority of woven products are formed. Satin is commonly used in apparel: satin baseball jackets, athletic shorts, women’s lingerie, nightgowns, blouses, and evening gowns, but also in some men’s boxer shorts, briefs, shirts and neckties. (Satin. In Wikipedia. Retrived August 12, 2016 from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/satin)

2.1.3. Blended Fabric 1.) Cotton Spandex is a synthetic fiber known its exceptional elasticity, it is stronger and more durable than natural rubber then, its blend with cotton. It revolutionized many areas of the clothing industry. Because of its elasticity and strength (stretching up to five times its length), spandex has been incorporated into a wide range of garments, especially in skin-tight garments. A benefit of 292

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spandex id its significant strength and elasticity and its ability to return to the original shape after stretching and faster drying than ordinary fabrics. (Priya Murad: 2016) 2.) Linen Viscose is used in combination with viscose. Fabrics with linen like texture and coolness but with good wrinkle recovery can be produced from manufactured fibers and blends. Luster vary from very bright to very dull and can be controlled by addition of de-lust rants in viscose solution moreover greater elasticity than cotton and linen. Linen viscose crease easily although special crease resistant can be applied. Good conductor of heat hence appropriate for summer clothing. One of the most absorbent of all textile which even facilitates dyeing and processing and do not fet damages by weak alkali solutions but strong alkalis cause swelling of fibers and loss strength. (Priya Murad: 2016) 2.2 Tools 1.) Sewing machine, Lock stitch type 301 2.) Scissors 3.) Thread 4.) Steam Iron 5.) Questionnaire 3. METHOD 3.1 Collect documents to define the scope of the study. 3.2 Study about The Thai art folding of banana leaves. 3.3 Study about suitable fabric for fashion folding. 3.4 Experiment and practice The Thai art folding of banana leaves with 11 kinds of fabric with 12 overlapping folding method 3.5 Practicing folding technic and analyze for create folding technic suit for art form in many ways. 3.6 Analyze from study and experiment of The Thai art folding of banana leaves.


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Figure 1. A research methodology of the suitable fabric for Thai art folding of banana leaves on clothing

The 12 types of Thai art folding of banana leaves by overlapping method 1.) Hak kor ma 2.) Hua kwhan plang 3.) Hua nok kor yak 4.) Hak kor ma lie pia 5.) Kleab fun pla 6.) Kleab ku larb yam 7.) Kleab ka ra wake 8.) Kleab phee seua 9.) Kleab ko sol sroy 10.) Kleab pood tarn 11.) Kleab rat cha pruk 12.) Kleab puang ko men


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Figure 2. The Thai art of banana leaves by overlapping method: 1-6

Figure 3. The Thai art of banana leaves by overlapping method: 7-12 295

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4. RESULTS Historically, clothing is and has been made from many materials. These materials range from grasses to furs to much more elaborate and exotic materials. Some cultures, such as the various people of the Arctic Circle, until recently, made their clothing entirely of prepared and decorated furs and skins. Other cultures have supplemented and replaced leather and skins with cloth. Cloth is either woven or knitted and can be made from a large variety of fibers, which in turn can be natural, cellulose, or synthetic. Humans have shown extreme inventiveness in devising clothing solutions to environmental hazards and the distinction between clothing and other protective equipment is not always clear-cut; examples include space suit, air conditioned clothing, armor, diving suit, swimsuit, bee-keeper's protective clothing, motorcycle leathers, high-visibility clothing, andprotective clothing in general. Clothing is generally made of cloth. There are many different types of cloth, with different names and uses. Main differences between types of cloth include how the cloth was made (clothing_material. In Wikipedia. Retrived August 12, 2016 fromhttps://en.wikipedia. org/ wiki/clothing_material) so, choose the right fabric is important for the right clothing. The experiment and practice show the fabric qualification by selected 9 properties suitable for clothing included 1. Good stability 2. Good draping 3. Heat resistance 4. Smoothness 5. Balance 6. Wrinkle 7. Stretch 8. Strong 9. Soft The wearable fabric are 1. Natural Fabric 1.1) Cotton 1.2) Linen 1.3) Muslin 1.4) Jute 1.5) Ramie 2.Man-made fabric 2.1) Polyester 2.2) Nylon 2.3) Organza 2.4) Satin 3. Blended Fabric 3.1) Cotton Spandex 3.2) Linen Visc


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Fabric properties for folding

Figure 4. Fabric properties for folding From the experiment have founded the best stability are cotton, polyester, cotton+spandex, linen, muslin, jute, ramie, nylon, linen+viscose, organza and satin. The best draping are linen, polyester, cotton+spandex, linen+viscose, cotton, muslin, jute, ramie, nylon, organza, satin. The best heat resistance are cotton, linen, muslin, cotton+spandex, jute, ramie, polyester, linen+viscose, nylon, organza and satin. The best smoothness are organza, satin, cotton, linen, muslin, jute, ramie, polyester, nylon, cotton+spandex, linen+viscose. The balance are cotton, linen, muslin, jute, ramie, polyester, cotton+spandex, linen+viscose, nylon, organza and satin. The best wrinkle are cotton, polyester, cotton+spandex, muslin, nylon, organza, satin, linen+vicose, linen, jute and ramie. The best stretch are cotton+spandex, linen+spandex, cotton, linen, muslin, jute, ramie, polyester, nylon, organza and satin. The best strong are cotton, linen, muslin, jute, ramie, polyester, cotton+spandex, linen+viscose, nylon, organza and satin. The best soft are linen, organza, satin, cotton, muslin, jute, ramie, polyester, nylon and cotton+spandex. Finally, The best result is Polyester, cotton spandex and linen viscose respectively suitable for folding. 5. REFERENCE Settaman Kanjanakul, (1991). Banana leaves folding idea. Bangkok: Settasilp. Blue lotus, (2004). A banana matter. Retrieve from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/10/ Maneerat Chantanapalin, (1997). Ngarn bai tong. Bangkok: Faculty of science, Suan dusit college. William Warren, (1994). Arts and crafts of Thailand. London: Thames and Hudson. Holly Brackmann, (2006). The surface designer’s handbook. Retrieved from https://books.google.co.th 297

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A study of Knitted Fabric from Thai Silk Waste Yarn Peeraya Sramala Faculty of Decorative Arts, Silpakorn University. 31 Na Phra Lan Road, Phra Borom Maha Ratchawang Sub-district, Phra Nakorn District, Bangkok 10200. E-mail: [email protected]

