Models of Human Resource Management/ Development Practices

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Keywords: Human Resource Management, Performance Appraisal, Training and Development, Knowledge Management, Competency M...


International Journal of Innovations in Engineering and Management, Vol. 4; No. 2: ISSN: 2319-3344 (July-Dec 2015)

Models of Human Resource Management/ Development Practices and its Relevance in Higher Education Institutions Chandra Mohan Singh Kruti Institute of Technology & Engineering, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India Email: [email protected]

Abstract: With increasing population and decreasing resources, Human Resource Management (HRM)/Development (HRD) is the need of time for efficient and effective use of these scarce resources with soft HRM approach. The initially human as a resource i.e. passing out students are the outcome of Higher Education and the prime responsibility to prepare these students with proper skills, capability, knowledge and intellect as per industry is of the faculty members (FM). These faculty members thus need to be equipped with the arms and ammunitions needed to develop the students. Making the faculty members capable for such reason is the job of Human Resource Department through its HRD tools and techniques like Performance Appraisal (PA), Training and Development (TD), Knowledge Management (KM) etc. This paper analyzes and assesses various models used for Human Resource Management/Development. The purpose of this analysis is to look for the relevancy of the models with HRD practices in Higher Education field especially in Chhattisgarh. The paper finds out the components from the models to be applicable in HRM/ HRD in Higher Education. Further, the paper develops a suitable conceptual HRD model applicable for Faculty Members in Higher Education Institutions (HEI) in Chhattisgarh.

Keywords: Human Resource Management, Performance Appraisal, Training and Development, Knowledge Management, Competency Model, Fombrun Model, Harvard Model, Guest’s Model, Warwick Model.RM.

Accepted On: 02.08.2015

1. Introduction Among all the resource like money, machine, material man, etc man i.e. Human Resource is the most important resource as the same handles rest of the resources. This human resource is at the top as compared to all resource in every organizations whether trust or profit making, government or non-government, public or private, manufacturing, or trading, goods or services providing. This general human being becomes a human resource after getting formal education and training at various levels like primary, secondary and higher. At large, the student becomes a skilled and knowledgeable human resource only after attaining any higher education institution, be it engineering, pharmacy, agriculture, management, etc. and successfully completing the course opted for. This transformation occurs in higher education and thus higher education is the turning point for any human to get transform into human resource. HR should become an agent of continuous transformation; shaping processes and a culture that together improve an organization’s capacity for change [1].

The question arises as who makes this transformation. There are many things like infrastructure, management philosophy, curriculum, FM etc. If we see analytically then it seems that FM in HEI is the most important and critical component among all as the same interacts with the students and prepares them on various knowledge, skills and capabilities. Other components definitely support the FM. Another question arises as whether faculty members need to keep them updated or their existing knowledge is sufficient. As much as possible, teachers should be thoroughly trained and supported in their work [2]. New kinds of technical knowledge, skills and abilities would require HR practitioners in future who are flexible and willing to deal with the ever accelerating pace and often unpredictable changes in the global workplace [3]. The answer is related with the dynamism of environment, here it is industry requirement where students get employment or run its enterprise. As the industry requirement is changing continuously so the change in curriculum and thus update of FM. Whether, every FM is able to know the changes taking place outside. It’s almost not possible. Here comes the role of HR Department 16

International Journal of Innovations in Engineering and Management, Vol. 4; No. 2: ISSN: 2319-3344 (July-Dec 2015)

which is responsible for the enhancement of competence in FM. The difference between HRM and HRD is that the policies plan the HRM while the HRD plans the policies.

2. Human Resource Management HRM is a process of managing human talents to achieve organisation’s objective. Human resource management as the methods of integrating and maintaining workers in an organization so that the organization can achieve the purpose and meet the goals for which it was established [4]. For effective educational human resource management function includes a variety of activities and key among them is deciding the staffing needs of an institution, or school, recruiting and training the best teachers, ensuring they are high performers [5]. The following five functions areas have been described under HRM which are staffing, reward, employee development, maintenance, relations [6]. Various function of HRM are human resource planning, job analysis design, recruitment and selection, orientation and induction, training and development, promotion/transfer/termination, compensation and remuneration, motivation, welfare, health and safety, industrial relation, resolving disputes, addressing grievances etc. There are two versions of HRM practices. One is the 'soft' version traces its roots to the human-relations school; it emphasizes communication, motivation, and leadership[7]. Four processes central to a HRM system - selection, appraisal, rewards and development [8].

upgraded and appropriately deployed for achievement of envisioned goals, which foster human dignity [9]. Further, HRD is A set of systematic and planned activities designed by an organization to provide its members with the opportunities to learn necessary skills to meet current and future job demands [10]. HRD deals with development part of HRM which includes the training and development, potential appraisals management, career planning and development, succession planning, change management, knowledge management etc. Out of these the potential appraisal, training and development and knowledge management are the chief constituents as are directly related to competency of human resource i.e. FM in delivering to customers i.e. students and potential human resources for the industry. Next section deals with the study of various models and finding its relevancy with present study.

