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collagenous matrix proteins, the ®bronectins, tenascins and vitronectin are reviewed in chapter 3, and a detailed look at elastic tissue, elastin, and elastin-associated micro®brils is the subject of chapter 4. The glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans of the matrix are discussed over three chapters. Hyaluronan, structurally the most simple of all ECM macromolecules and phylogenetically the most ancient, is given a chapter of its own. The topics covered in this well-researched and quite extensive review range from the physicochemical nature and secondary structure of hyaluronan, its distribution in mammalian tissues, its interactions with cells and proteins and, ®nally, hyaluronan in disease. Frequent references back to chapters in Volume 1 point to the importance of hyaluronan in cartilage and synovial matrix. The matrix proteoglycans, with the exception of the heparan sulfate proteoglycans, are discussed next in chapter 6. The rapidity with which proteoglycans are being cloned and sequenced together with the discovery of proteoglycan forms of known proteins makes a review of this type very valuable. However, the reader is cautioned regarding a mistake that slipped through the editorial process; ICAM-1, ICAM-2 and VCAM-1 are not integrins, as is suggested. Chapter 7 is a clear, concise review of cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans; their structure and biosynthesis, and their interactions with growth factors. The matrix heparan sulfate proteoglycans are discussed in Volume 1, chapter 6. Also discussed in Volume 1, chapter 6 are the laminins. It is disappointing that the laminins were not given a separate chapter in the Molecular Components section of Volume 2. In choosing to complete this two volume series with a section on cell±matrix interactions, the Editor has acknowledged one of the growth areas in ECM research. It is appropriate that this section begins with a chapter from the group that may be regarded as initiating the view that the ECM not only provides structural support for cells in tissues but it also directly in¯uences cell dierentiation and function. In this chapter it is proposed that the ECM may act as a `master regulatory switch' because it coordinates the expression and suppression of genes which give rise to dierentiated phenotypes. The chapter which follows deals with the receptors mediating the interaction of ECM with cells and is predominately a discussion of the integrin family of cell adhesion molecules. A number of excellent reviews on integrins already exist; hence, this chapter would have been more useful if the integrins were covered in less detail and the non-integrin ECM receptors received a more thorough treatment. The penultimate chapter looks at cell± ECM interactions in terms of the eect of physical load on matrix metabolism by chrondrocytes in cartilage. To conclude, the Editor selected a chapter on morphogenesis. In this chapter the morphogenesis of connective tissues is analysed in terms of the physical mechanisms that are likely to underlie tissue transformations. It is argued that the physical processes that aected the earliest multicellular organisms are those that would have originally de®ned the basic rules of tissue morphogenesis. The processes that were likely to have been `generic' to the early multicellular organisms are described and examples of connective tissue morphogenesis are discussed in relation to the role
played by the `generic' processes. This chapter is well written and is a ®tting way to conclude this two volume series. DEIRDRE COOMBE Cell Adhesion Laboratory TVW Telethon Institute for Child Health Research Perth, Western Australia Australia
TEXTBOOK OF IMMUNOLOGY CA Bona and FA Bonilla. Fine Arts Press, North Ryde, 2nd edn. 1996. 431 pages. Price: A$125.00 hardcover, A$47.00 paperback. This recent edition of Textbook in Immunology is intended as a concise ®rst text for students of medicine or biology. The book contains a series of clear summaries and explanations of the key areas in the ®eld and assumes a knowledge of biochemistry and molecular biology. The written text is complemented by a number of diagrams based on simple line drawings, symbolizing molecular interactions. These are simple enough to be easily scanned while reading the text. One disappointing aspect was the small size of the type used for the ®gure legends. Many excellent photographs and electron micrographs are used to illustrate the text and a number of tables present more detailed information. Again, these are simply presented and serve as a good source of information. The book also contains useful reference lists at the end of each chapter. These are not too large but are limited in that the latest reviews listed date to 1994. The text comprises 14 chapters. It begins with an overview of basic immunology and ends with a discussion of particular disease types that includes microbial infections, cancer, autoimmune disease, and AIDS. There are also many excellent examples given throughout the text relating to disease states and genetic disorders. The book begins with an introduction which considers the immune system as a whole and reviews the origins of immunology. Chapters 2, 3 and 4 cover cells and organs, antigens, and immunoglobulins. The coverage of cell types is comprehensive and relevant, with discussions of CD markers, descriptions of cell functions and a discussion of defects in lymphocyte development. Introduction of the bone marrow as a stromal cell site supporting cell dierentiation is a welcome addition. This is a topic often omitted in texts which concentrate mainly on T and B cell development. Chapter 3 contains an account of antigens and epitopes and their recognition by T and B lymphocytes. Factors aecting immunogenicity are discussed and the role of adjuvants in modulating immune responses is covered in depth. A number of simple diagrams have been used in chapter 4 to condense the information on immunoglobulins. The result is a very eective, concise chapter covering the biological properties of immunoglobulins, Ig gene and protein structure, and Ig gene transcription. The dierent Ig classes and their function are discussed and there is a section on monoclonal antibodies and their potential use.