ABSTRACT Thai silk is a part of Thailand regional cultural heritage. The unique characteristics are gummy, sticky substance and shining. Thai silk Industry share a common problem to other industries, the process produces a lot of waste. A solid waste from Thai silk can be classified into three types: Incomplete cocoons broken silk yarn; and silk fabric waste. Generally, these waste use for reuse in the business roles such as fashion accessories and decorative product. In order to adding value to Thai Silk waste can be done by knitted fabric properties: more flexible and able to produce in flat, seamless, and three-dimension. The recycle concept led to following studies: 1) To do an experiment of yarn spinning from Thai silk waste fibre; 2) To experiment a knitted fabric from a yarn of Thai silk waste and 3) To experiment yarn dyed and knitted fabric piece dyed by natural dyeing colour. A method of study consist of fibre preparing and spinning by hand, the equipment to develop knitted fabric are hand knitting and knitting machine, the natural dyeing colour come from coffee grounds, Turmeric, Red cabbage, and Mulberry. The result of study are: 1) Fibre and spinning experiment shown a yarn is uneven; yarn from broken silk yarn, silk fabric waste, and incomplete cocoon fibre are sticky and softly touch respectively; 2) Knitted fabric experiment showed that the production by hand knitting are soft and flexible than a knitting machine. While knitting machine fabric is smooth surface than hand knitting fabric and 3) Natural colour dyeing experiment showed that the colour absorption of yarn dyed is better than piece dyed. In conclusion, a result of the study can be used as a guideline idea to create new knitted fabric made from Thai silk waste to present the aesthetic values through textures, colours, structure and pattern. Keywords: Knitted fabric, Thai silk waste INTRODUCTION 1. Thai Silk Thai silk is a part of the national cultural heritage. Thai Sericulture was founded long time ago, Sericulture is an art of rearing silkworm for the producing cocoons as the raw material for silk production. The evidence record shows that in 1903 AD. (2446 BE.) His Majesty King Chulalongkorn be kind to founded the “Silk Artisan Department” in Bangkok to promote Thai sericulture. Thenceforward, a development of Thai Sericulture is grown up steadily. At the present, Her Majesty Queen Sirikit be kind to establish “Foundation for the Promotion of Supplementary Occupations and Related Techniques of Her Majesty Queen Sirikit” to sustain this objective. By the Queen’s speech “ Silk sericulture is a part of increasing farmer income. In 298

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addition, it is a cultural heritage and aesthetic of Thailand that has transferred from generation to generation for a long time. Therefore, if Thai economy is changing, Thai silk sericulture should be continuing development.” The present is the Queen Sirikit Department of Sericulture response the Queen’s speech by collect Local Thai silkworm breed to research and breeding in order to get the strong varieties and high yielding. At the present time, 24 breed of pure Thai silkworm and crossbreed in the collection. ( The National Institute of Sericulture Queen Sirikit, 2008, pp. 45-53) Detail of the silkworm rearing process is consisted of two steps: rearing the newly born silkworm and wait until the worm developed into cocoon. Thai cocoon has a special property, it is a small and slim shape, but it’s durable in the environment as well. Filament silk yarn is very fine and has special physical characteristics never seen in another silk, it’s cross-section is triangular shape making beautiful light refraction. Thai silk yarn is hand reeled and when dropped in wicker basket it’s become the fine silk yarn. In this process the spinster found that the yarn is more soft touch, flexible and shiny than machine reeling method. Moreover, when Thai silk clothed is worn and moved, it produces a special noise called silk sound. The most strength of Thai silk never found in the yellow silk type which consisted of 18 kinds of amino acid. The percentage of the amino acid is over 34.5 that higher than those of other country. (The National Institute of Sericulture Queen Sirikit, 2008, pp. 34-39). All of this is a result of the unique characteristics of Thai silk, it is quite a gummy, sticky substance and shine. Nowadays, Thai silk produces both remain in the household and become to the factory, most are in the northeast area. Also, Thai government has promoted the development of cocoon gene, manufacture technology and product design in all of this to make the best quality. People are encourages to use of Thai silk. 2. Thai Silk Waste Thai silk industry like the other industries, it produces a lot of waste. A solid waste from Thai silk can be classified into three types: incomplete cocoons, broken silk yarn, and silk fabric waste. Among the three types, the first one is incomplete cocoons: imperfect cocoons which can not be reeled commercially such as double cocoons, feeble cocoons, pierced cocoons, piques, and rates. The second type is broken silk yarn: a waste products in reeling, winding, throwing, and weaving. The last category is silk fabric waste: a waste products in apparel industries, and decorative product industries. (F. R. McGowan, Charles W. Schoffstall, & A. A. Mercier, 1924, pp. 582-583; K. Murugesh Babu, 2013, p. 48; Thai Textile Institute, n.d., p. 52) However, the statistic of this waste can not be estimated because the factories have been different management. (Thai Textile Institute, n.d., p. 63) Generally, these waste use for reuse in the business roles such as fashion accessories and decorative product. Academically, Thai researchers conducted a study of waste in several fields to achieve high benefit. The detail are as follows, Nonwoven Fabric Production Using Waste Silk. The aim of the project is to study the possibility of producing a nonwoven fabric from waste silk by conventional carding followed by the thermal bonding process. It also covers the study of physical and mechanical properties of the products to verify whether they are acceptable for textile applications. The results show that the non woven is yellowish white, lustrous and acceptable strength and softness. (Kachamas Tumrongsak, 1994, p.จ; 5th Thai alphabet) The Development of new Mixed Fibre from Waste Cocoon and Other Plant Fibres. The research was to develop new mixed fibre from a waste cocoon and other plant fibers. The researcher 299

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found that waste cocoon has special properties to produce new mixed fibre when mixed with five kinds of plant fibres, namely cotton yarn, linen yarn, pineapple yarn, ramie yarn, and hemp yarn. The research results indicated that fiber from waste cocoon mixed with hemp yarn is good for producing home textile as it has the maximum breaking strength while fiber from waste cocoon mixed with pineapple yarn is appropriate for producing clothes. (Kittisak Ariyakuare, 2010, p. 369) Yarn Spinning from Silk Wastes in Weaving Process. The research aimed to recycle silk wastes from the weaving process by transforming into spun yarns using ring spinning system. In this study silk wastes from both handloom and rapier loom were used and cut at a length of 38 mm. suitable for the cotton spinning process. The treated fibres fed into the opener, carding machine, draw frame, roving machine and ring spinning machines. The physical from this properties were then used characterize the properties of resulted yarns. The yarns were knitted to make gloves, socks and knit fabrics. It was established that silk wastes from both handloom and rapier loom were able to make yarns. The yarn count of the recycled yarn from the waste of handloom was 18.37 Ne with the average twist of 17.22 turns per inch. The tenacity of yarn from the waste of handloom was 14.40 cN/tex. The yarn count of the recycled yarn using waste from the rapier loom was 16.51 Ne with the average twist of 16.53 turns per inch. The tenacity of yarn from waste of rapier loom was 20.27 cN/tex. The recycled yarns could be knitted into end-use product such as gloves, socks and knit fabrics. (Pisut Chankum, 2011, p. ง; 4th Thai alphabet) The Development of a Carding Machine and a Twisting Silk Machine for Eri Silk. The purpose of this research was to develop a carding machine and twisting machine for produce eri fiber and yarn. A carding machine decomposes degumming cocoons and forms it into cohesiveness silk filament. Silk filament was then spun and twisted in the twisting machine. Factors to test machine functionality were teeth of carding head which were aligned in straight and zigzag pattern. Speeds of fiber feeding were 0.24, 0.32, and 0.4 meter per minute. From the experiments of the carding machine, it can be found that almost cocoons were decomposed when using zigzag pattern. Speed The speed of cocoon feeder was about 0.24 meter per minute. From twisting machine testing, results pointed out a different speed of fiber feeding provided different size of yarn. The properties of eri silk obtained from the machine were similar with eri silk produced from the traditional method. Therefore, carding machine and twisting machine developed in this research can help farmers to increase production and support the eri silk industry development. (Siriluk Wongkasema and Puripong Aksornpim, 2015, pp. 801-806) According to The research, Thai researcher was studying fibre processing, equipment, and a method to transfer into yarn and nonwoven suggesting that Thai silk waste can be applied in multiple propose and expect that can be developed more and more. 3. Spinning Thai Silk Waste It may be broadly divided into five main divisions to make cocoons be a yarn: de-gumming, dressing or combing, preparatory operations, spinning, and finishing. A detail of practice is begun from de-gumming: removing the gum or sericin from cocoons. After that dressing or combing: a process to separates out short fibre, straighlinear and lie parallel to each other.The next step is preparatory operations: a process that disentangles, cleans and intermixes fibers to produce a continuous web; sliver and roving that suitable for spinning.