4. Various Models The study of models leads us to understanding of previous works done in relevant field and gives an idea as what is happening and how. In this study, models provide an analytical structure to study HRM/D. The work provides us the insight into approaches to HRM practices. The models set up variables and its relationship with the research matter. Models assist to find out and know the world describing the characteristics and importance of main HR practices. Lets discuss five models related to HR practices.

4.1 HR Competency Model

3. Human Resource Development HRD from organizational point of view is a process in which the staff of any firm are assisted/ encouraged to gain and build up technical, managerial and behavioral knowledge, skills, and abilities, and mould the ideals, attitudes, beliefs essential to complete present and future individual, group, and social goals. This human resource development is sub part of Human Resource Management. Len Nadler (1970) perhaps for the first time used the term Human Resource Development (HRD). His conceptual framework was further developed unifying the three-fold notion of training, education, and development [9]. Further, A HRD is a set of inter-related activities, by which human potentialities are assessed, selectively

Fig. 1. HR Competency Model

As per the HR Competency Model the HR Executives requires four categories of competencies to be competent to deal with Human Resource. These categories are Business Mastery including business acumen (insight), customer orientation, knowledge in all functional areas and external relations; Personal 17

International Journal of Innovations in Engineering and Management, Vol. 4; No. 2: ISSN: 2319-3344 (July-Dec 2015)

Credibility with its components, competence, sound academic credentials, trust, ethical conduct and courage; HR Mastery with ingredients like staffing, performance appraisal, reward systems, communication, organization design; Change Mastery embracing interpersonal skills and mastery, problem solving skills, reward systems and innovation and creativity. Relevancy in our study: customer orientation, knowledge in all functional areas, external relations, competence, performance appraisal, communication, organizational design, innovation and creativity. In our study, the customers are the students who are availing the services of any higher educational institution and thus courses and pedagogy need to be student orientated. Knowledge in all functional areas in our study is for the HR Executive in educational institution to have knowledge of the various requirements of the faculty members required to deliver to the students. External relations here can be the HR department relationship with externally those who directly or indirectly can provide relevant knowledge to the faculty members. Competence here means the capability of HR Executive to deal with the faculty members with respect to their delivery to the students. Here performance appraisal is by the HR Executive and of the faculty members with a view to train and develop them by providing knowledge. Organization design here in this study signifies such an educational institutional design that a system of performance appraisal is done for training and development through knowledge management. Last but not the least is the innovation and creativity. HR Executive should strive for innovative ideas to train and develop the faculty members and in turn the faculty members can inculcate the innovative practices in the students.

4.2 The Fombrun Model of HRM

Fig. 2. The Fombrun, Tichy & Devanna Model

This model talks about the interrelatedness of HRM activities. The four key HRM activities dealt here are selection, appraisal, development and rewards. Further, this model shows the impact HRM activities collectively on organizational effectiveness. Relevancy in our study: Appraisal, Human Resource Development and Organizational Effectiveness are the three elements applicable in my study. The appraisal is the performance appraisal of the faculty members by the Human Resource Department of any higher education institution with a view to deliver to students as per the industrial requirement and thus leading to institutional (here for organizational) effectiveness. Appraisal, Human Resource Development, Organizational Effectiveness.

4.3 Harvard Model of HRM

Fig. 3. Harvard Model of HRM This model consists of six vital constituents namely Stakeholder interests, Situational factors, HRM policy, HR outcomes, Long-term consequences and the feedback loop. Relevancy in our study: Higher educational institution being a non-profit making organization has not to deal with the stakeholders as in profit making organization. Employee groups here also is important i.e the faculty members the main hand who interact with students in making them employable and assets for the country. Management philosophy is very important in educational institution which paves the path for institution’s growth by developing the faculty members while task technology stands here for the task to be 18

International Journal of Innovations in Engineering and Management, Vol. 4; No. 2: ISSN: 2319-3344 (July-Dec 2015)

performed by the faculty members and technology Work system is another component which is applicable in this study. Work system in higher education institution should be of learning organization where the environment should be conducive, supporting innovation, R&D, and knowledge acquiring and sharing. Competence in our study means the competent HR Department and later the faculty members. Individual well-being means faculty members development, organizational effectiveness means such an organization which mentors the students to get suitable employment along with their intellectual development. Employee groups, Management philosophy, Work systems, Competence, Individual wellbeing, Organizational effectiveness