Lymphocyte biology is covered in chapters 5 and 6 which are titled, `B Cells and Humoral Immunity' and `T cells: Regulation and Cellular Immunity', respectively. These are very large chapters and an enormous amount of information is presented in an abbreviated form. The chapter on B lymphocytes covers all aspects of B cell development through to B cell activation and ends with a discussion of the newly de®ned B-1 and B-2 lineages of B cells. The T cell chapter is, again, huge and begins with a discussion of the T cell receptor, genes encoding T cell receptors, and the larger T cell receptor complex. The section on T cell development is comprehensive and the discussion of T cell subsets and their interaction is well written. Activation of T cells and the functional properties of various T cell subsets is discussed along with many aspects of modern T cell biology. Chapter 7 is entitled `Soluble mediators of cell cooperation', but does not live up to its title. Despite the extensive coverage of cytokines and their properties, there is no discussion about how dierent cytokines modulate the function of dierent arms of the immune system. This is a very topical area but is not well covered in this text. Chapters 8 and 9 cover MHC complex and tolerance. There are several good tables and diagrams that summarize the information on MHC molecules and their gene structure. The endogenous and exogenous pathways of antigen processing and presentation are covered with a good comparison of the process in relation to Class I and Class II molecules. The chapter on tolerance is short although it contains some good explanations of dicult phenomena including anergy, apoptosis, and immunosuppression. Chapters 10, 11 and 12 cover innate and acquired immune responses as well as immunopathology. A large section is devoted to natural immunity and concentrates largely on complement and on activation of phagocytic macrophages. The coverage of acquired immunity includes host responses to dierent microbes, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and various parasites. It covers immune evasion strategies and ends with a brief coverage of antitumour immunity. One criticism of the book would be the brevity of the coverage of this very central area of immune response to pathogens and of the omission of a section related speci®cally to vaccination strategies. Immunopathology is also brie¯y covered under headings of hypersensitivity, autoimmunity, abnormal leucocyte proliferation, and immunode®ciency. Chapter 13 is devoted entirely to the story of AIDS. Without underplaying the importance of this disease, I am concerned about the emphasis on just a single immune disease in a textbook of this type, especially as a large section of the chapter is devoted to the study of the virus and its replication and disease pathology. A ®nal section covers immunity against HIV and considers several approaches to control of virus growth and transmission. A ®nal chapter 14, `The Aging Immune System', does not really warrant allocation of a full chapter to this rather small, but interesting topic. This volume provides a comprehensive, concise and upto-date coverage of modern immunology. The book's greatest strength is that it is a very readable account of important aspects of immunology. It is a valuable text for
new students and for those working in related disciplines who wish to update their knowledge of immunology without referring to recent research literature. The book is not intended for students training in research who may be seeking textbook explanations of intricate immunological phenomena. There are other books on the market which better serve as a detailed reference text for such advanced students. With these, however, come the problems of cost, size, and transportation of a very heavy book. The paperback version of Textbook of Immunology is relatively small and reasonably priced at A$47. For the experienced immunologist, the book is very worthwhile reading. It is concise and contains many novel, simpli®ed interpretations of complex phenomena Ð something we need to see more of in immunology. The ®eld is now very large and too much detail written into texts poses unnecessary diculty for new students and their mentors. HELEN C O'NEILL Division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty of Science Australian National University Canberra, Australian Capital Territory Australia
PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, TRAINING AND THE IMMUNE RESPONSE Roy J Shephard. Cooper Publishing Group, Indiana, 1997. 463 pages. Price: US$75.00. As the author himself points out in the introduction, this is the ®rst single-authored volume to examine in depth the in¯uence of acute and chronic physical activity on the immune response. Although the ®eld of exercise immunology has really only been recognized for two decades or so, the 1400 references supporting this publication indicate the degree of interest by modern research teams. The number of referenced publications and the clarity of the publication is a further indication of the academic and work capacity of Roy J Shephard, whose reputation as a researcher and writer in the ®elds of exercise, nutritional and environmental physiology, and exercise biochemistry is respected internationally. Throughout this book the author draws on his wide practical knowledge in these disciplines, together with his background in general medicine, to draw together the scienti®c literature in exercise immunology in such a way as not to neglect readers who are unfamiliar in one or more of these areas. This book is divided into 10 chapters. The ®rst two chapters provide us with summaries of the function and components of the immune system and the methods of assessing immune function, including introductory explanations of modern methods of dierential cell counting, assessments of cytotoxic activity and cell proliferation, as well as assays for cytokines and cytokine receptors. There is also a very useful summary of factors that must be controlled or at least taken into account when designing experimental work Ð including the speci®c nature of the