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The following step is spinning: a process to grouping a fibre twist together to form a long continuous length of interlock called yarn. Finally, after spinning is finishing: a process to arrange yarn number, cleaning, reeling, and bundles. ( K. Murugesh Babu, 2013, pp. 48-52). Another method to make a fibre from the cocoon is Mawata, each cocoon is opened up, turned inside out and stretched on a frame. Layer upon layer of fine silk is stretched in this manner and then hung out to dry like a handkerchief. When dry, the Mawata is fixed to nails projecting from a rotating stand, fluffed up and spun, making a soft weft thread to be used with the reeled warp.(Ann Hecht, 2001, pp. 129) In the case of broken silk yarn and silk fabric waste, the cotton spinning process is applied to produce a yarn. The process is about combing and carding broken yarn by machine. Silk fabric waste should be separated warp yarn and weft yarn, then comb and card by hand, after that, hand spin or machine was practice. (Thai Textile Institute, n.d., p. 59) 4. Knitted in Art and Design Knitted fabric formed by intermeshing loops of a single yarn or set of yarns together, there are three type of knitting tool: are used Hand knit, domestic machine, and Automatic machine. The properties of knitted fabric are high flexible as a result to comfortable wearing. The fabric is soft, whether thick and thin, wrinkled resistantly and easily recover form it’s wrinkly. Knitted fabric can be produced by body sizing, it is suitable and convenient fitting wear. (Pornchai Tulpijit, 2009, pp. 2-5) In recent years knitting has seen a resurgence in popularity, with many different approaches emerging—from creative international runway fashions through to the application of knitting in interiors in the form of lightshades, cushions, floor coverings, chairs, and blinds, all based on the versatility of stitch structure. Furthermore, conceptual artists who exploited the traditional craft of knitting can create installations of all dimensions, from large-scale public sculptures to miniatures and wearable art, all of which challenge our preconceptions of knitting. (Carol Brown, 2013, p. 6) The famous artist and designer are as following sentence: Fashion Mark Fast: Mark’s unmistakable womenswear pieces, created on a domestic knitting machine, have challenged perceptions of knitted garments. He is famous for devising his own innovative stitches, and embracing stretch yarns to create contemporary sculptured garments. The pieces have a unique design signature and a large following. (Samantha Eliott, 2015, p. 26) Ramón Gurillo is a fashion designer from Valencia, Spain, his influences are multicultural: traditional Valencian craftsmanship combined with a London sensibility and a ‘hint of rock ’n’ roll’. The Spanish designer intricate designs, with recurring open-weave stitches, often cocoonlike in silhouette, use the finest yarns, refined cottons, linens and crêpes. (Samantha Eliott, 2015,. p. 34) Art B-Arbeiten, the German guerrilla knitting group known as B-Arbeiten – an adaptation of the German word meaning ‘to edit’ or ‘to alter’ – are known for using yarn bombing to decorate public objects such as trees and ferries and, more recently, to create tipi structures. (Samantha Eliott, 2015, p. 116) 301

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Magda Sayeg, Credited as the mother of yarn bombing (which can loosely be defined as impermanent graffiti artworks), her work has influenced and inspired a generation of graffiti knitters to go out and create. The art work has evolved into a solo pursuit – innovative in her approach, projects include working with corporate companies (Absolut Vodka, Madewell, Mini Cooper), art exhibitions, large installations and community projects. Identifying as an artist, a collaborative worker, a teacher and an activist, she constantly challenges herself and the environment around her. (Samantha Eliott, 2015, p. 172) Design A highly regarded textile artist in Japan in the 1970s, Toshiko Horiuchi MacAdam realized that she wanted to make works designed for children’s play rather than for exhibition in galleries and museums. Her first high- profile playspace was created in 1979 and housed at Okinawa Memorial National Park, followed by knitted wonder space at the Hakone Open-Air Museum. With her husband Charles MacAdam, Toshiko established Interplay Design and Manufacturing in 1990, creating and promoting art and play for children in national parks. Japanese Artist is currently working on pieces to be installed in her north America based. (Samantha Eliott, 2015, p. 198) Annette Bugansky, combines a background in fashion and costume design with a nostalgic love of knitted fabric and skilled slip casting techniques to transform soft, tactile surfaces into usable vases, lamps, cups and sculptural pieces. (Samantha Eliott, 2015, p. 190) 5. Natural dyeing Natural dyes are colorants derived from plants or minerals, the major of natural dyes are a difference part of vegetable from plant sources such as roots of vegetation, many part of berries, bark, leave, and wood. Natural dyestuffs are often abundant and freely available in gardens or hedgerows. Linda Rudkin (2007, p. xi) said “Working with natural dyes, like the rest of the creative process, is an adventure. As long as basic principles and process are observed, there will be few disappointments and many delightful surprises”. The following sentence to support her statement are First, the results are not entirely predictable. Many variables that can affect the outcome such as the age of the plant material, the season, the amount of recent rainfall, the Ph. of the soil, the hardness of the water and, most significantly, the ratio of dyestuff to fibreany of theses factors can make a noticeable difference. Second, Most natural dyes will hold their colour as well if a few basic principles are understood and processes observed. Also, given the same care and consideration as any others such as be kept out of direct sunlight, it should be main vibrant for just as long. Third, natural dyeing is not at all difficult and it is a great deal more interesting. There is something very satisfying about growing to find the means to produce a natural colours for a piece of textile work, especially these soft, harmonious colours that would be difficult or impossible to achieve using commercial dyes. (Linda Rudkin, 2007, pp. ix-x) The basic dyeing process are begin from preparing equipment consist of large pan, steel rod or knitting needle, other tool can be are such as tongs, rubber gloves, dust mark, waterproof apron, weighing scales, thermometer, sieve, jelly bags, muslin or coffee filters, scales, plastic sheeting, heat source, large bowl, and glass jar. The recipe for a specific material and all techniques and project are base on 100 g (3 1/2 0z) and 3 1/2- 4 1/2 litres (6-8 pints) water. The dyeing step is preparing the material begun by cleaning, follow by putting a dyestuff in water and thirty to sixty minute boil. The next step is strain and transfer only liquid to pot, damp yarn and a piece 302