4.5 Warwick Model of HRM

Fig.5 Warwick Model of HRM

4.4 Guest’s Model of HRM

Fig. 4. Guest’s Model of HRM Guest's model of HRM includes 6 aspects which are as follows: HRM strategy, HRM practices, HRM outcomes, Behavioural outcomes, Performance outcomes, Financial outcomes. Relevancy in our study: HRM practices component appraisal and training are the key components in our study. Here it stands for appraisal and training of faculty members in higher education institutions. Quality is the quality in faculty members w.r.t. their dealing with the students. Motivation means the motivation of faculty members after proper appraisal and later required training. Positive productivity means development of students as per their personality and employability is concerned. Innovation means innovative ways while delivery to the students. Negative turnover stands for the less absenteeism at the classes in higher education institution. Appraisal, Training, Quality, Motivation, Positive productivity, Innovation, Negative turnover

Warwick model has five components including Outer context, Inner context, Business strategy content, HRM context, HRM content. This model recognizes and categorizes significant environment impact on HRM. It shows the link between the outer and the inner contexts, and discovers that those businesses achieving an arrangement between the external and internal contexts will realize performance and growth. Relevancy in our study: The students of higher education institutes either become an entrepreneur or opt for employability in any firm. Here in our study the outer context is the external environment faced by the organization students going to join or students as an entrepreneur. Task technology in inner context stands here for the task to be performed by the faculty members and technology they use while business outputs are the students as a product of education institution for the organization hiring them. Under business strategy the objective of education institution is twofold i.e. preparing the students as per the industry demand by training and developing the faculty members. The HRM context i.e. role here means the role of Human Resource Department in developing the faculty members for long term as per the requirement and organization here in our study is the learning organization. Work system in higher education institution should be having the environment conducive, supporting innovation, R&D, and knowledge acquiring and sharing. Outer context, Task technology, Business outputs, Objective, Role, Work systems.


International Journal of Innovations in Engineering and Management, Vol. 4; No. 2: ISSN: 2319-3344 (July-Dec 2015)

5. Conceptual Model w.r.t. HRM/HRD Practices in HEI This conceptual model takes up three important components of HRM/HRD. Performance/ potential appraisal is the first constituent which evaluates the FM for the training and development need and knowledge matching in them.

managerial skills. Students also learn critical thinking and problem solving along with innovation and creativity and spirit of teamwork. Thus, this model takes up only those critical tools which are directly related to the delivery of faculty members to the students and makes the HEI effective. The most required thing for this model to be functional is the forward looking positive management philosophy which will make it as a system rather than individual dependent. This model is almost customer i.e. student oriented leading to positive productivity i.e. students almost fit for industry.

6. Knowledge Management

Fig.6 Conceptual Model Training, another component here is also part of HRD. KM although is part of TD (HRD) but looking into its complexity it can be treated as separate tool for acquiring required knowledge. The model contains four more components which are, the HR Department, Faculty members, Students and Industry (requirements). Model shows that HR Department assesses the faculty members as individual and in group for knowing the training requirement. After having the evaluation results training programme is planned. This training programme includes answers to the questions like when, how, what, where, by whom etc. Here comes the role of KM. Through KM as per the industry need, the relevant knowledge is acquired on continuous basis and also on demand. It provides whatever is required for Training. Next is the process of training. Training is provided to the faculty members which increases their competence and leads to their development. These trained faculty members now delivers as per the industry requirement and prepares the students i.e. potential human resource for industry on various knowledge, skills and capabilities like technical, communication, interpersonal, analytical, and

Knowledge is defined as the ability to sustain the coordinated deployment of assets and capabilities in a way that helps the firm achieve its goals [11]. Knowledge is definitely the best resource and the lone sustainable competitive advantage. The two types of knowledge recognized are — tacit and explicit [12]. In the information age, knowledge rather than physical assets or financial resources is the key to competitiveness. Explicit (objective) knowledge is clearly prepared or defined effortlessly expressed with no ambiguity, and written and stored in book or database. Tacit (subjective) knowledge is the unexpressed knowledge in a person’s mind, which is often hard to explain and transfer. This knowledge comes through the Knowledge Management. KM is described as ‘the attempt by management to actively create, communicate and exploit knowledge as a resource for the organization’ [13]. KM allows companies to capture, apply and generate value from their employees’ creativity and expertise [14]. HR Department needs to acquire knowledge the main ingredient for training. HRM practitioners are perceived to lack sufficient knowledge and skills necessary to implement effective HRM practices at various levels in their organization [15]. The acquiring and dissemination of knowledge is done through KM. KM is concerned with capturing a firm’s stock of expertise through creation, collection, storage and application [16]. More clear definition of knowledge management is the acquisition and use of resource to create an environment in which information is accessible to individuals and in which individuals acquire, share, and use that information to develop their own knowledge and are encouraged and enabled to apply their knowledge for the benefit of the 20

International Journal of Innovations in Engineering and Management, Vol. 4; No. 2: ISSN: 2319-3344 (July-Dec 2015)

organization [17]. KM has four components viz. knowledge acquisition, knowledge creation, knowledge, transfer, and knowledge utilization [18]. There is role of knowledge management capacity (knowledge acquisition, knowledge sharing and knowledge use) in the relationship between HRM practices and innovation performance [19]. KM Process: Discovery of existing knowledge  Acquisition of knowledge  Creation of new knowledge  Storage and organization of knowledge  Sharing of knowledge  Use and application of knowledge. KM helps an organization deliver the right information to the right place and the right person at the right time. Restriction for knowledge management can’t be kept from within organization. For knowledge management from within organization, two problems need to be overcome. The reluctance of the employees to divulge the tacit knowledge due to seeing it as threat (fears of job on the grounds of competition) and the thought that sharing of information is a time consuming and mundane work for which no incentive is there. Still, the inner source is very less for KM. Following things like Customer experience analysis, knowledge-rich articles research, various multimedia, workflow assessment, events analysis, risk management, environment analysis, costs management, successful business model analysis, business cycles analysis, utilization of successful business manager’s experiences, and applied business intelligence are issues to be dealt with.

7. Training and Development Training and development refers to the procedure to acquire or transfer knowledge, skills and abilities needed to carry out a specific activity or task. A comprehensive training and development program helps in deliberating on the knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary to achieve organizational goals and also to create competitive advantage (Peteraf 1993). Training need to be proactive i.e. organization focus is on developing competencies as per the present and future needs. If the learning approach is the active one which means trainees play a leading role in learning by exploring matters and situational troubles under their guide. Training needs to be as per the requirement and be matched with external environment. The strategic formalization of training facilitates

organizations to analyze and carry out effective internal and external scanning of their work environments [21]. Training anyhow enhances the organization effectiveness. There is a considerable impact of training on organizational performance [22]. Before training and development programme need assessment is prerequisite. Need is the gap between current and the needed now and in future. Training can be escaped as the forces of global change are at work in organizations and are bound to significantly influence the future of the HRM profession [23]. How training works. Training seems to develop a positive orientation on the part of employees towards their work role and the organization and it seems to improve performance by enhancing employees skills [24]. There is a positive interconnectedness between training and business strategy [25]. Researchers highlights In-service training which reinforce the skills acquired, raise competency levels, develop teaching innovations and keep teachers abreast of new trends in education. [26] Training takes input from performance appraisal, find the need and prepares training programme, without PA training is incomplete and irrelevant.

8. Performance Appraisal Performance is what the organization hires one to do, and do well and also the activities that can be examined and measurable are reflected as performance [27]. Performance need to be measured in term of work related behavior. Maximizing the performance of firm is the major concern for an organization. Performance are appraised which is comparing the employee’s present and past performance to his/her performance standards [28]. PA is a procedure to evaluate how individual personnel are performing and how they can improve their performance and contribute to overall organizational performance [29]. There are good relations between various training and development practices and various measures of firm’s performance [30]. HR Department first HRD tool is performance appraisal which need to be Potential Appraisal from development point of view. This gives the base for the rest of the two tools namely the training and development and knowledge management.


International Journal of Innovations in Engineering and Management, Vol. 4; No. 2: ISSN: 2319-3344 (July-Dec 2015)

9. Conclusions


Studying various models of HRM/HRD, it was found that the same can be applied in the education sector especially in HEI after some alterations. Most of the models are prepared keeping in mind the industries. As the human resources are present in HEI also so the models related to HRM/HRD is relevant here. Appraisal of human resource is present in most of the models and is very important as the same provides input for the further process i.e. either placing the individual to right place or training needs of the individual faculty members. Appraisal need to be Potential Appraisal of the individual. Training is very integral and critical tool of HRD. Dynamic environment and adaptability requirement makes training a continuous process keeping in mind the need and matching the same in training programme for the individual faculty members. If the same is not done properly then the potential human resource for the industry will face the employability problem. To make this training appropriate and beneficial hard and smart work on knowledge to be provided to individual is essential. This knowledge content and the process of disseminating it is complex and need specialized expertise. Here KM is a requisite. The applicable technical, managerial and behavioral knowledge, skills, and abilities acquired through KM are provided to the individuals or to the groups under training programme. These make individuals competent on continuous basis to deliver to the students and in turn the student becomes such a human resource for industry that is fit for the job in industry with least training requirement.

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10. Future In future, empirical study can be made on this model which will prove the requirement of HRM/HRD in HEI. Research can be done on the present practices w.r.t. to PA, TD and KM in HEI especially in Chhattisgarh. Work can be carried out on the question whether the present system of HRM/HRD is efficient or specialized practices will be required to improve the condition of HEI which in turn will improve the level of students passing out from HEI.


International Journal of Innovations in Engineering and Management, Vol. 4; No. 2: ISSN: 2319-3344 (July-Dec 2015)

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