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of knit fabric and simmer for about an hour. Rinse with water until a water clear and hang to dry with air drying. (Jackie Crook, 2007, pp. 7-8, 23-28) All of above, it’s inspire to study to develop knitted fabric from Thai silk waste to create an art form. The aim of this research are , first is to do an experiment of yarn spinning from Thai silk waste fibre. second is to experiment a knitted fabric from a yarn of Thai silk waste. and third is to experiment yarn dyed and knitted fabric piece dyed by natural dyeing colour. Finally, the result will be applied to create Art form. METHOD AND EXPERIMENT 1. Material and Equipment Material A method of study consists of Thai Silk waste : degummed incomplete cocoons; broken silk yarn; and silk fabric waste. The natural dyeing colour is coffee grounds, Turmeric, Red cabbage, and Mulberry, water and salt. Equipment Mesdanlab : Lab carding machine serial 137 and Lab drawing machine serial 21. Thai tradition hand spinner, Knitting needle no. 12, Knitting machine : Brother HK-836 (gauge 5.5) 2. Fiber Preparation Preparation of Thai silk waste to make the suitable fibre for spinning are two methods as the details below: The first method is machine preparation. Mesdanlab: Lab carding machine serial 137. Firstly,set a group of three raw materials, then cut degummed cocoons into 3 mm., Broken silk yarn, and Silk fabric waste (it should be only a silk thread that separate from fabric) into 3 cm. Secondly, weigh each fibre 15 gramme and feed into a carding machine for three times. In this step the fibre will be separate and straighten, the result is a pad of fibre. Thirdly, after


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carding is drawn a fibre and feed each fibre pad into Mesdanlab, is used Lab drawing machine

Figure 1. A process of Carding and drawing a cocoon into a fibre serial 21. The result is a long bundle fibre called sliver as presented in figure 1. The second method is hand preparation. This method applied for cocoons only, begin from soaking a degummed cocoons in warm water, then gently stretched into a gossamer film onto a square frame, do overlay about ten sheets After that, remove a silk hanky from a square frame and place it hang to dry, the dried silk square sheet known as mawata or silk hankies. The last step, poking a hole in the centre of a mawata sheet. Put the hands through the hole and stretching the fibre into a large band. Keep extending the circle carefully and pulling the circle thinner by hand until the size is reduces fibre to the diameter about one centimetre, the out come is a long band fibre called roving as presented in figure 2.

Figure 2. Cocoons made into Mawata and roving 3. Spinning process The objective of this process is grouping fibre a twist together to form a continuous stand by traditional Thai hand spinner and become to made single yarn. Both sliver and mawata or silk hankies will be led to direct spinning. This process was done by local spinster in Bann Nong Bau Dang, Chaiyapum Province, Thailand. The number of yarn is not be specify, it was controlled depending on raw material, spinning tool and spinster as presented in figure 3 and 4.


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Figure 3. A process of Hand spinning and yarn from cocoon, Silk fabric waste

Figure 4. A yarn from Thai cocoon mawata

Figure 5. Mulberry and a sample of yarn and piece dyed

Figure 6. Coffee grounds and a sample of yarn and piece dyed

4. Dyeing Process Dyeing method of this study is applied to yarn dyed and piece dyed by natural base colour, There are mulberry, coffee grounds, red cabbage, and turmeric.The material for dye are yarn and fabric from cut cocoons and mawata by the process as bellow Mulberry The process of mulberry and coffee ground dyeing is similar. First step is mix one cup of mulberry, one teaspoon of salt or one cup of coffee grounds in four cups of water. 305

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After that bring to boil, turn off the stove and leave to cool, strain and transfer only liquid to pot, add damp yarn and a piece of knit fabric and simmer for about an hour, stir every fifty minutes to make sure the that fabric is picking up the dye evenly. Finally, rinse with water until clear solution is obtain and hang to dry with air drying. The outcome as presented in figure 5 and 6. Red cabbage Red cabbage and turmeric dyeing is same procedure, to begin with put one cup of chopped cabbage or one cup of chopped fresh turmeric in four cups of water and bring to boil about a thirty minute. Next step is strain and transfer only liquid to pot and continue boil on medium heat, add damp yarn and a piece of knit fabric and simmer for about an hour, stir every fifty minutes to make sure that the fabric is picking up the dye evenly.The last step, rinse with water until clear solution is obtain and hang to dry with air drying. The outcome as presented in figure 7 and 8.

Figure 8. Fresh turmeric and a sample of yarn and piece dyed

Figure 7. Red cabbage and a sample of yarn and piece dyed

5. Knitting Process This study is require two methods: knitting needle no.12 and Brother knitting machine model Brother HK-836, gauge 5.5. These tools use for knit a yarn from three raw material: 1) degummed incomplete cocoons (cut cocoons and mawata); 2) broken silk yarn; and 3) silk fabric waste. The knitting needle no.12 is first practice, each yarn will be knit into ten square centimetres of fabric. The next practice is machine knitting, each yarn will be knitted two piece of ten square centimetres of fabric, one of this will be bring to wash and dry. In addition, yarn from cut


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cocoons and mawata will be knit four piece of small circle diameter about three centimetre by

cut cocoons

Silk fabric waste

Hand knitting needle No.12 Broken silk yarn


Figure 9. Hand knitting needle and a sample of knitted fabric crochet, and the next step is dying. The outcome as presented in figure 9 and 10

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 1. Fibre preparation The result of fibre preparation are three sliver and one roving as following: The result of experiment shown all of raw material can be card and draw by machine. Fibre of silk fabric waste is easy to separate and straighten than broken silk yarn and degummed incomplete cocoons. As a result, the fibre from silk fabric waste is very fine, next is broken silk yarn, and the last is degummed in complete cocoons. Moreover, it can be setting into sliver better than another two material, sliver size of three raw material was about tree to five centimetres. In the case of mawata or hankies, Thai cocoon can be expanded into a sheet about ten square centimetres. while transfer a sheet of mawata to be a roving by hand, it was sticky but not difficult to pull and control a roving size. 2. Yarn spin The result of yarn spin experiment by local tool and spinster in Thailand is four type of yarn. There are cut cocoons yarn, yarn from mawata, broken silk waste yarn, and silk fabric waste yarn. Since sliver from silk fabric waste is smooth as a result to spin easily, next is sliver from silk broken yarn. Meanwhile a sliver from degummed cocoons is sticky consequently it was hard to feed in to a spinner. However, the result of practice shown a yarn is uneven; yarn from broken silk yarn, silk fabric waste, and incomplete cocoon fibre are sticky and softly touch respectively. 307

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In the case of mawata, by the property of mawata roving: even and long band. The material is easily and rapidly spinners.The result is a uneven, sticky and middle softly touch. 3. Dyed The result of natural colour dyed experiment obtained that colour from: mulberry is pink, coffee ground, light brown, red cabbage is purple and turmeric is redish yellow. In the case of colour absorption, yarn dyed absorb better than piece dye. 4. knitted fabric Knitted fabric experiment shown that the production by hand knitting are softer and more flexible than machine knitted produce. The surface quality of the machine knitted fabric is smoothes than hand knitted fabric. In addition, washed knitting machine fabric is transferred to hard skin touch and reduced flexibility. See the explanation bellow: Hand knit The fabric surface is rough, medium flexible, but soft touch. A fabric from broken silk yarn is the most softly touch feeling. The next example is fabric from silk waste fabric, silk hankies, and cut cocoons respectively. machine knit The fabric surface is rough but smoother than hand knitted fabric. Fabric flexible is less than fabric knit by hand knitted type fabric. There are soft touch by hand like a fabric knit by hand, the most softly is fabric from broken silk yarn is the most softly, next is fabric from silk waste fabric, silk hankies, and cut cocoons respectively. CONCLUSION In conclusion, a result of study can be used as a guideline to make a new knitted fabric from Thai silk waste to present the aesthetic and art form and aesthetic values through textures, colours, structure and pattern. The further study will be mention as the following: 1. The consideration of raw material and equipment that suitable to making a yarn by relate to process. firstly, there should be short procedure and uncomplicated, quickly, low cost, low energy. secondly, It could be easy and rapidly to develop,created and design a new yarn in various form. and 2. The consideration of yarn properties that suitable to create knit art form relate to technic, pattern, shape, and form REFERENCES Ann Hecht. (2001). The Art of The Loom: weaving, spinning and dyeing across the word. Hong Kong: The British Museum. Carol Brown. (2013). Knitwear Design. China: Laurence King. F. R. McGowan, Charles W. Schoffstall, and A. A. Mercier. (1924) “A Study of Silk Waste used for Cartridge-bag cloth, with in Appendix on The general Classification of Waste Silk.” TECHNOLOGIC PAPERS OF THE BUREAU OF STANDARDS, 18, 582-583. Jackie Crook. (2007). Natural Dyeing. China: Gaia Books. Kachamas Tumrongsak. (1994). Nonwoven Fabric Production Using Waste Silk (Master’s thesis, 308

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Applied Polymer Science and Textile Technology, Chulalongkorn University.) Kittisak Ariyakuare. (2010, June). The Develoment of new Mixed Fiber from Waste Cocoon and Other Plant Fibers, The 2nd RMUTP International Conference. K. Murugesh Babu.(2013). Silk Processing, properties and applications. India: Lightning Source. Linda Rudkin. (2007). Natural Dyes. China: A&C Black. Pisut Chankum. (2011). Yarn Spinning from Silk Wastes in Weaving Process (Master’s thesis, Engineering in Textile, Faculty of Engineering, Rajamangala University of Technology Thanyaburi. Samantha Eliott. (2015). Knit: Innovations in Fashion, Art, Design. China: Laurence King. Pornchai Tulpijit. (2009). Structure Properties and Utilizer of Knitted Fabric. [copy print] Bangkok: Rajamangala University of Technology Krungthep. Siriluk Wongkasema and Puripong Aksornpim,(2014). The Development of a Carding Machine and a Twisting Silk Machine for Eri Silk (Procedia Engineering 100-2015). Retrieved from www.sciencedirec.com. The National Institute of Sericulture Queen Sirikit. (2008). The miracle quality_local Thai silk. Bangkok: Amarin Printing and Publishing. Thai Textile Institute. (n.d.). The productivity of natural fibre development as a raw material by using industrial format (โครงการเพิ่มประสิทธิภาพการใช้วัตถุดบ ิ ภาคเกษตรด้วยการ

พัฒนาเส้นใยธรรมชาติเชิงอุตสากรรม)., n.p.


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The Ancient Technique of Weaving with the Contemporary Art. SUPAMAS JIAMRUNGSAN Doctor of Philosophy Program in Design Arts Faculty of Decorative Arts, Graduate School, Silpakorn University. Bangkok, Thailand. E-mail: [email protected] / [email protected] ABSTRACT This study is a qualitative research method. The purposes are firstly to trial production of Pha Yok Dok which is one of the local handicrafts, found in the north-eastern part of Thailand. It is the guidelines for handling core issues of the creation and must start from studying motif of design, focus on techniques the golden fabric is located at weaving with gold threads, called Yok Thong. Secondly, to improve the pattern of contemporary fabric are the synthesis of Yok Dok textile design in making fabric. It is a complex process which requires highly skilled weavers. In researcher’s point of view, for weaving of each fabric-depending on the design and used for similar was weaving 1500 shaft /Ta-kor. Thirdty to invent textile art inspiration from Yok Dok textile design to create new works of art. The results showed that the fabric weave of the operation weave structure on motifs of Yok Dok textile design. This is an outstanding special technique. The contemporary new fabric pattern can be operated by opening and closing of the warp yarn on a draw frame. The new pattern design and process of Yok Dok textile design by fabric weave selection. It is a supplementary weft technique that is the process and design which is the first method of fabric craft practice use for the manual textile art inspiration from Yok Dok textile design to those who is the weaver. Textile weaving process by adding a special fabric pattern these characteristics come from the roots and identity of steps and methods of natural fabric cultivation. It is completed by delicate skill of weaving alternatives for creating a product and to serve as a guideline for further research. This handicraft highlights the significance continuation and bridge the relationship between classic fabric contemporary. art to humanity from the ancient world until the present day. In summary the researchers plan to design and contemporary Yok Dok, a synthesis between classical the golden fabric of the Royal cord of Rattanakosin period and the contemporary Thai litterateur work which telling design. Keyword: Pha Yok Dok, Yok Thong, Shaft/ Ta-kor


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INTRODUCTION Pha Yok Dok is one of the local handicrafts found in north- eastern part of Thailand, reflecting human intelligence on how they invent weaving. It is a complex process which requires highly skilled weavers. The sophistication of the pattern varies technique where the patterns are set in the warp with additional pattern heddles, placed behind the main heddles and suspended over the warp with a support hung from the frame. It is genuine art textile weave of Thailand. There are designing and weaving silk for famous, intricate, and elegant designs of weaving technique. The process of discontinuous supplementary weft: weavers used a long piece of bamboo to pick up the warp yarns, then, they added periodically a supplementary weft yarn under them from one side to another side along the direction of the weft yarns, continued through the width of cloth. The result revealed the difficulty of this weaving technique to create a pattern such as floral, animal, and matter designs created in pattern of geometric motifs on grid. In many places of the Northern, Northeastern and Southern regions of Thailand, the several groups of women normally weave the finely detailed gold- etched or silver- etched shapes in the fabrics are done in a gorgeous. The Thai brocades are woven with gold or silver cotton threads or silk yarns. Classic overall designs, including the star motifs, the elephant motifs, and the tray with pedestal motifs the peafowl tail motifs, and also weave in several forms. Especially, the form of each circles may be a flower, an animal,or a matter in the center, outside the circle floral ( silveretched or gold-etched motifs), called " Kaeo-Ching-Duang "in Thai and made multiple forms, for example, diamond-shaped quadrangles, rhombuses, squares, and hexagons, each form with a flower, an animal, and a matter in the center, called the “Thep-Pa-Nom “in Thai. Each deva is about a palm (10 cm) from one chest to another chest of each repeat. This research focuses on studying motif patterns of Yok Dok textile design on the significant concepts and theoretical frameworks needed for understanding the background and history of Pha Yok Dok weaving technique to create a pattern including a review of related documents. DESIGN / METHODOLOGY / APPROACH The data was collected through in- depth interview with respondents who have experience in the community as well as the host of local authorities and government officers of The Support Arts and Crafts International Centre of Thailand (Public Organization). All interviewed parties have been involved with community based Pha Yok Dok, which is one of the local handicrafts, found in north- eastern part of Thailand. Data was analyzed through descriptive methods and observation results. The research method for this study is based on approaches that are qualitative. There are main methods, including gathering empirical data, and interview. Various research instruments were used in order to obtain the most valid analysis results. 1.Thai Design This kind of fabric is made using the supplementary weft and warp technique,which are rarely found. It is not clear evidence document how the Siamese court ordered brocades from China and India. The Siamese court employed merchant to act as middlemen who ordered textiles and delivered the finished products to the court. The orders were sent with instructions, desired designs and fabric samples. In some cases, foreign weavers created designs especially for the Siamese.


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As explain the Siamese court appreciated the value, beauty and uniqueness of brocades, these woven textiles responded to the court’ s need to uphold the status of the monarch. The Royal court thus chose brocades as an important instrument, together with other types of fabrics, to create this image. The Royal ordered made brocades from the southern province of Thailand and also imported them from foreign countries such as China and India. The resources of the Siamese court allowed the extensive use of brocades woven with gold thread, used plain silk brocades with occasionally some gold designs woven into the panels. Nowadays, local weavers produced textiles with designs similar to the traditional or royal designs because they were a part of and understood the local culture. However, textiles woven by foreign weavers deviated from Thai designs. Different types of loom were used resulting in different kinds of fabrics.

Figure 1 Pha Yok Dok in Surin. The golden fabric is located at the Tha Sawang Village, Tambol Ta Sawang, Amphoe Mueang, Surin Source: From the survey area

Figure 2 Pha Yok Dok (Phumriang) in Southern District Chaiya , Surat Thani, Thailand Source: https://sites.google.com/site/phahimsaket/phakh-ti


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Figure 3 structure design Pha Phumriang in, Surat Thani, Thailand Source: https://sites.google.com/site/phahimsaket/phakh-ti 2.Methodology Process to study 2.1. Collect the document to define the scope of the study. 2.2. Survey and collect the data area of textiles about Yok Dok in Thailand. 2.3. Analyze the problem of weaving process of Yok Dok in Thailand.

Study motif pattern of Yok Dok textile design.

Define the operation problem of weave structure on pattern work for Yok Dok textile design.

Locate the source of places are produced designs of Yok Dok weaving technique.

3.The Approach of Design 3.1. History and background of Pha Yok Dok Thailand: Pha Yok Dok began at the period of the was a princess of Chiang Mai, Siam (later northern Thailand) Princess Dara Rasmi daughter of King Inthawichayanon and Queen Thipkraisorn Rajadevi of Chiang Mai descended from the Chet Ton Dynasty. She was one of the princess consorts of Chulalongkorn, King Rama V of Siam and gave birth to one daughter by King Chulalongkorn, Princess Vimolnaka Nabisi. The ruler of Chiang Mai mostly wore a skirt. He put on effort to invent new patterns, fabricated by weaving an intern in the house to give a master class for adults, and it is part of Lampoon. Princess Suonboon, the daughter of the ruler of Lampoon, inherited knowledge of woven mantles from Princess Dara Rasmi in Chiang Mai. The restoration and promotion of the fabric, which had been known for a long time in Lanna, quoted the expert weaving sarong and trainer 313

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Teenjok weavers. The plant weaving behind her residence. A loom 20 after the Holy Family from Lampoon city to study weaving yok dok skirt. And be trained in the capital for the Lampoon, and expertise. It was passed down from generation to generation until now. Weaving business has spread to the public and become a product of Chiang Mai and Lampoon section at the present.

Figure 4 Pha Yok Dok Lampoon ,Retrieved July 23,2016, from http://www.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/jiskku/article/view/6348 Indonesia: This technique, rarely seen in Indonesia, requires a special skill and is executed on a body- tension loom with two types of warps, one for the ground, and one for pattern. To program this supplementary warp, a special string model, called pahudu is needed (fig 3) It is prepared as a guide before weaving with strings in the warp direction and with small bamboo or palm sticks in the weft direction. The string models ( pahudu) are woven and worn in the same context, they have similarities in their iconography. The most common pattern such as horse, fish, bird, and deer. The same iconography is also observed on accessories like sculpture tortoise shell combs and the fabulous gold omega-shaped ear ornaments called mamuli worn by women. That is like textiles play an essential role in the elaborate gift exchanges that bound Sumba society together, in marriage negotiation for instance. The women in that family were not weaving any longer and instead of burning the pahudu upon the death of the last women- weaver as is the custom, they had finally agreed to part with them. It is difficult to craft a successor expertise may be ended in the 20th century. The James H. W. Thompson Foundation Symposium Papers, Jane Puranananda River Books, 2004 - 181 page, Retrieved July 23,2016


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Figure 5 Pahudu, string model.. heritage. Source: River Books : James H.W. archive/sumba /Thompson Foundation, 2004

Figure 6 A textile combining ikat and pahikung Source: http://threadsoflife.com/textile

3.2. Cultural significance Cultural regression models began to play a role in the art of weaving is classified as a class. Pha Yok Dok are silk woven with a special technique and it is outstanding. Each brocades could be woven typically on a draw loom. It is a supplementary weft technique that is the ornamental brocading is produced by a supplementary, non-structural, and weft in order to the flatten weft that holds the warp threads together. The purpose of this is to give the appearance that the weave was actually embroidered on. The luxury fabrics and cloth of gold, made with real gold thread, were only worn by royalty. Purple was also preserve of the monarchy, and gold patterned silk became the ultimate expression of dressing power, elegance and fashionable. Brocade fabrics are used mostly in modern times for upholstery and draperies. Appreciation of precious and semiprecious stones in the adornment of brocades is not common but has been replaced with the use of sequins and beading as decoration. Brocade fabrics are now largely woven on a Jacquard loom that is able to create many complex tapestry- like designs using the Jacquard technique. Although many brocade fabrics look like tapestries and are advertised by some fashion promotions but they are not to be confused with genuine. Patterns such as brocade, brocatelle, damask, and tapestry- like fabrics are known as Jacquard patterns.

The Jacquard machine required a higher skillful textile designer and technician because of its complexity and cost of maintenance. The effective punching card machine causes the effective design system of Jacquard machine. The Jacquard machine is more effective and capable than Dobby machine. It operates regularly fast but it takes time to change a set of design card. It is suitable for a mass production. Jacquard machines were mechanical, and the fabric design was stored in a series of punched cards which were joined to form a continuous chain. The Jacquards often were small and only independently controlled and relatively a warp ends. It required a specific width of fabric a number of repeats across the loom width. The more the machine is high capacity, the more a factory must choose looms and shedding mechanisms to suit its commercial requirements. As a rule, the more warp control required the higher the expense. Therefor it is not economical to purchase Jacquard machines and use it for dobby’s work. 315

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Figure 7 A series of punched cards for the Damask weave. Source: From the free encyclopedia, Wikipedia, July 23,2016. The Damask weave is used extensively throughout the fashion industry due to its versatility and high- quality finish. Damask is usually used for mid- to- high- quality garments, meaning the label tends to have a higher definition and a more “expensive” look. The motif patterns as the product of Damask weave is a reversible figured fabric of silk, wool, linen, cotton, or synthetic fibers, with a pattern formed by weaving. They are woven with one warp yarn and one weft yarn, usually with the pattern in warp-faced satin weave and the ground in weft-faced or sateen weave. Twill damasks include a twill-woven ground or pattern Modern damasks are woven on computerized Jacquard looms. Damask weaves are commonly produced in monochromatic ( single- color) weaves in silk, linen, or synthetic fibers such as rayon and feature patterns of flowers, fruit, and other designs. The long floats of satin-woven warp and weft threads cause soft highlights on the fabric which reflect light differently according to the position of the observer. Damask weaves appear most commonly in table linens and furnishing fabrics, but they are also used for clothing. (From: The free encyclopedia, Retrieved July 23,2016, Wikipedia.)

Figure 8 The Damask weave. Source: From the free encyclopedia, Wikipedia, July 23,2016. 3.3. The impacts of cultural heritage Highlights of the Thai traditional weaving process is a motif of design weaving is aligned vertically a number of threads. It is called end yarn and these threads are known as warp threads. Once they are hung it is called heddle, other threads are interlaced horizontally on a loom, one round to the vertical warp. They are called filling yarn or weft threads and they are packed 316

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tightly against each other. On a weaving loom, the warp threads can be lifted up. Lifting or lowering the warp threads in a specific pattern determines the weave of the fabric. Basic patterns make use of weave, also known as flat weave or plain weave. In this case, the weft thread crosses the warp thread by going up, then going down the next. The one weft thread crosses the evenly numbered warp threads, while the crossing warp threads were covered. Complicated patterns arise when the weft thread crossing two or more warp threads. It takes time the continuous chain to change the whole set of motif of design weaving relates designing a textile pattern for weaving on a Loom. then down to the next without the engine or any electrical power. Technical textile applications and the model for modern reproduction as well as tablet weaving (often woven fabric cards in the US) due to materials and tools are relatively cheap and easy to obtain tablets of the popular apparel. woven fabrics hobby housewife to household or art weaving techniques with a tablet or a card to do just the rest will be forwarded to the foot of the craft anonymous. citizenship and culture. Currently, most weavers produce a tablet that has a long line of narrow fabrics such as belts, straps or trim on clothing. Functions such as cards, usually a piece of cardboard with the one in control, automation or data for data processing. Both the statement and the information that has come with or without holes in a predetermined position. Today, tablet weaving is constructed of obsolete paper tape punched cards were widely used throughout the 19th century to control textile looms. The impact of cultural heritage as it happens in the right way. lost the taste of the market and the manufacturer. Tangible indication of the origin of culture, identity and more.

Figure 9 Build Tablet / Card loom hand weaving Source: www.pinterest.com/pin/411305378444136783/ 3.4. Cultural identity conservation Thailand handicrafts are legacy that has a long history and reflects the wisdom of our ancestors. The formation of the culture of Thailand in each period has evolved hierarchy ( There is a hierarchy of development) . The art and crafts are important to the national economy and help create income for the people in rural families. In addition, it creates proximity and the beauty to original inhabitant people. For heritage crafts conservation Thai ancestors, it required development of craft product styles to suit the functional, aesthetic and artistic quality of crafting. The nature of the materials used in production for the benefit should also be taken into account. Moreover, they have formed a unique local crafts as part of the culture of Thailand. In researcher’s point of view, the researcher focusses on techniques Pha Yok Dok in Surin. The golden fabric is located at the Tha Sawang Village, Tambol Ta Sawang, Amphoe Mueang, 317

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Surin ( about 10 kilometers from Surin along Ke Loi- Mueang Lieng Road. ) It is a fabric of ancient silk weaving with gold threads, called Yok Thong. The process is to dye very small silk threads and weave them under many ancient designs such as the famous and beautiful golden brocade silk fabric which is made of pure silver threads being woven with silk threads. The long process, each design 2- 3 months or a year for weaving of each fabric- depending on the design and the number of production (selection of silk yarns) used for weaving 1500 shaft/ Ta- kor ( maximum was 1500) . Surin province has continually made an impression by being selected as the material for shirts and shawls the souvenirs, which were given to the leader and spouse of each country, who participated in the APEC Summit which was hosted by Thailand. This weaving project is supported and promoted by the Bureau of the Royal House Hold and Her Majesty the Queen's Foundation. Silk selection as the fabric to be produce in form shirts for all country leaders in the APEC Meeting in the year 2003. This cloth traditionally commands high prices due to the special weaving technique, as it is thickened so that each piece becomes double- sided. The edge of the cloth is traditionally sewn only with silk thread. Pha Yok Dok clothes were a luxury item worn by wealthy ladies or those who knew how to weave their own cloth and only for special occasions. This complex craft was taught to daughters by their mothers, with the designs committed to memory and handed down through generations of families. In Thailand, the lifestyle of high society development foundation from different ethnic, religious, social, cultural and geographical surroundings. Each location has a unique culture and traditions of different regions and help them live happily together in the same society. Creating a culture of local crafts, fabric art, which existed directly from local wisdom and reveal the goodness and beauty that has been accumulated and inherited from generation to generation in each area. Pha Yok Dok are woven textile fabric to be used in special occasion. There are many steps of procedure to be mentioned sequentially and weaving method need to be explained in detail. Since there is no common procedure of weaving because each piece of art work can be done differently depending on it individual design. These characteristics of the ethnic group and the identity of the procedures and the methods of cultivation each of them, need particular procedure method. Using natural fibers for use in complex and delicate skills of weaving. This is an important craft tradition. Two aspects must be considered: study of history, aesthetic and art, and the means of passing the tradition of clothing and apparel from one generation of craftsman, artisan or designer to the next. This is the key contribution to humanity from past to present. The researchers intend to present the differences and similarities of pattern that has distinguished itself as an educational process in the form of design motifs. To study the problem of weaving process of Yok Dok in Thailand the researcher made survey of four provinces: Lampoon in the north; Nakhon Si Thammarat in the south; Roi-Et in the north Isan and Surin in the south Isan. The researchers have to find the differences and similarity of the production process, artistic and aesthetic of the regional weaving tradition.


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Figure 10 Analyze the problem of weaving process of Yok Dok in Thailand. Source: From the survey area

The concept of adoption The guidelines, is based on William Morris ( 24 March 1834 – 3 October 1896) an English textile designer, poet, novelist, translator, and socialist activist. According to the British Arts and Crafts Movement, he was a major contributor to the revival of traditional British textile arts and methods of production. Morris founded a decorative arts firm with Edward Burne- Jones, James Rossetti, and others: The Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co. Becoming highly fashionable and much in demand, the firm profoundly influenced interior decoration throughout the Victorian period, with Morris designing tapestries, wallpaper, fabrics, furniture, and stained glass windows. He posthumously became better known for his designs. Almost sixty years after William Morris died the William Morris Society is devoted to his legacy, while multiple biographies and studies of his work have seen publication. Morris produced items in a range of crafts, mainly those to do with home furnishing, including over 600 designs for wall-paper, textiles, and embroideries, over 150 for stained glass windows, three typefaces, and around 650 borders and ornamentations. He emphasized the idea that the design and production of an item should not be divorced from one another, and that where possible those creating items should be designer- craftsmen, thereby both designing and manufacturing their goods. In the field of textile design, Morris revived a number of dead techniques, and insisted on the use of good quality raw materials, almost all natural dyes, and hand processing. He also observed the natural world first hand to gain a basis for his designs, and insisted on learning the techniques of production prior to producing a design. William’ s fond of hand knotted Persian carpets and advised the South Kensington Museum in the acquisition of fine Kerman carpets. Morris taught himself embroidery, working with wool on a frame custom- built from an old example. Once he had mastered the technique he trained his wife Jane, her sister Bessie Burden and others to execute designs to his specifications. An important line of business for its successor companies into the twentieth century.


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By the 1870s, the firm was offering both embroidery patterns and finished works. Following in Street's footsteps, Morris became active in the growing movement to return originality and mastery of technique to embroidery, and was one of the first designers associated with the Royal School of Art Needlework with its aim to "restore Ornamental Needlework for secular purposes to the high place it once held among decorative arts.” Morris took up the practical art of dyeing as a necessary adjunct of his manufacturing business. He spent much of his time at Staffordshire dye works mastering the processes of that art and making experiments in the revival of old or discovery of new methods. One result of these experiments was to reinstate indigo dyeing as a practical industry and generally to renew the use of those vegetable dyes, such as the red derived from madder, which had been driven almost out of use by the anilines. Dyeing of wools, silks, and cottons was the necessary preliminary to what he had much at heart, the production of woven and printed fabrics of the highest excellence; he was absorbed in the production of textiles (1877–78), and more especially in the revival of carpet-weaving as a fine art. (From: The free encyclopedia, Retrieved July 23,2016, Wikipedia.)

Figure 11 William’s carpet design of 1873 Source: From the free encyclopedia, Wikipedia, July 23,2016.


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DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION The researcher found that technology of the pass was very useful and can be applied to the manage local wisdom and knowledge. It allows learners to have access to the source of knowledge and enhance practice weaving much easier. As mentioned above the study can be used as a study guide. The objective of this study for researcher with innovative ideas in both artistic and academic in concept of bringing this fascinating weaving process to create art form. Its value is much more than usual clothing which use all types of cotton and chemical dyes. Body of knowledge in this finding can be applied to studying the process and design, the first method of fabric craft practice. As a researcher, it is expected that with this research is a search of the roots and identity of the art tradition, what suggesting should be done, what is the most acceptance or most possible practice. The art of weaving is not just the classic tradition of the past; it can also be a source of inspiration for contemporary design in Thailand. Finally, researcher has tried to make an investigation of the experimental results. Using string coated yarn used in weaving. Pattern design motif new image. Approach of contemporary art that is different from the traditional model. To make learning easier and more understandable. If the two concepts can be combined with alternations and the possibility of further development of the twenty- first century. The researcher is proud of the cultural heritage of the country, its status as a living tradition of art. What is created is new, simplifying, it is inspiring traditional art form of weaving art. In summary, the researcher plan to design and create a synthesis between contemporary classical Pha Yok Court Royal of Rattanakosin and illustrating Thai themes and stories through design in the contemporary version. Only small number of older generation know the story of Yok Dok , so is the number of the younger generation who are interested in the succession of the Yok Dok woven fabric. The material is durable and suitable for the storage of this data. In the past, there is no clear feature document in any form to educate apprentice. The extra warp weaving techniques begun in the past ( more than a century) , it is possible that the contemporary style can be made from the old technic. In the present the artwork in the form of a suspension or temporary installed is the means of presentation. The researcher propose that it is not necessary, to show the loom to the public only to the fabric alone can reflect many aspects of idea and knowledge, such as the cognitive aspect of technic and material, social and historical significances, aesthetic and artistic and the affective aspect of taste or beauty appreciation, as you'll see in the next step in the research. The research will bring the above information to make the maximum amount of cultural and commercial benefit.


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Figure 12

The Supplementary warp weaving technique weave of motif pattern new image of contemporary Yok Dok Source: From the results of the experiment

REFERENCES Knowledge Management Wisdom of Lanna. Yok Dok Lampoon (2016) Tassawan Thimakom, Rattana Na Lampoon, Songsak Phrangwattanakun Retrieved July 23,2016 Through the Thread of Time: Southeast Asian Textiles: The James H. W. Thompson Foundation Symposium Papers, Jane Puranananda River Books, 2004 - 181 page, Retrieved July 23,2016 ONLINE RESOURES http://www.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/jiskku/article/view/6348 downloaded 23 July 2016 http://www.otoptoday.com/wisdom/8432 downloaded 23 July 2016 http://threadsoflife.com/textile archive/sumba downloaded 23 July 2016


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